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Introduction

Here we demonstrate how to use Thrust's "backend systems" which control how Thrust algorithms get mapped to and executed on the parallel processors available to the application. There are two basic ways to access Thrust's systems: by specifying the global "device" system associated with types like thrust::device_vector, or by selecting a specific container associated with a particular system, such as thrust::cuda::vector. These two approaches are complementary and may be used together within the same program.

Selecting a global device system

Here, we demonstrate how to switch between the CUDA (default), OpenMP, TBB, and standard C++ "device" backend systems. This is a global setting which applies to all types associated with the device system. In the following we'll consider the monte_carlo sample program, but any of the example programs would also do. Note that absolutely no changes to the source code are required to switch the device system.

Using the CUDA device system

First, download the source code for the monte_carlo example.

$ wget http://thrust.googlecode.com/hg/examples/monte_carlo.cu

Now let's time the program, which estimates pi by random sampling:

$ time ./monte_carlo
pi is around 3.14164

real    0m0.222s
user    0m0.120s
sys     0m0.100s

Enabling the OpenMP device system

We can switch to the OpenMP device system with the following compiler options (no changes to the source code!)

$ nvcc -O2 -o monte_carlo monte_carlo.cu -Xcompiler -fopenmp -DTHRUST_DEVICE_SYSTEM=THRUST_DEVICE_SYSTEM_OMP -lgomp

By default OpenMP runs one thread for each of the available cores, which is 4 on this particular system. Notice that the 'real' or wall-clock time is almost exactly one 1/4th the 'user' or CPU time, suggesting that monte_carlo is completely compute-bound and scales well .

$ time ./monte_carlo 
pi is around 3.14163

real    0m2.090s
user    0m8.333s
sys     0m0.000s

We can override OpenMP's default behavior and instruct it to only use two threads using the OMP_NUM_THREADS environment variable. Notice that the real time has doubled while the user time remains the same.

$ export OMP_NUM_THREADS=2
$ time ./monte_carlo 
pi is around 3.14163

real    0m4.168s
user    0m8.333s
sys     0m0.000s

When only a single thread is used the real and user times agree.

$ export OMP_NUM_THREADS=1
$ time ./monte_carlo 
pi is around 3.14164

real    0m8.333s
user    0m8.333s
sys     0m0.000s

Enabling the TBB device system

We can switch to the TBB device system with the following compiler options

$ nvcc -O2 -o monte_carlo monte_carlo.cu -DTHRUST_DEVICE_SYSTEM=THRUST_DEVICE_SYSTEM_TBB -ltbb
$ time ./monte_carlo
pi is around 3.14

real 0m1.216s
user 0m9.425s
sys  0m0.040s

Because both the OpenMP and TBB systems use similar algorithm implementations to utilize the CPU, their timings are similar.

Additional Details

When using either the OpenMP or TBB systems, nvcc isn't required. In general, nvcc is only required when targeting Thrust at CUDA. For example, we could compile the previous code directly with g++ with this command line:

$ g++ -O2 -o monte_carlo monte_carlo.cpp -fopenmp -DTHRUST_DEVICE_SYSTEM=THRUST_DEVICE_SYSTEM_OMP -lgomp -I<path-to-thrust-headers>

Note that we've copied monte_carlo.cu to monte_carlo.cpp so that g++ recognizes that it's a c++ source file. The -fopenmp command line argument instructs g++ to enable OpenMP directives. Without this option, the compilation will fail. The -lgomp command line argument instructs g++ to link against the OpenMP library. Without this option, linking will fail.

If necessary, we can explicitly select the CUDA backend like so:

$ nvcc -O2 -o monte_carlo monte_carlo.cu -DTHRUST_DEVICE_SYSTEM=THRUST_DEVICE_SYSTEM_CUDA
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