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<title>JSON-LD - JSON for Linking Data</title>
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<h1>JSON for Linking Data</h1>
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<p class="tagline">Data is messy and disconnected. JSON-LD
organizes and connects it, letting your creativity bloom.
<div id="introduction">
<p>JSON-LD (<strong>J</strong>ava<strong>S</strong>cript
<strong>O</strong>bject <strong>N</strong>otation for
<strong>L</strong>inking <strong>D</strong>ata) is a
<a href="">Linked Data</a>
format that gives your data context. It is easy for humans to read
and write. It is easy for machines to parse and generate. It is
based on the already successful
<a href="">JSON format</a> and provides a way
to help JSON data interoperate at Web-scale. If you are already
familiar with JSON, writing JSON-LD is very easy. These
properties make JSON-LD an ideal Linked Data interchange language
for JavaScript environments, Web service, and unstructured
databases such as CouchDB and MongoDB.</p>
<p>A simple example of a JSON object expressing Linked Data:</p>
"@context": "",
"@id": "",
"name": "John Lennon",
"born": "1940-10-09",
"spouse": ""
<p>The example above describes a person whose name is
<em>John Lennon</em>. The difference between regular JSON and
JSON-LD is that the JSON-LD object above uniquely identifies
itself on the Web and can be used, without introducing ambiguity,
across every Web site, Web service and JSON-based database in
operation today. The secret lies in the @context, which instructs
Linked Data-aware processors on how to interpret the JSON
<div id="playground">
<h1>The Playground</h1>
<p>You can use the <a href="playground/">Playground</a>
to try out JSON-LD in your web browser or to debug your
own JSON-LD markup.</p>
<div id="primer">
<h1>The Primer</h1>
<p>An introduction to the principles of JSON-LD and examples of
how it can be used is available in the
<a href="primer/latest/">latest JSON-LD primer</a>.
<a href="primer/">Previous primer versions</a> are also
<div id="spec">
<h1>The Specifications</h1>
<p>Specifications and requirements are available for the JSON-LD Syntax, API, and Framing as well as for RDF Graph Normalization. The latest drafts previous versions are available.</p>
<li>Latest Drafts
<li><a href="spec/latest/">specifications</a></li>
<li><a href="requirements/latest/">requirements</a></li>
<li>Previous Drafts
<li><a href="spec/">specifications</a></li>
<li><a href="requirements/">requirements</a></li>
<div id="issues">
<h1>Community Feedback</h1>
<p>The JSON-LD specifications are undergoing standardization at the World Wide Web Consortium. Comments from the public are being tracked via the JSON-LD issue tracker. These issues can be viewed below:</p>
<li><a href="">Open JSON-LD 1.0 Syntax issues</a></li>
<li><a href="">Open JSON-LD 1.0 API issues</a></li>
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<li><a href="">Monarch</a></li>
<li><a href="">URDF</a></li>
<li><a href="">JSON-LD implementation for Java</a></li>
<li><a href="">jsonld.js</a></li>
<li><a href="">php-json-ld</a></li>
<li><a href="">JsonLD</a></li>
<li><a href="">JSON-LD Processor</a></li>
<li><a href="">PyLD</a></li>
<li><a href="">JSON-LD Reader/Writer</a></li>
<div id="colab">
<p>Several parties interested in JSON-LD convene in periodic teleconferences.</p>
<p>There are several other ways that you can collaborate in the development
of JSON-LD:</p>
<li>Code: <a href="">github</a></li>
<li>Meeting Records: <a href="minutes/">text and audio logs</a>
<li>Mailing List: <a href=""></a></li>
<li>IRC: <a href="">#json-ld</a> on Freenode</li>
<li>W3C: Join the <a href="">Community Group</a>
<div id="publ">
<h1>Publications / Articles</h1>
<li><a href="">On Using JSON-LD to Create Evolvable RESTful Services</a>, Markus Lanthaler and Christian Gütl.
Proceedings of the 3rd&nbsp;International Workshop on RESTful Design (WS-REST 2012) at WWW2012 (pp. 25-32).
Lyon, France: ACM Press.</li>
<li><a href="">What is JSON-LD?</a> Short video introduction to JSON-LD by Manu Sporny.</li>
<li><a href="">JSON-LD: JSON for Linked Data</a> by Gregg Kellogg, Semantic Technology &amp; Business Conference (SemTechBiz SF 2012), San Francisco, CA, USA.</li>
<li><a href="">JSON-LD for RESTful Services</a> by Markus Lanthaler, World Wide Web Conference (WWW2012), Lyon, France.</li>
<li><a href="">JSON-LD and MongoDB</a> by Gregg Kellogg, NoSQL Now! 2012, San Jose, CA, USA.</li>
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