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#' Text
#'
#' `geom_text` adds text directly to the plot. `geom_label` draws
#' a rectangle behind the text, making it easier to read.
#'
#' Note the the "width" and "height" of a text element are 0, so stacking
#' and dodging text will not work by default, and axis limits are not
#' automatically expanded to include all text. Obviously, labels do have
#' height and width, but they are physical units, not data units. The amount of
#' space they occupy on that plot is not constant in data units: when you
#' resize a plot, labels stay the same size, but the size of the axes changes.
#'
#' `geom_text` and `geom_label` both add a label for each row in the
#' data, even if coordinates x, y are set to single values in the call
#' to `geom_label` or `geom_text`.
#' To add labels at specified points use [annotate()] with
#' `annotate(geom = "text", ...)` or `annotate(geom = "label", ...)`
#'
#' @section Aesthetics:
#' \aesthetics{geom}{text}
#'
#' @section `geom_label`:
#' Currently `geom_label` does not support the `rot` parameter and
#' is considerably slower than `geom_text`. The `fill` aesthetic
#' controls the background colour of the label.
#'
#' @section Alignment:
#' You can modify text alignment with the `vjust` and `hjust`
#' aesthetics. These can either be a number between 0 (right/bottom) and
#' 1 (top/left) or a character ("left", "middle", "right", "bottom", "center",
#' "top"). There are two special alignments: "inward" and "outward".
#' Inward always aligns text towards the center, and outward aligns
#' it away from the center
#'
#' @inheritParams layer
#' @inheritParams geom_point
#' @param parse If TRUE, the labels will be parsed into expressions and
#' displayed as described in ?plotmath
#' @param nudge_x,nudge_y Horizontal and vertical adjustment to nudge labels by.
#' Useful for offsetting text from points, particularly on discrete scales.
#' @param check_overlap If `TRUE`, text that overlaps previous text in the
#' same layer will not be plotted.
#' @export
#' @examples
#' p <- ggplot(mtcars, aes(wt, mpg, label = rownames(mtcars)))
#'
#' p + geom_text()
#' # Avoid overlaps
#' p + geom_text(check_overlap = TRUE)
#' # Labels with background
#' p + geom_label()
#' # Change size of the label
#' p + geom_text(size = 10)
#'
#' # Set aesthetics to fixed value
#' p + geom_point() + geom_text(hjust = 0, nudge_x = 0.05)
#' p + geom_point() + geom_text(vjust = 0, nudge_y = 0.5)
#' p + geom_point() + geom_text(angle = 45)
#' \dontrun{
#' # Doesn't work on all systems
#' p + geom_text(family = "Times New Roman")
#' }
#'
#' # Add aesthetic mappings
#' p + geom_text(aes(colour = factor(cyl)))
#' p + geom_text(aes(colour = factor(cyl))) +
#' scale_colour_discrete(l = 40)
#' p + geom_label(aes(fill = factor(cyl)), colour = "white", fontface = "bold")
#'
#' p + geom_text(aes(size = wt))
#' # Scale height of text, rather than sqrt(height)
#' p + geom_text(aes(size = wt)) + scale_radius(range = c(3,6))
#'
#' # You can display expressions by setting parse = TRUE. The
#' # details of the display are described in ?plotmath, but note that
#' # geom_text uses strings, not expressions.
#' p + geom_text(aes(label = paste(wt, "^(", cyl, ")", sep = "")),
#' parse = TRUE)
#'
#' # Add a text annotation
#' p +
#' geom_text() +
#' annotate("text", label = "plot mpg vs. wt", x = 2, y = 15, size = 8, colour = "red")
#'
#' \donttest{
#' # Aligning labels and bars --------------------------------------------------
#' df <- data.frame(
#' x = factor(c(1, 1, 2, 2)),
#' y = c(1, 3, 2, 1),
#' grp = c("a", "b", "a", "b")
#' )
#'
#' # ggplot2 doesn't know you want to give the labels the same virtual width
#' # as the bars:
#' ggplot(data = df, aes(x, y, group = grp)) +
#' geom_col(aes(fill = grp), position = "dodge") +
#' geom_text(aes(label = y), position = "dodge")
#' # So tell it:
#' ggplot(data = df, aes(x, y, group = grp)) +
#' geom_col(aes(fill = grp), position = "dodge") +
#' geom_text(aes(label = y), position = position_dodge(0.9))
#' # Use you can't nudge and dodge text, so instead adjust the y postion
#' ggplot(data = df, aes(x, y, group = grp)) +
#' geom_col(aes(fill = grp), position = "dodge") +
#' geom_text(
#' aes(label = y, y = y + 0.05),
#' position = position_dodge(0.9),
#' vjust = 0
#' )
#'
#' # To place text in the middle of each bar in a stacked barplot, you
#' # need to set the vjust parameter of position_stack()
#' ggplot(data = df, aes(x, y, group = grp)) +
#' geom_col(aes(fill = grp)) +
#' geom_text(aes(label = y), position = position_stack(vjust = 0.5))
#'
#' # Justification -------------------------------------------------------------
#' df <- data.frame(
#' x = c(1, 1, 2, 2, 1.5),
#' y = c(1, 2, 1, 2, 1.5),
#' text = c("bottom-left", "bottom-right", "top-left", "top-right", "center")
#' )
#' ggplot(df, aes(x, y)) +
#' geom_text(aes(label = text))
#' ggplot(df, aes(x, y)) +
#' geom_text(aes(label = text), vjust = "inward", hjust = "inward")
#' }
geom_text <- function(mapping = NULL, data = NULL,
stat = "identity", position = "identity",
...,
parse = FALSE,
nudge_x = 0,
nudge_y = 0,
check_overlap = FALSE,
na.rm = FALSE,
show.legend = NA,
inherit.aes = TRUE)
{
if (!missing(nudge_x) || !missing(nudge_y)) {
if (!missing(position)) {
stop("Specify either `position` or `nudge_x`/`nudge_y`", call. = FALSE)
}
position <- position_nudge(nudge_x, nudge_y)
}
layer(
data = data,
mapping = mapping,
stat = stat,
geom = GeomText,
position = position,
show.legend = show.legend,
inherit.aes = inherit.aes,
params = list(
parse = parse,
check_overlap = check_overlap,
na.rm = na.rm,
...
)
)
}
#' @rdname ggplot2-ggproto
#' @format NULL
#' @usage NULL
#' @export
GeomText <- ggproto("GeomText", Geom,
required_aes = c("x", "y", "label"),
default_aes = aes(
colour = "black", size = 3.88, angle = 0, hjust = 0.5,
vjust = 0.5, alpha = NA, family = "", fontface = 1, lineheight = 1.2
),
draw_panel = function(data, panel_params, coord, parse = FALSE,
na.rm = FALSE, check_overlap = FALSE) {
lab <- data$label
if (parse) {
lab <- parse(text = as.character(lab))
}
data <- coord$transform(data, panel_params)
if (is.character(data$vjust)) {
data$vjust <- compute_just(data$vjust, data$y)
}
if (is.character(data$hjust)) {
data$hjust <- compute_just(data$hjust, data$x)
}
textGrob(
lab,
data$x, data$y, default.units = "native",
hjust = data$hjust, vjust = data$vjust,
rot = data$angle,
gp = gpar(
col = alpha(data$colour, data$alpha),
fontsize = data$size * .pt,
fontfamily = data$family,
fontface = data$fontface,
lineheight = data$lineheight
),
check.overlap = check_overlap
)
},
draw_key = draw_key_text
)
compute_just <- function(just, x) {
inward <- just == "inward"
just[inward] <- c("left", "middle", "right")[just_dir(x[inward])]
outward <- just == "outward"
just[outward] <- c("right", "middle", "left")[just_dir(x[outward])]
unname(c(left = 0, center = 0.5, right = 1,
bottom = 0, middle = 0.5, top = 1)[just])
}
just_dir <- function(x, tol = 0.001) {
out <- rep(2L, length(x))
out[x < 0.5 - tol] <- 1L
out[x > 0.5 + tol] <- 3L
out
}