ggplot no longer throws an error if you your plot has no layers. Instead it
cut_width()is a convenient replacement for the verbose
plyr::round_any(), with the additional benefit of offering finer
geom_count()is a convenient alias to
stat_sum(). Use it when you
have overlapping points on a scatterplot.
stat_sum()now defaults to
using counts instead of proportions.
Date and datetime scales now have
date_labelsarguments so that you never need to use the long
geom_bar()now has it's own stat, distinct from
also used by
which counts values at each distinct value of x (i.e. it does not bin
the data first). This can be useful when you want to show exactly which
values are used in a continuous variable.
strokeaesthetic which controls the border width of
shapes 21-25 (#1133, @seysayux).
strokeare additive so a point
size = 5and
stroke = 5will have a diameter of 10mm. (#1142)
position_nudge()allows you to slightly offset labels (or other
geoms) from their corresponding points (#1109).
scale_size()now maps values to area, not radius. Use
if you want the old behaviour (not recommended, except perhaps for lines).
stat_summary()but on binned data.
It's a generalisation of
stat_bin()that can compute any aggregate,
not just counts (#1274). Both default to
mean_se()if no aggregation
functions are supplied (#1386).
Layers are now much stricter about their arguments - you will get an error
if you've supplied an argument that isn't an aesthetic or a parameter.
This is likely to cause some short-term pain but in the long-term it will make
it much easier to spot spelling mistakes and other errors (#1293).
This change does break a handful of geoms/stats that used
additional arguments on to the underlying computation. Now
method.argsinstead (#1245, #1289); and
There is now an official mechanism for defining Stats, Geoms, and Positions in other packages. See
vignette("extending-ggplot2") for details.
- All Geoms, Stats and Positions are now exported, so you can inherit from them
when making your own objects (#989).
- ggplot2 no longer uses proto or reference classes. Instead, we now use
ggproto, a new OO system designed specifically for ggplot2. Unlike proto
and RC, ggproto supports clean cross-package inheritance. Creating a new OO
system isn't usually the right way to solve a problem, but I'm pretty sure
it was necessary here. Read more about it in the vignette.
aes_q(). It also supports formulas, so the most concise
SE version of
aes(carat, price)is now
aes_(~carat, ~price). You may
want to use this form in packages, as it will avoid spurious
R CMD check
warnings about undefined global variables.
geom_text()has been overhauled to make labelling your data a little
nudge_yarguments let you offset labels from their
corresponding points (#1120).
check_overlap = TRUEprovides a simple way to avoid overplotting
of labels: labels that would otherwise overlap are omitted (#1039).
vjustcan now be character vectors: "left", "center",
"right", "bottom", "middle", "top". New options include "inward" and
"outward" which align text towards and away from the center of the plot
geom_text()but draws a rounded rectangle
underneath each label (#1039). This is useful when you want to label plots
that are dense with data.
- The little used
aes_auto()has been deprecated.
aes_q()has been replaced with
aes_()to be consistent with SE versions
of NSE functions in other packages.
orderaesthetic is officially deprecated. It never really worked, and
was poorly documented.
qplot()have been deprecated.
qplot()is designed for quick plots - if you need to specify position
or stat, use
- The theme setting
axis.ticks.marginhas been deprecated: now use the margin
stat_vline()have been removed:
these were never suitable for use other than with
and were not documented.
show_guidehas been renamed to
show.legend: this more accurately
reflects what it does (controls appearance of layer in legend), and uses the
same convention as other ggplot2 arguments (i.e. a
(Yes, I know that's inconsistent with function names with use
_, but it's
too late to change now.)
A number of geoms have been renamed to be internally consistent:
stat_bin2d()have been renamed to
stat_summary2d()has been renamed to
stat_density2d()has been renamed
geom_spoke()since I realised it's a
reparameterisation of `geom_segment().
stat_bindot()has been removed because it's so tightly coupled to
geom_dotplot(). If you happened to use
stat_bindot(), just change to
All defunct functions have been removed.
theme_grey()background colour has been changed from "grey90"
to "grey92": this makes the background a little less visually prominent.
Labels and titles have been tweaked for readability:
- Axes labels are darker.
- Legend and axis titles are given the same visual treatment.
- The default font size dropped from 12 to 11. You might be surprised that
I've made the default text size smaller as it was already hard for
many people to read. It turns out there was a bug in RStudio (fixed in
0.99.724), that shrunk the text of all grid based graphics. Once that
was resolved the defaults seemed too big to my eyes.
- More spacing between titles and borders.
- Default margins scale with the theme font size, so the appearance at
larger font sizes should be considerably improved (#1228).
alphanow affects both fill and colour aesthetics (#1371).
element_text()gains a margins argument which allows you to add additional
padding around text elements. To help see what's going on use
debug = TRUE
to display the text region and anchors.
The default font size in
geom_text()has been decreased from 5mm (14 pts)
to 3.8 mm (11 pts) to match the new default theme sizes.
A diagonal line is no longer drawn on bar and rectangle legends. Instead, the
border has been tweaked to be more visible, and more closely match the size of
line drawn on the plot.
geom_linerange()get vertical (not horizontal)
lines in the legend (#1389).
The default line
geom_smooth()has been increased from 0.5 to 1
to make it easier to see when overlaid on data.
geom_rect()use a slightly paler shade of grey so they
aren't so visually heavy.
geom_boxplot()now colours outliers the same way as the boxes.
geom_point()now uses shape 19 instead of 16. This looks much better on
the default Linux graphics device. (It's very slightly smaller than the old
point, but it shouldn't affect any graphics significantly)
Sizes in ggplot2 are measured in mm. Previously they were converted to pts
(for use in grid) by multiplying by 72 / 25.4. However, grid uses printer's
points, not Adobe (big pts), so sizes are now correctly multiplied by
72.27 / 25.4. This is unlikely to noticeably affect display, but it's
technically correct (https://youtu.be/hou0lU8WMgo).
The default legend will now allocate multiple rows (if vertical) or
columns (if horizontal) in order to make a legend that is more likely to
fit on the screen. You can override with the
p <- ggplot(mpg, aes(displ,hwy, colour = model)) + geom_point() p p + theme(legend.position = "bottom") # Previous behaviour p + guides(colour = guide_legend(ncol = 1))
New and updated themes
theme_void()is completely empty. It's useful for plots with non-
standard coordinates or for drawings (@jiho, #976).
theme_dark()has a dark background designed to make colours pop out
theme_minimal()became slightly more minimal by removing the axis ticks:
labels now line up directly beneath grid lines (@tomschloss, #1084)
- New theme setting
panel.ontop(logical) make it possible to place
background elements (i.e., gridlines) on top of data. Best used with
The facet labelling system was updated with many new features and a
more flexible interface (@lionel-). It now works consistently across
grid and wrap facets. The most important user visible changes are:
display the facet titles near the axes. When switched, the labels
become axes subtitles.
switchcan be set to "x", "y" or "both"
(the latter only for grids) to control which margin is switched.
The labellers (such as
label_both()) also get
some new features:
They now offer the
multi_lineargument to control whether to
display composite facets (those specified as
~var1 + var2) on one
or multiple lines.
label_bquote()you now refer directly to the names of
variables. With this change, you can create math expressions that
depend on more than one variable. This math expression can be
specified either for the rows or the columns and you can also
provide different expressions to each margin.
As a consequence of these changes, referring to
expressions is deprecated.
.colsarguments. In addition, it also takes
labeller()is useful to customise how particular variables are
labelled. The three additional arguments specify how to label the
variables are not specifically mentioned, respectively for rows,
columns or both. This makes it especially easy to set up a
project-wide labeller dispatcher that can be reused across all your
plots. See the documentation for an example.
The new labeller
label_context()adapts to the number of factors
facetted over. With a single factor, it displays only the values,
just as before. But with multiple factors in a composite margin
~cyl + am), the labels are passed over to
label_both(). This way the variables names are displayed with the
values to help identifying them.
On the programming side, the labeller API has been rewritten in order
to offer more control when facetting over multiple factors (e.g. with
formulae such as
~cyl + am). This also means that if you have
written custom labellers, you will need to update them for this
version of ggplot.
- Previously, a labeller function would take
arguments and return a character vector. Now, they take a data frame
of character vectors and return a list. The input data frame has one
column per factor facetted over and each column in the returned list
becomes one line in the strip label. See documentation for more
- The labels received by a labeller now contain metadata: their margin
(in the "type" attribute) and whether they come from a wrap or a
grid facet (in the "facet" attribute).
- Note that the new
as_labeller()function operator provides an easy
way to transform an existing function to a labeller function. The
existing function just needs to take and return a character vector.
- Improved documentation for
layer()and much much more.
- I've tried to reduce the use of
...so that you can see all the
documentation in one place rather than having to integrate multiple pages.
In some cases this has involved adding additional arguments to geoms
to make it more clear what you can do:
heightarguments to make it easier
to control the amount of jittering without using the lengthy
- Use of
qplot()in examples has been minimised (#1123, @hrbrmstr). This is
inline with the 2nd edition of the ggplot2 box, which minimises the use of
qplot()in favour of
- Tighly linked geoms and stats (e.g.
are now documented in the same file so you can see all the arguments in one
place. Variations of the same idea (e.g.
geom_step()) are also documented together.
- It's now obvious that you can set the
- The internals of positions have been cleaned up considerably. You're unlikely
to notice any external changes, although the documentation should be a little
less confusing since positions now don't list parameters they never use.
- All datasets have class
tbl_dfso if you also use dplyr, you get a better
economicshas been brought up to date to 2015-04-01.
economics_longis the economics data in long form.
txhousingdataset containing information about the Texas housing
market. Useful for examples that need multiple time series, and for
demonstrating model+vis methods.
luv_coloursdataset which contains the locations of all
colors()in Luv space.
movieshas been moved into its own package, ggplot2movies, because it was
large and not terribly useful. If you've used the movies dataset, you'll now
need to explicitly load the package with
Bug fixes and minor improvements
- All partially matched arguments and
$have been been replaced with
full matches (@jimhester, #1134).
- ggplot2 now exports
alpha()from the scales package (#1107), and
unit()from grid (#1225). This means you don't need attach scales/grid
grid::for these commonly used functions.
aes_string()now only parses character inputs. This fixes bugs when
using it with numbers and non default
annotation_custom()automatically adds a unique id to each grob name,
making it easier to plot multiple grobs with the same name (e.g. grobs of
ggplot2 graphics) in the same plot (#1256).
borders()now accepts xlim and ylim arguments for specifying the geographical
region of interest (@markpayneatwork, #1392).
coord_cartesian()applies the same expansion factor to limits as for scales.
You can suppress with
expand = FALSE(#1207).
coord_trans()now works when breaks are suppressed (#1422).
cut_number()gives error message if the number of requested bins can
be created because there are two few unique values (#1046).
- Character labels in
facet_grid()are no longer (incorrectly) coerced into
factors. This caused problems with custom label functions (#1070).
facet_grid()now allow you to use non-standard
variable names by surrounding them with backticks (#1067).
facet_wrap()more carefully checks its
to ensure that they're specified correctly (@richierocks, #962)
dirargument to control the direction the
panels are wrapped in. The default is "h" for horizontal. Use "v" for
vertical layout (#1260).
geom_vline()have been rewritten to
have simpler behaviour and be more consistent:
stat_vline()have been removed:
these were never suitable for use other than with
and were not documented.
geom_hline()are bound to
- Intercept parameters can no longer be set to a function.
- They are all documented in one file, since they are so closely related.
geom_bin2d()will now let you specify one dimension's breaks exactly,
without touching the other dimension's default breaks at all (#1126).
geom_crossbar()sets grouping correctly so you can display multiple
crossbars on one plot. It also makes the default
fattenargument a little
bigger to make the middle line more obvious (#1125).
geom_smooth()now only inform you about the
default values once per layer, rather than once per panel (#1220).
fattenargument so you can control the
size of the point relative to the size of the line.
geom_segment()annotations were not transforming with scales
geom_smooth()is no longer so chatty. If you want to know what the deafult
smoothing method is, look it up in the documentation! (#1247)
geom_violin()now has the ability to draw quantile lines (@DanRuderman).
ggplot()now captures the parent frame to use for evaluation,
rather than always defaulting to the global environment. This should
make ggplot more suitable to use in more situations (e.g. with knitr)
ggsave()has been simplified a little to make it easier to maintain.
It no longer checks that you're printing a ggplot2 object (so now also
works with any grid grob) (#970), and always requires a filename.
devicenow supports character argument to specify which supported
device to use ('pdf', 'png', 'jpeg', etc.), for when it cannot be correctly
inferred from the file extension (for example when a temporary filename is
supplied server side in shiny apps) (@sebkopf, #939). It no longer opens
a graphics device if one isn't already open - this is annoying when you're
running from a script (#1326).
guide_colorbar()creates correct legend if only one color (@krlmlr, #943).
guide_colorbar()no longer fails when the legend is empty - previously
this often masked misspecifications elsewhere in the plot (#967).
layer_data()function extracts the data used for plotting for a given
layer. It's mostly useful for testing.
- User supplied
minor_breakscan now be supplied on the same scale as
the data, and will be automatically transformed with by scale (#1385).
- You can now suppress the appearance of an axis/legend title (and the space
that would allocated for it) with
use the default lable, use
- Position adjustments no longer warn about potentially varying ranges
because the problem rarely occurs in practice and there are currently a
lot of false positives since I don't understand exactly what FP criteria
I should be testing.
scale_fill_grey()now uses red for missing values. This matches
scale_colour_grey()and makes it obvious where missing values lie.
scale_*_gradient2()defaults to using Lab colour space.
scale_y_continuous()now also transforms the
aesthetics used by
geom_boxplot(): this only affects
geom_boxplot(stat = "identity")(#1020).
- Legends no longer inherit aesthetics if
inherit.aesis FALSE (#1267).
lims()makes it easy to set the limits of any axis (#1138).
labels = NULLnow works with
override.aesnow works with American aesthetic spelling, e.g. color
- Scales no longer round data points to improve performance of colour
palettes. Instead the scales package now uses a much faster colour
interpolation algorithm (#1022).
scales::brewer_pal, making it easier to change the order of colours
scale_x_date()now clips dates outside the limits in the same way as
binsarguments, which denotes the number of bins. Now
you can set
binwidth=0.5. Note that
binwidthwill override it (@tmshn, #1158, #102).
stat_boxplot()warns if a continuous variable is used for the
without also supplying a
groupaesthetic (#992, @krlmlr).
stat_bin_2d()now share exactly the same code for
determining breaks from
stat_bin_2d()now output in tile/raster compatible
form instead of rect compatible form.
- Automatically computed breaks do not lead to an error for transformations like
"probit" where the inverse can map to infinity (#871, @krlmlr)
stat_function()now always evaluates the function on the original scale.
Previously it computed the function on transformed scales, giving incorrect
values (@BrianDiggs, #1011).
strip_dotsworks with anonymous functions within calculated aesthetics
aes(sapply(..density.., function(x) mean(x))))(#1154, @NikNakk)
validate = FALSEparameter to turn off validation, and
hence store arbitrary additional data in the themes. (@tdhock, #1121)
- Improved the calculation of segments needed to draw the curve representing
a line when plotted in polar coordinates. In some cases, the last segment
of a multi-segment line was not drawn (@BrianDiggs, #952)