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@jimhester @egnha @Shelmith-Kariuki @wibeasley @salim-b @dpprdan @mine-cetinkaya-rundel @mgirlich @jennybc @ijlyttle @gaborcsardi @alistaire47
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#' Format and interpolate a string
#'
#' Expressions enclosed by braces will be evaluated as R code. Long strings are
#' broken by line and concatenated together. Leading whitespace and blank lines
#' from the first and last lines are automatically trimmed.
#'
#' @param .x \[`listish`]\cr An environment, list or data frame used to lookup values.
#' @param ... \[`expressions`]\cr Unnamed arguments are taken to be expressions
#' string(s) to format. Multiple inputs are concatenated together before formatting.
#' Named arguments are taken to be temporary variables available for substitution.
#' @param .sep \[`character(1)`: \sQuote{""}]\cr Separator used to separate elements.
#' @param .envir \[`environment`: `parent.frame()`]\cr Environment to evaluate each expression in. Expressions are
#' evaluated from left to right. If `.x` is an environment, the expressions are
#' evaluated in that environment and `.envir` is ignored. If `NULL` is passed it is equivalent to [emptyenv()].
#' @param .open \[`character(1)`: \sQuote{\\\{}]\cr The opening delimiter. Doubling the
#' full delimiter escapes it.
#' @param .close \[`character(1)`: \sQuote{\\\}}]\cr The closing delimiter. Doubling the
#' full delimiter escapes it.
#' @param .transformer \[`function]`\cr A function taking three parameters `code`, `envir` and
#' `data` used to transform the output of each block before during or after
#' evaluation. For example transformers see `vignette("transformers")`.
#' @param .na \[`character(1)`: \sQuote{NA}]\cr Value to replace NA values
#' with. If `NULL` missing values are propagated, that is an `NA` result will
#' cause `NA` output. Otherwise the value is replaced by the value of `.na`.
#' @param .trim \[`logical(1)`: \sQuote{TRUE}]\cr Whether to trim the input
#' template with [trim()] or not.
#' @seealso <https://www.python.org/dev/peps/pep-0498/> and
#' <https://www.python.org/dev/peps/pep-0257/> upon which this is based.
#' @examples
#' name <- "Fred"
#' age <- 50
#' anniversary <- as.Date("1991-10-12")
#' glue('My name is {name},',
#' 'my age next year is {age + 1},',
#' 'my anniversary is {format(anniversary, "%A, %B %d, %Y")}.')
#'
#' # single braces can be inserted by doubling them
#' glue("My name is {name}, not {{name}}.")
#'
#' # Named arguments can be used to assign temporary variables.
#' glue('My name is {name},',
#' ' my age next year is {age + 1},',
#' ' my anniversary is {format(anniversary, "%A, %B %d, %Y")}.',
#' name = "Joe",
#' age = 40,
#' anniversary = as.Date("2001-10-12"))
#'
#' # `glue()` can also be used in user defined functions
#' intro <- function(name, profession, country){
#' glue("My name is {name}, a {profession}, from {country}")
#' }
#' intro("Shelmith", "Senior Data Analyst", "Kenya")
#' intro("Cate", "Data Scientist", "Kenya")
#'
#' # `glue_data()` is useful in magrittr pipes
#' library(magrittr)
#' mtcars %>% glue_data("{rownames(.)} has {hp} hp")
#'
#' # Or within dplyr pipelines
#' library(dplyr)
#' head(iris) %>%
#' mutate(description = glue("This {Species} has a petal length of {Petal.Length}"))
#'
#' # Alternative delimiters can also be used if needed
#' one <- "1"
#' glue("The value of $e^{2\\pi i}$ is $<<one>>$.", .open = "<<", .close = ">>")
#' @useDynLib glue glue_
#' @name glue
#' @export
glue_data <- function(.x, ..., .sep = "", .envir = parent.frame(),
.open = "{", .close = "}", .na = "NA", .transformer = identity_transformer,
.trim = TRUE) {
if (is.null(.envir)) {
.envir <- emptyenv()
}
# Perform all evaluations in a temporary environment
if (is.null(.x)) {
parent_env <- .envir
} else if (is.environment(.x)) {
parent_env <- .x
} else {
parent_env <- list2env(as.list(.x), parent = .envir)
}
# Capture unevaluated arguments
dots <- eval(substitute(alist(...)))
named <- has_names(dots)
# Evaluate named arguments, add results to environment
env <- bind_args(dots[named], parent_env)
# Concatenate unnamed arguments together
unnamed_args <- lapply(which(!named), function(x) eval(call("force", as.symbol(paste0("..", x)))))
lengths <- lengths(unnamed_args)
if (any(lengths == 0) || length(unnamed_args) < sum(!named)) {
return(as_glue(character(0)))
}
if (any(lengths != 1)) {
stop("All unnamed arguments must be length 1", call. = FALSE)
}
if (any(is.na(unnamed_args))) {
if (is.null(.na)) {
return(as_glue(NA_character_))
} else {
unnamed_args[is.na(unnamed_args)] <- .na
}
}
unnamed_args <- paste0(unnamed_args, collapse = .sep)
if (isTRUE(.trim)) {
unnamed_args <- trim(unnamed_args)
}
f <- function(expr){
eval_func <- .transformer(expr, env)
# crayon functions *can* be used, so we use tryCatch()
# to give as.character() a chance to work
tryCatch(
as.character(eval_func),
error = function(e) {
# if eval_func is a function, provide informative error-message
if (is.function(eval_func)) {
message <- paste0(
"glue cannot interpolate functions into strings.\n",
"* object '",
expr,
"' is a function."
)
stop(message, call. = FALSE)
}
# default stop
stop(e)
}
)
}
# Parse any glue strings
res <- .Call(glue_, unnamed_args, f, .open, .close)
if (any(lengths(res) == 0)) {
return(as_glue(character(0)))
}
if (!is.null(.na)) {
res[] <- lapply(res, function(x) replace(x, is.na(x), .na))
} else {
na_rows <- na_rows(res)
}
res <- do.call(paste0, recycle_columns(res))
if (is.null(.na)) {
res <- replace(res, na_rows, NA)
}
as_glue(res)
}
#' @export
#' @rdname glue
glue <- function(..., .sep = "", .envir = parent.frame(), .open = "{", .close = "}", .na = "NA", .transformer = identity_transformer, .trim = TRUE) {
glue_data(.x = NULL, ..., .sep = .sep, .envir = .envir, .open = .open, .close = .close, .na = .na, .transformer = .transformer, .trim = .trim)
}
#' Collapse a character vector
#'
#' Collapses a character vector of any length into a length 1 vector.
#' @param x The character vector to collapse.
#' @param width The maximum string width before truncating with `...`.
#' @param last String used to separate the last two items if `x` has at least
#' 2 items.
#' @inheritParams base::paste
#' @examples
#' glue_collapse(glue("{1:10}"))
#'
#' # Wide values can be truncated
#' glue_collapse(glue("{1:10}"), width = 5)
#'
#' glue_collapse(1:4, ", ", last = " and ")
#' #> 1, 2, 3 and 4
#' @export
glue_collapse <- function(x, sep = "", width = Inf, last = "") {
if (length(x) == 0) {
return(as_glue(character()))
}
if (any(is.na(x))) {
return(as_glue(NA_character_))
}
if (nzchar(last) && length(x) > 1) {
res <- glue_collapse(x[seq(1, length(x) - 1)], sep = sep, width = Inf)
return(glue_collapse(paste0(res, last, x[length(x)]), width = width))
}
x <- paste0(x, collapse = sep)
if (width < Inf) {
x_width <- nchar(x, "width")
too_wide <- x_width > width
if (too_wide) {
x <- paste0(substr(x, 1, width - 3), "...")
}
}
as_glue(x)
}
# nocov start
#' @rdname glue-deprecated
#' @export
collapse <- function(x, sep = "", width = Inf, last = "") {
.Deprecated("glue_collapse", package = "glue")
glue_collapse(x, sep, width, last)
}
# nocov end
#' Trim a character vector
#'
#' This trims a character vector according to the trimming rules used by glue.
#' These follow similar rules to [Python Docstrings](https://www.python.org/dev/peps/pep-0257),
#' with the following features.
#' - Leading and trailing whitespace from the first and last lines is removed.
#' - A uniform amount of indentation is stripped from the second line on, equal
#' to the minimum indentation of all non-blank lines after the first.
#' - Lines can be continued across newlines by using `\\`.
#' @param x A character vector to trim.
#' @export
#' @examples
#' glue("
#' A formatted string
#' Can have multiple lines
#' with additional indention preserved
#' ")
#'
#' glue("
#' \\ntrailing or leading newlines can be added explicitly\\n
#' ")
#'
#' glue("
#' A formatted string \\
#' can also be on a \\
#' single line
#' ")
#' @useDynLib glue trim_
trim <- function(x) {
has_newline <- function(x) any(grepl("\\n", x))
if (length(x) == 0 || !has_newline(x)) {
return(x)
}
.Call(trim_, x)
}
#' @export
print.glue <- function(x, ..., sep = "\n") {
x[is.na(x)] <- style_na(x[is.na(x)])
cat(x, ..., sep = sep)
invisible(x)
}
#' Coerce object to glue
#' @param x object to be coerced.
#' @param ... further arguments passed to methods.
#' @export
as_glue <- function(x, ...) {
UseMethod("as_glue")
}
#' @export
as_glue.default <- function(x, ...) {
as_glue(as.character(x))
}
#' @export
as_glue.glue <- function(x, ...) {
x
}
#' @export
as_glue.character <- function(x, ...) {
class(x) <- c("glue", "character")
enc2utf8(x)
}
#' @export
as.character.glue <- function(x, ...) {
unclass(x)
}
#' @export
`[.glue` <- function(x, i, ...) {
as_glue(NextMethod())
}
#' @export
`[[.glue` <- function(x, i, ...) {
as_glue(NextMethod())
}
#' @export
`+.glue` <- function(e1, e2) {
glue(e1, e2, .envir = parent.frame())
}
#' @importFrom methods setOldClass
setOldClass(c("glue", "character"))
#' Deprecated Functions
#'
#' These functions are Deprecated in this release of glue, they will be removed
#' in a future version.
#' @name glue-deprecated
#' @keywords internal
NULL