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---
title: "Reprex do's and don'ts"
output: rmarkdown::html_vignette
vignette: >
%\VignetteIndexEntry{Reprex do's and don'ts}
%\VignetteEngine{knitr::rmarkdown}
%\VignetteEncoding{UTF-8}
---
```{r include = FALSE}
knitr::opts_chunk$set(collapse = TRUE, comment = "#>")
library(reprex)
```
If you're asking for R help, reporting a bug, or requesting a new feature, you're more likely to succeed if you include a good reprex.
## Main requirements
**Use the smallest, simplest, most [built-in data](https://stat.ethz.ch/R-manual/R-patched/library/datasets/html/00Index.html) possible.**
- Think: `iris` or `mtcars`. Bore me.
- If you must make some objects, minimize their size and complexity.
- Many of the functions and packages you already use to import data from delimited files also offer a way to create a small data frame "inline":
- `read.table()` and friends have a `text` argument. Example: `read.csv(text = "a,b\n1,2\n3,4")`.
- `tibble::tribble()` lets you use a natural and readable layout. Example:
tibble::tribble(
~ a, ~ b,
1, 2,
3, 4
)
#> # A tibble: 2 x 2
#> a b
#> <dbl> <dbl>
#> 1 1 2
#> 2 3 4
- Get just a bit of something with `head()` or by indexing with the result of `sample()`. If anything is random, consider using `set.seed()` to make it repeatable.
- `dput()` is a good way to get the code to create an object you have lying around, if you simply cannot make do with built-in or simulated data. Copy and paste the *result* of this into your reprex.
- Look at official examples and try to write in that style. Consider adapting one.
**Include commands on a strict "need to run" basis.**
- Ruthlessly strip out anything unrelated to the specific matter at hand.
- Include every single command that is required, e.g. loading specific packages via `library(foo)`.
**Consider including so-called "session info"**, i.e. your OS and versions of R and add-on packages, if it's conceivable that it matters.
- Use `reprex(..., si = TRUE)` for this.
**Whitespace rationing is not in effect.**
- Use good [coding style](http://style.tidyverse.org).
- Use `reprex(..., style = TRUE)` to request automated styling of your code.
**Pack it in, pack it out, and don't take liberties with other people's computers.** You are asking people to run this code!
- Don't start with `rm(list = ls())`. It is anti-social to clobber other people's workspaces.
- Don't start with `setwd("C:\Users\jenny\path\that\only\I\have")`, because it won't work on anyone else's computer.
- Don't mask built-in functions, i.e. don't define a new function named `c` or `mean`.
- If you change options, store original values at the start, do your thing, then restore them:
``` r
opar <- par(pch = 19)
<blah blah blah>
par(opar)
```
- If you create files, delete them when you're done:
``` r
write(x, "foo.txt")
<blah blah blah>
file.remove("foo.txt")
```
- Don't delete files or objects that you didn't create in the first place.
- Take advantage of R's built-in ability to create temporary files and directories. Read up on [`tempfile()` and `tempdir()`](https://stat.ethz.ch/R-manual/R-devel/library/base/html/tempfile.html).
## This seems like a lot of work!
Yes, creating a great reprex requires work. You are asking other people to do work too. It's a partnership.
80% of the time you will solve your own problem in the course of writing an excellent reprex. YMMV.
The remaining 20% of the time, you will create a reprex that is more likely to elicit the desired behavior in others.
## Further reading:
[How to make a great R reproducible example?](https://stackoverflow.com/questions/5963269/how-to-make-a-great-r-reproducible-example/16532098) thread on StackOverflow
[How to write a reproducible example](http://adv-r.had.co.nz/Reproducibility.html) from Hadley Wickham's [Advanced R book](http://adv-r.had.co.nz)
## Package philosophy
The reprex code:
* Must run and, therefore, should be run **by the person posting**. No faking it.
* Should be easy for others to digest, so **they don't necessarily have to run it**. You are encouraged to include selected bits of output. :scream:
* Should be easy for others to copy + paste + run, **if and only if they so choose**. Don't let inclusion of output break executability.
Accomplished like so:
* Use `rmarkdown::render()` to run the code and capture output that you would normally see on your screen. This is done in a separate R process, via [callr](https://cran.r-project.org/package=callr), to guarantee it is self-contained.
* Use chunk option `comment = "#>"` to include the output while retaining executability.
## Other work
If I had known about [`formatR::tidy_eval()`](http://yihui.name/formatR/), I probably would never had made reprex! But alas I did not. AFAICT here are the main differences:
* `reprex()` accepts an expression as primary input, in addition to code on the clipboard, in a character vector, or in a file.
* `reprex()` runs the reprex in a separate R process, via [callr](https://cran.r-project.org/package=callr). `tidy_eval()` uses the existing R process and offers an `envir` argument.
* `reprex()` writes the code to a `.R` file and calls `rmarkdown::render()`. `tidy_eval()` runs the code line-by-line via `capture.output(eval(..., envir = envir))`.
* `reprex()` uploads figures to imgur and inserts the necessary link.
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