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Attention: this Wiki hosts an outdated version of the TinkerPop framework and Gremlin language documentation.
Many times its desirable to traverse a particular path and if some criteria is met along that path, then go back to the element from n-steps ago. Examples of such uses cases include:
- “What is the age of my friends who have friends who are older than 30 years old?”
- “What other products have my friends purchased who have also purchased a product of type X?”
g = TinkerGraphFactory.createTinkerGraph()
The query below says, in plain English: “What are the ages of the people that know people that are 30+ years old?” The call to
back('x') refers to the elements at step
x that have paths up to the
back('x') step (i.e. back to the
V step). In the example below,
out('knows').has('age', T.gt, 30).
gremlin> g.V.as('x').outE('knows').inV.has('age', T.gt, 30).back('x').age ==>29
A more complicated example is provided over the Grateful Dead graph diagrammed in Defining a More Complex Property Graph.
g = new TinkerGraph() g.loadGraphML('data/graph-example-2.xml')
The example query below states the following:
- get the song with id
- get all the songs that follow Dark Star in concert. (A)
- get the singers of those songs. (B)
- filter to only those songs that are sung by Jerry Garcia. (C)
- go back 2 steps to yield those songs that follow Dark Star and are sung by Jerry Garcia. (D)
- get the names of those songs that follow Dark Star and are sung by Jerry Garcia.
gremlin> g.v(89).out('followed_by').as('x').out('sung_by').has('name','Garcia').back('x').name ==>EYES OF THE WORLD ==>SING ME BACK HOME ==>MORNING DEW ==>HES GONE ==>CHINA DOLL ==>WHARF RAT ==>BROKEDOWN PALACE ==>TERRAPIN STATION ==>DEAL ==>ATTICS OF MY LIFE ==>COMES A TIME ==>STELLA BLUE ==>BERTHA
In order to determine how many steps to go back, the
GremlinPipeline.toString() can be handy for displaying all the steps in an expression.
gremlin> println g.v(89).out('followed_by').out('sung_by').has('name','Garcia') [StartPipe, OutPipe(followed_by), OutPipe(sung_by), PropertyFilterPipe(name,EQUAL,Garcia)] ==>null
Now, using the
back step, notice how
back('x') wraps 3 pipes prior to it. The name of the pipe in Pipes is
gremlin> println g.v(89).out('followed_by').as('x').out('sung_by').has('name','Garcia').back('x').name [StartPipe, AsPipe(x,OutPipe(followed_by)), BackFilterPipe([OutPipe(sung_by), PropertyFilterPipe(name,EQUAL,Garcia)]), PropertyPipe(name)] ==>null