General-purpose text-checker interface for Emacs text editor
Wcheck mode is a general-purpose text-checker interface for Emacs text editor. Wcheck mode is a minor mode which provides an on-the-fly text checker. It checks the visible text area, as you type, and possibly highlights some parts of it. What is checked and how are all configurable.
Wcheck mode can use external programs or Emacs Lisp functions for checking text. For example, Wcheck mode can be used with spell-checker programs such as Ispell, Enchant and Hunspell, but actually any tool that can receive text from standard input stream and send text to standard output can be used. Wcheck mode sends parts of buffer's content to an external program or an Emacs Lisp function and, relying on their output, decides if some parts of text should be marked in the buffer.
In Wcheck mode's configuration different configuration units are called languages. In terms of a spelling checker it is natural to think of them as different human languages. Wcheck mode is not limited to that, though. Language is just a configuration unit for a specific text checking purpose.
Each language can use its own checker engine (external program or a function), command-line arguments and other settings, such as the regular expressions and syntax table that are used to match words (or other text elements) in Emacs buffer. User can choose which face is used to mark text elements in buffer.
User can create language-specific and major mode specific settings defining which faces to read or skip in buffers. A typical use for this feature is to spell-check only those areas in buffer which are written in the target language. For example, in email messages usually the message body and Subject header are important enough to spell-check. In programming modes user could spell-check only documentation strings and comments (or the opposite if you want to use Wcheck mode to check keywords and syntax of the programming language itself).
Wcheck mode can also be configured to offer any kind of actions for
marked text. Actions are presented to user through a menu which is
activated either by (1) clicking the right mouse button on a marked text
or (2) executing interactive command
wcheck-actions while the cursor
(the point) is on a marked text.
If you use Wcheck mode as a spelling checker then it's natural to configure an action menu that offers spelling suggestions for misspelled words. The action menu could also have an option to add marked word to spell-checker's dictionary, so that the word is recognized in the future. That's only one application for Wcheck mode, though. Wcheck mode can be configured to find almost any kind of text elements from buffer, mark them, and offer any kind of actions for marked text.
How does it compare to other spell-checkers?
The open design makes Wcheck mode (internally) quite different from spell-checkers like Flyspell mode and Speck mode. They are specific tools for spell-checking through Ispell or compatible program and are therefore very much tied to Ispell's features and command-line interface. This can be useful if you want to use Ispell or fully compatible program for spell-checking natural languages. However, not all human languages can be supported through Ispell and there can also be other kind of text-checking needs.
The motivation behind Wcheck mode is to offer more general-purpose and configurable interface for text checking. It can be configured to work with almost anything: user's custom shell, Awk or Perl scripts, Lisp functions or other checkers and text filters. Even if you only need a spelling checker for human languages Wcheck mode can be a good choice. It has more configuration possibilities than other spell-checkers and the on-the-fly checker performs very well. It's a true real-time checker.
You can install Wcheck mode from GNU Elpa package archive. Use
M-x list-packages and search for package
Alternatively you can put
wcheck-mode.el file to some directory in
load-path and add the following lines to Emacs's
initialization file (
(autoload 'wcheck-mode "wcheck-mode" "Toggle wcheck-mode." t) (autoload 'wcheck-change-language "wcheck-mode" "Switch wcheck-mode languages." t) (autoload 'wcheck-actions "wcheck-mode" "Open actions menu." t) (autoload 'wcheck-jump-forward "wcheck-mode" "Move point forward to next marked text area." t) (autoload 'wcheck-jump-backward "wcheck-mode" "Move point backward to previous marked text area." t)
Configuration and basic usage
The internal documentation of variable
wcheck-language-data has a
complete description on how to configure Wcheck mode language data. For
easy configuration you can use the options in the customize group named
M-x customize-group RET wcheck RET).
It might be convenient to bind Wcheck mode commands to some easily
accessible keys. The next example uses
C-c w as a prefix key for
different Wcheck commands:
(global-set-key (kbd "C-c w") (let ((map (make-sparse-keymap))) (define-key map "w" 'wcheck-mode) (define-key map "l" 'wcheck-change-language) (define-key map "a" 'wcheck-actions) (define-key map "f" 'wcheck-jump-forward) (define-key map "b" 'wcheck-jump-backward) map))
wcheck-mode toggles the text-checker minor mode
for the current buffer. Command
wcheck-change-language is used to
switch languages and command
wcheck-actions (or the right mouse
button) opens an actions menu for marked text. Commands
wcheck-jump-backward jump to next or
previous marked text area.
A note for Emacs Lisp programmers: Emacs Lisp function
wcheck-marked-text-at returns information about marked text at a
buffer position. Programmers can use it to perform any kind of actions
for marked text. Function
wcheck-query-language-data can be used for
querying effective configuration data for any language.
Here are some examples on how you can fill the
variable. The value is a list of language configurations:
(setq wcheck-language-data '(("language" ...) ("another language" ...)))
Perhaps the most common use for Wcheck mode is to spell-check human languages with Ispell (or compatible) spelling checker. Let's start with examples on how to configure that.
The following settings configure two languages which are named "British
English" and "Finnish". The former language uses Ispell program as the
spell-checker engine. The latter uses Enchant which has an
Ispell-compatible command-line interface. Both languages use Wcheck
mode's actions feature to offer spelling suggestions for misspelled
words. Since both spelling checkers print spelling suggestions in the
Ispell format we use built-in function
wcheck-parser-ispell-suggestions to parse the output and populate the
actions (spelling suggestions) menu for user.
("British English" (program . "/usr/bin/ispell") (args "-l" "-d" "british") (action-program . "/usr/bin/ispell") (action-args "-a" "-d" "british") (action-parser . wcheck-parser-ispell-suggestions)) ("Finnish" (program . "/usr/bin/enchant") (args "-l" "-d" "fi") (syntax . my-finnish-syntax-table) (action-program . "/usr/bin/enchant") (action-args "-a" "-d" "fi") (action-parser . wcheck-parser-ispell-suggestions))
The "Finnish" language above used a special syntax table called
my-finnish-syntax-table. It could be defined like this:
(defvar my-finnish-syntax-table (copy-syntax-table text-mode-syntax-table)) (modify-syntax-entry ?- "w" my-finnish-syntax-table)
text-mode-syntax-table (which Wcheck mode uses by default)
and sets the syntactic meaning of the ASCII hyphen character (-) to a
word character ("w"). Wcheck mode and its regular expression search will
use that syntax table when scanning buffers' content in that language.
Choose what to check
On some Emacs major modes there is no need to spell-check everything in
the buffer. For example, in programming languages modes it is probably
useful to spell-check only programmer's comments and functions'
documentation strings. This can be configured with language option
read-or-skip-faces. The following incomplete language configuration
makes special treatment for emacs-lisp-mode: it checks only text areas
which have been marked with faces
("Some language" ;; (program ...) ;; (args ...) (read-or-skip-faces (emacs-lisp-mode read font-lock-comment-face font-lock-string-face)))
read-or-skip-faces settings is often not a language specific
option but a general major mode specific setting it can be more useful
read-or-skip-faces settings in variable
wcheck-language-data-defaults like this:
(setq wcheck-language-data-defaults '((read-or-skip-faces ((emacs-lisp-mode lisp-mode) read font-lock-comment-face font-lock-doc-face) (sh-mode read font-lock-comment-face) (message-mode read nil message-header-subject message-cited-text) (latex-mode read nil font-latex-sectioning-1-face font-latex-sectioning-2-face font-latex-sectioning-3-face font-latex-sectioning-4-face font-latex-bold-face font-latex-italic-face font-lock-constant-face) (org-mode read nil org-level-1 org-level-2 org-level-3 org-level-4 org-level-5 org-level-6 org-level-7 org-level-8) (git-commit-mode read nil git-commit-summary-face))))
Add words to dictionary
Below is an example on how to add an "Add to dictionary" feature to the
actions menu, among spelling suggestions. First, there's the language
configuration. The example below is similar to the "British English"
configuration above except that Enchant spell-checker is used and
action-parser is a custom function (which will be defined later).
("British English" (program . "/usr/bin/enchant") (args "-l" "-d" "en_GB") (action-program . "/usr/bin/enchant") (action-args "-a" "-d" "en_GB") (action-parser . enchant-suggestions-menu))
The action parser is custom function
enchant-suggestions-menu. It will
wcheck-parser-ispell-suggestions and then add "Add to dictionary"
option in the front of the spelling suggestions list. Choosing that
option from the actions menu will call function
enchant-add-to-dictionary (will be defined later).
(defun enchant-suggestions-menu (marked-text) (cons (cons "[Add to dictionary]" 'enchant-add-to-dictionary) (wcheck-parser-ispell-suggestions)))
Now we need to define the function
enchant-add-to-dictionary. Below is
an example that works in GNU/Linux systems with Enchant spell-checker.
With small modifications it should work with other spelling checkers and
For British English language the user dictionary file is
~/.config/enchant/en_GB.dic. The language code is extracted
wcheck-language-data variable, so the function
works with any Enchant language. Note that adding a word to a dictionary
file doesn't have effect on the current spell-checking session. The
Enchant program must be restarted.
(defvar enchant-dictionaries-dir "~/.config/enchant") (defun enchant-add-to-dictionary (marked-text) (let* ((word (aref marked-text 0)) (language (aref marked-text 4)) (file (let ((code (nth 1 (member "-d" (wcheck-query-language-data language 'action-args))))) (when (stringp code) (concat (file-name-as-directory enchant-dictionaries-dir) code ".dic"))))) (when (and file (file-writable-p file)) (with-temp-buffer (insert word) (newline) (append-to-file (point-min) (point-max) file) (message "Added word \"%s\" to the %s dictionary" word language)))))
Other than human languages
Spell-checking human languages is not the only application for Wcheck
mode. The following configuration adds language called "Trailing
whitespace" which finds and marks all trailing whitespace characters
(spaces and tabs) on buffer's lines. It uses regular expressions to
match the whitespace. The checker program is the Emacs Lisp function
identity which just returns its argument unchanged. The
action-program option and feature is used to build an action menu with
just one option: remove the whitespace. It replaces the original
whitespace string with empty string.
("Trailing whitespace" (program . identity) (action-program . (lambda (marked-text) (list (cons "Remove whitespace" "")))) (face . highlight) (regexp-start . "") (regexp-body . "[ \t]+") (regexp-end . "$") (regexp-discard . "") (read-or-skip-faces (nil)))
Sometimes it's useful to highlight only a small number of keywords in
buffer. The following example adds a language called "Highlight FIXMEs"
which marks only "FIXME" words. FIXME is some programmers' convention to
put reminders in source code that some parts are not complete yet and
will be fixed or completed later. In source code files such keywords are
written in program's comments only, not in the actual code, so we use
read-or-skip-faces feature to scan only the comments. This example
configures it for
c-mode. In all other major
modes FIXMEs are marked everywhere.
("Highlight FIXMEs" (program . (lambda (strings) (when (member "FIXME" strings) (list "FIXME")))) (face . highlight) (read-or-skip-faces ((emacs-lisp-mode c-mode) read font-lock-comment-face) (nil)))
The following example adds a language "email" for highlighting email addresses in buffer and creating an action menu which has option to start composing mail to that address. Here's the language configuration:
("email" (program . email-address-detect) (face . highlight) (case-fold . t) (regexp-start . "\\<") (regexp-body . "\\S-+@\\S-+") (regexp-end . "\\>") (regexp-discard . "") (action-program . email-action-menu) (read-or-skip-faces (nil)))
Then the needed functions:
(defun email-address-detect (strings) (let (addresses) (dolist (string strings addresses) (when (string-match "\\<[a-z.-]+\\>@\\<[a-z.-]+\\>" string) (push (match-string-no-properties 0 string) addresses))))) (defun email-action-menu (marked-text) (list (cons (concat "Mail to <" (aref marked-text 0) ">") (lambda (marked-text) (compose-mail (aref marked-text 0))))))
Note that detecting all valid email addresses is difficult and a much more advanced parser is needed for that. Feel free to replace the detection function with a better one.
The source code repository
GitHub repository URL: https://github.com/tlikonen/wcheck-mode
The branch named master is the release branch and it should always be safe to use. New features and experimental code are developed in other branches and possibly merged to master when they are ready.
Copyright and license
Copyright (C) 2009-2021 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details.
The license text: http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-3.0.html