This widely-used plugin provides a foundation for securely managing user authentication:
- Login / logout
- Secure password handling
- Account activation by validating email
- Account approval / disabling by admin
- Rudimentary hooks for authorization and access control.
Several features were updated in May, 2008.
- Stable newer version
- ‘Classic’ (backward-compatible) version
- Experimental version (Much more modular, needs testing & review)
!! important: if you upgrade your site, existing user account !!
!! passwords will stop working unless you use
Please submit any bugs or annoyances at
This page has notes on
See the wiki (or the notes/ directory) if you want to learn more about:
- Extensions, Addons and Alternatives such as HAML templates
- Security Design Patterns with snazzy diagram
- Authentication — Lets a visitor identify herself (and lay claim to her corresponding Roles and measure of Trust)
- Trust Metrics — Confidence we can rely on the outcomes of this visitor’s actions.
- Authorization and Policy — Based on trust and identity, what actions may this visitor perform?
- Access Control — How the Authorization policy is actually enforced in your code (A: hopefully without turning it into a spaghetti of if thens)
- Rails Plugins for Authentication, Trust, Authorization and Access Control
- Tradeoffs — for the paranoid or the curious, a rundown of tradeoffs made in the code
- CHANGELOG — Summary of changes to internals
- TODO — Ideas for how you can help
These best version of the release notes are in the notes/ directory in the source code — look there for the latest version. The wiki versions are taken (manually) from there.
Exciting new features
Modularize to match security design patterns:
- Authentication (currently: password, browser cookie token, HTTP basic)
- Trust metric (email validation)
- Authorization (stateful roles)
- Leave a flexible framework that will play nicely with other access control / policy definition / trust metric plugins
- Added a few helper methods for linking to user pages
- Uniform handling of logout, remember_token
- Stricter email, login field validation
- Minor security fixes — see CHANGELOG
Non-backwards compatible Changes
Here are a few changes in the May 2008 release that increase “Defense in Depth”
but may require changes to existing accounts
- If you have an existing site, none of these changes are compelling enough to warrant migrating your userbase.
- If you are generating for a new site, all of these changes are low-impact. You should apply them.
The new password encryption (using a site key salt and stretching) will break existing user accounts’ passwords. We recommend you use the
option or write a migration tool and submit it as a patch. See the Tradeoffs note for more information.
By default, email and usernames are validated against a somewhat strict pattern; your users’ values may be now illegal. Adjust to suit.
This is a basic restful authentication generator for rails, taken from acts as authenticated. Currently it requires Rails3 beta.
IMPORTANT FOR RAILS > 2.1 USERS To avoid a
NameError exception (lighthouse tracker ticket), check out the code to have an underscore and not dash in its name:
If you’re using git as your source control, you have three options.
- Install as a plugin
rails plugin install git://github.com/Satish/restful-authentication.git restful_authentication
- Checkout into
and delete the .git folder inside the directory. (This will break the connection with the github repository, and allow you to include the code into your project with git add)
git clone git://github.com/Satish/restful-authentication.git restful_authentication
- Use git submodule. From the top level of your project, add the plugin
This will create a reference link to the repository, which can be save into your project. You will need to let capistrano know that you want to update submodules on deploy via
git submodule add git://github.com/Satish/restful-authentication.git vendor/plugins/restful_authentication
set :git_enable_submodules, 1.
To use the generator:
rails g authenticated user sessions \ --include-activation \ --stateful \ --rspec \ --skip-migration \ --skip-routes \ --old-passwords
- The first parameter specifies the model that gets created in signup (typically a user or account model). A model with migration is created, as well as a basic controller with the create method. You probably want to say “User” here.
- The second parameter specifies the session controller name(options default to
sessionsController). This is the controller that handles the actual login/logout function on the site. (probably: “Session”).
--include-activation: Generates the code for a ActionMailer and its respective Activation Code through email.
--stateful: Builds in support for acts_as_state_machine and generates activation code. (
--include-activation). Based on the idea at http://www.vaporbase.com/postings/stateful_authentication. Passing
--skip-migrationwill skip the user migration, and
--skip-routeswill skip resource generation both useful if you’ve already run this generator. (Needs the acts_as_state_machine plugin, but new installs should probably run with
--aasm: Works the same as stateful but uses the updated aasm gem
gem 'rubyist-aasm', :require => 'aasm'to
Gemfilefor use in projects that use rails3-beta
--rspec: Generate RSpec tests and Stories in place of standard rails tests. This requires the RSpec-2 for Rails-3, run
gem install rspec-rails --preto install RSpec-2 for Rails-3(make sure you
rails g rspec:installafter installing RSpec.) The rspec and story suite are much more thorough than the rails tests, and changes are unlikely to be backported.
--old-passwords: Use the older password scheme (see [[#COMPATIBILITY]], above)
--skip-migration: Don’t generate a migration file for this model
--skip-routes: Don’t generate a resource line in
The below assumes a Model named ‘User’ and a Controller named ‘Session’; please alter to suit. There are additional security minutae in
notes/README-Tradeoffs — only the paranoid or the curious need bother, though.
- Add these familiar login URLs to your
config/routes.rbif you like:
match 'login' => 'sessions#new', :as => :login match 'logout' => 'sessions#destroy', :as => :logout match 'signup' => 'users#new', :as => :signup
--include-activation, also add to your
match 'activate/:activation_code' => 'users#activate', :as => :activate, :activation_code => nil
and add an observer to
config.active_record.observers = :user_observer
Pay attention, may be this is not an issue for everybody, but if you should have problems, that the sent activation_code does match with that in the database stored, reload your user object before sending its data through email something like:
class UserObserver < ActiveRecord::Observer def after_create(user) user.reload UserMailer.deliver_signup_notification(user) end def after_save(user) user.reload UserMailer.deliver_activation(user) if user.recently_activated? end end
--stateful, add an observer to config/environment.rb:
config.active_record.observers = :user_observer
and modify the users resource line in
resources :users do member do put :suspend put :unsuspend delete :purge end end
- If you use a public repository for your code (such as github, rubyforge, gitorious, etc.) make sure to NOT post your site_keys.rb (add a line like ‘/config/initializers/site_keys.rb’ to your .gitignore or do the svn ignore dance), but make sure you DO keep it backed up somewhere safe.