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Experience report

This sums up some of the key experiences and thoughts from peds and other projects that I would like to share as an experience report going into the work of Go 2. The different subjects described below are listed in the order of importance to me. Most important on top, less important towards the bottom.


I don't have excessive experience in Go but have used it for this, as well as a couple of other projects since about one year. There are probably a ton of stuff that could be improved in this project, some of which I'm aware, and some which I've not yet come to realize. I'm happy to take suggestions and PRs!

As for compiler construction I don't have much experience beyond the basics so it may be the case that I make overly simplistic assumptions in my comments below. If so, please bear with me and let me know.

Why Go?

These are some of the reasons I choose to engage with the Go language in the first place:

  • Performance, natively compiled with a memory layout which lets you write fast, mechanically sympathetic, programs with low memory overhead.
  • Quick compilation.
  • Great profiling and diagnostics tooling comes built in.
  • Garbage collected, makes it possible to move fast and focus on the business problem.
  • A great, and growing, community.
  • A large number of companies heavily invested in Go.

I specifically did not come to Go because of it being a "simple" language (as written and read). The lack of expressiveness and possibility for abstraction in the language was actually one of the few things that made me reluctant to use Go in the first place.

I realise that having a small language is an enabler for some of the compelling reasons of Go that I've listed above such as quick compile times and good tooling though.


The collections in peds are of course a prime example of a data structures that would benefit tremendously from generics in the language.

Writing the code

When starting the project the choice was between code generation to make the collections statically type safe and more efficient, and interface{} to make life easier for the implementer (me) but throw statical type safety and performance over board. To me it was like choosing between two evils but in the end I opted for the former because of personal preferences. It would also give me the chance to explore the pains of writing a code generator.

I knew that I wanted peds to be a standalone binary for generating the code as opposed to "generic" code that would then make use of a third party library such as genny to generate the code. This was mainly a decision based on usability since relying on a third party library would be one more thing that the developer using peds would have to learn. I also wanted to have full control over the inputs to the code generation, something that would not be possible with any of the existing tools I looked at.

With that in mind the generic/templated code would have to reside within the peds binary. To me that meant the template code would have to be template strings (I choose go text templates since they are part of the stdlib). But I did not want to write all the code within strings. Doing that would mean no help from the IDE/editor or any of the other tooling that I'm used to as a Go programmer. To solve this the generic code is written as plain Go code with special, "magic", names for the generic types and functions. This code is then processed by a small Python script that turns it into a number of template strings with suitable template variables that are in turn used by the code generator. Peds then substitutes the template variables with data from the command line options and outputs the generated code to a file and package of the users choice.

All this is of course painful for the library author. Beyond the initial setup he must keep track of which those magic names are where substitution happens. For the end user the experience should hopefully be fairly smooth though. It's just one command that can be used together with go:generate.

Access control

Another problem with code generation compared to built in generic support is that there is no control of where the generated code ends up. In the case of collections the generated code must also be aware of the types of the contained data.

In peds this is currently solved by allowing the user to specify target file and package together with any imports that may be needed within the generated code to access the contained types. While it works, it feels dirty. All functions, types and data defined in the generated code is potentially at risk of being accessed by code existing in the same package. For peds this weakens the promise of immutability somewhat. For the promise to be held only publicly accessible data and functions must be used.

Requirements on the generic type

For the Map there is a requirement on the key, it must be hashable. With code generation these kind of requirements cannot be properly defined. Furthermore, even though all basic types in Go already supports hashing (for use with the native map) this functionality is not accessible outside the runtime package. I believe this has it's reasons and that it has been done to reduce the number of bugs related to code that does not fulfill the contract between hash and equality, that said this is an example of decisions in Go that sometimes make me feel like a third class citizens of the language.

Hashing as implemented in peds right now is very basic. If the key type is a recognized as a basic Go type (int, float, string, ...) a custom, tailor made, hash function is applied to it. If not, then the object is printed to a string and that string is in turn hashed. Improvements to the implementation are certainly possible here.

Ideally though I would like to delegate the hashing to the type that is used as key. That would allow it to be implemented efficiently based on knowledge that is simply not available to peds.

For this to happen with a generic-like collection, some kind of constraint on the generic type would have to be expressed.

API Documentation

I was choosing between creating documentation for the generic types (with the non-standard generic names) or for the concrete, generated, implementations. None of them are really good. The generic names will never be referred from the user, the concrete types will often be quite different from each other. In the end I choose to generated docs for both as seen here:

Documentation for APIs taking interface{} as parameter is also a bit tricky. Since the empty interface doesn't say anything the types won't tell anything. This means that the docs have to be more extensive (and people may actually have to read them).

Concluding thoughts

To support the peds use case in Go two things are needed from a generics like suggestion:

  1. The ability to instantiate the container for arbitrary type(s)
  2. The ability to restrict those types to such that are hashable and comparable for the map and set types.

The below is not a suggestion for how to finally implement generics but rather an example that would fulfill the needs by peds.

peds.Map[K:Hashable, V]

Hashable would state that the type of the key needs to be hashable. To me it seems like the current Go interfaces could serve as a perfect base for these kind of specifications. While not strictly necessary, since compilation of the generic type would fail if the Hash() function was missing, it provides a much clearer contract at no cost for the client since Go interfaces are implemented implicitly (which I think is great!).

type Hashable interface {
    Hash() uint64

This would allow the compiler to generate efficient code avoiding the runtime indirection usually associated with interface functions and potentially inline the code in Hash() of the key type.

Implementation details

I want to finish with my view on generics implementation. There is a great document called (Summary of Go Generics discussions)[] that outlines a bunch of considerations regarding generics in Go. In it a number of different approaches are outlined.

I'm pro the type specialization approach where specific code is emitted for every instance of the generic type/function and no boxing takes place. Rust and C++ are examples of a languages that use this approach.

I believe boxing (as done in Java for example) would undo many possible use cases where generics could be used to write "tight"/"performance critical"/"mechanically sympathetic" algorithms or data structures. In Java this may be OK since there's a JIT that can do all sorts of optimizations in runtime, in Go that is not the case. While I'm all for the mantra of avoiding premature optimization on the application level this becomes less and less true the further down the stack you go since you have less and less context. With the language being in the bottom levels I think performance is key to avoid restricting what can be done on higher levels more than necessary.

With a templating approach the binary will be fatter for sure since more code is generated. The Go binaries are already fairly fat though and to me, adding a couple of extra % to that does not really matter. The negative impact on the instruction cache because of code bloat that some claim as a potential problem should be tested in reality. Furthermore, if the compiler/linker only generated code for the functions used by the client code as opposed to the full API of the generic type my gut feeling is that the code bloat should not be that dramatic since in reality many client applications often only use a small subset of the provided functionality. This would of course make the compiler more complicated and potentially increase compile times but I trust the compiler team will solve this. ;-)


With the strong focus on concurrency in Go I was surprised that immutability is not focused on more as a means to write safe concurrent code.

While the value semantics of basic types and structs alleviates some of the problems it does not apply to slices and maps which are reference types.

A comment in the code that a variable should be treated as immutable is not a satisfactory alternative to true language support. I would, for example, never trust code in an evolving application to adhere to such a comment if I was debugging an issue (and I'm not alone it seems,

The creation of peds is a way to show case immutable alternatives. While I realise it may not fit into the core/stdlib of the language I believe that better options at the language level to specify that data cannot be changed is core.

In peds the vector is implemented as a tree of nodes which are 32 elements wide. Each such node is in itself immutable (as in that's the intention) but I cannot describe this in the language. This makes bugs in my implementation more likely because the compiler cannot check that I adhere to my own rules. It also reduces the possibility to communicate this information to anyone else or my future self.


The need for unification

The use of the range keyword to iterate over slices and maps is fine I think. The only problem is that it's not possible to use with any other collections than the built in. That's why people come up with all sorts of ideas for how to do it. The principal ideas are described nicely here:

In peds I finally settled on a callback based solution which closely resembles that of the sync.Map that came with Go 1.9 for familiarity.

The implementation is similar to the below example:

type T []int

func (t T) Range(f func(int) bool) {
	for _, x := range t {
		ok := f(x)
		if !ok {

I think it's a reasonable solution but it requires the user to define a callback function, anonymous or named. It's also slower than using range directly since it involves a function call, that the compiler does not know to inline, for each step in the iteration.

What I would like to see is a unified way of iterating over any data structure. This would allow users to learn how to iterate in Go once.

for-loop says nothing

I applause that there is only one loop construct in Go (I don't want a while loop, a do-while loop, ...) but I think the for-loop is over used.

First of all I don't agree that it's simple:

  • There are at least four places where you could make an error in a for loop:
    • the init statement
    • the condition expression
    • the post statement
    • the loop body
  • Every time I see a for loop I have to look at all parts of it to determine what it actually does.

I think that higher level construct such as map, reduce, filter, etc. are actually good things since they immediately tell me something about the intention of the iteration. They also reduce the number of places where mistakes can be made, often you just have to concern yourself with the loop body.

Sum types/tagged unions

In peds the vector is implemented as a wide tree consisting of 32-element wide nodes. Internal nodes contain references to lower level nodes while the leafs contain the actual values contained in the vector. A node can hence be either of two, and only two, different types. I could not come up with a good way of describing this. In the end I decided to implement the nodes as {}interface, a type that in the code is referred to as commonNode.

When accessing the nodes they are first type asserted back to their original type. Which type to assert to is determined by helper variables which keep track of where in the tree you are.

When inserting new nodes they are first casted to commonNode. There is nothing in the type system preventing me from inserting anything into a node. Something that would cause other parts of the code to fail at runtime. The failre would presumably always manifest itself far away from the root cause since the error would occur in the read path while the root cause was introduced in the write path.

A sum type containing either an internal node or a leaf node could help in this situation since it would restrict the possible errors. It would also document the tree structure nicely for later maintainers something that cannot be said about the commonNode since interface{} says nothing.

As an alternative to using the empty interface I experimented with a poor mans sum type along the way. Like this:

type Node struct {
    nodes []Node
    data []GenericType

The idea was that only one of the fields in the struct would ever be set depending on the type of node. The other field would be nil. The pro of this type compared to the empty interface is that it's now clearly stated which types make up a valid node. The con is that it gives the illusion that it's OK to set both fields. It also occupies more space than the empty interface and performs slightly worse. Because of these drawbacks I decided to discard this experiment.


I can't believe there's not a built in generic set type in Go 1! Sets are great for so many things and I really hate re-implementing them as a map[type]struct{} for every type I need them in Go.

This is more of an experience in general with the Go language than specific to the implementation of peds. These previous experiences went into designing the set type in peds though (which closely mimics the set API in python).

Round up

I don't think any of the subjects listed above are novel, they have all been discussed before in various forms. I do believe there's a reason that they have been discussed before though. They would help to solve a class of problems a lot more elegantly than what is possible in Go today.

I also think that adding some of them (mainly generics) would make the language more attractive to a large number of programmers who today dismiss Go because of lack of expressiveness in the type system. Adding generics would also open up for the creation of a ton of libraries for data structures and algorithms that nobody bothers to implement in Go today. This would make the language more useful in areas and domains where it is not used that much today. While as an application developer the need for generics may not arise that often, I think it would allow a lot of applications to stand on the shoulders of giants (great libraries) to a much greater extent than what is possible today.

Finally I would like to stress the importance (to me) of focusing on performance and mechanical sympathy moving forward to avoid that Go ends up together with the scripting languages (Python, Ruby, etc) where anything performance critical has to be implemented as an extension in a different language. I really want to be able to use Go for everything, all the way from the tightest loops and up!

Go is a great language with really nice runtime characteristics, tooling and a nice deployment story. Lets build on that! :-)

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