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Delayed::Job

Delated_job (or DJ) encapsulates the common pattern of asynchronously executing longer tasks in the background.

It is a direct extraction from Shopify where the job table is responsible for a multitude of core tasks. Amongst those tasks are:

  • sending massive newsletters
  • image resizing
  • http downloads
  • updating smart collections
  • updating solr, our search server, after product changes
  • batch imports
  • spam checks

== Changes ==

1.5 Job runners can now be run in parallel. Two new database columns are needed: locked_until and locked_by. This allows us to use pessimistic locking, which enables us to run as many worker processes as we need to speed up queue processing. 1.0 Initial release

== Setup ==

The library evolves around a delayed_jobs table which looks as follows:

create_table :delayed_jobs, :force => true do |table| table.integer :priority, :default => 0 table.integer :attempts, :default => 0 table.text :handler table.string :last_error table.datetime :run_at
table.datetime :locked_until
table.string :locked_by
table.timestamps
end

== Usage ==

Jobs are simple ruby objects with a method called perform. Any object which responds to perform can be stuffed into the jobs table. Job objects are serialized to yaml so that they can later be resurrected by the job runner.

class NewsletterJob < Struct.new(:text, :emails) def perform emails.each { |e| NewsletterMailer.deliver_text_to_email(text, e) } end
end

Delayed::Job.enqueue NewsletterJob.new('lorem ipsum...', Customers.find(:all).collect(&:email))

There is also a second way to get jobs in the queue: send_later.

BatchImporter.new(Shop.find(1)).send_later(:import_massive_csv, massive_csv)

This will simply create a Delayed::PerformableMethod job in the jobs table which serializes all the parameters you pass to it. There are some special smarts for active record objects which are stored as their text representation and loaded from the database fresh when the job is actually run later.

== Running the tasks ==

You can invoke rake jobs:work which will start working off jobs. You can cancel the rake task by CTRL-C.

At Shopify we run the the tasks from a simple script/job_runner which is being invoked by runnit:

#!/usr/bin/env ruby require File.dirname(FILE) + '/../config/environment'

SLEEP = 5

trap('TERM') { puts 'Exiting...'; $exit = true } trap('INT') { puts 'Exiting...'; $exit = true }

puts "*** Staring job worker #{Delayed::Job.worker_name}"

begin

loop do  
  result = nil                                 

  realtime = Benchmark.realtime do  
    result = Delayed::Job.work_off      
  end                                                                          

  count = result.sum

  break if $exit

  if count.zero? 
    sleep(SLEEP)
    puts 'Waiting for more jobs...'
  else
    status = "#{count} jobs processed at %.4f j/s, %d failed ..." % [count / realtime, result.last]
    RAILS_DEFAULT_LOGGER.info status
    puts status
  end

  break if $exit
end

ensure Delayed::Job.clear_locks! end

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