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The Local Object

So far we've only seen running local commands, but there's more to the local object than this; it aims to "fully represent" the local machine.

First, you should get acquainted with which, which performs program name resolution in the system PATH and returns the first match (or raises an exception if no match is found):

>>> local.which("ls")
<LocalPath C:\Program Files\Git\bin\ls.exe>
>>> local.which("nonexistent")
Traceback (most recent call last):
plumbum.commands.CommandNotFound: ('nonexistent', [...])

Another member is python, which is a command object that points to the current interpreter (sys.executable):

>>> local.python
<LocalCommand c:\python27\python.exe>
>>> local.python("-c", "import sys;print sys.version")
'2.7.2 (default, Jun 12 2011, 15:08:59) [MSC v.1500 32 bit (Intel)]\r\n'

Working Directory

The local.cwd attribute represents the current working directory. You can change it like so:

>>> local.cwd
<Workdir d:\workspace\plumbum>
>>> local.cwd.chdir("d:\\workspace\\plumbum\\docs")
>>> local.cwd
<Workdir d:\workspace\plumbum\docs>

But a much more useful pattern is to use it as a context manager, so it behaves like pushd/popd:

>>> with local.cwd("c:\\windows"):
...     print "%s:%s" % (local.cwd, (ls | wc["-l"])())
...     with local.cwd("c:\\windows\\system32"):
...         print "%s:%s" % (local.cwd, (ls | wc["-l"])())
c:\windows: 105
c:\windows\system32: 3013
>>> print "%s:%s" % (local.cwd, (ls | wc["-l"])())
d:\workspace\plumbum: 9


Much like cwd, local.env represents the local environment. It is a dictionary-like object that holds environment variables, which you can get/set intuitively:

>>> local.env["JAVA_HOME"]
'C:\\Program Files\\Java\\jdk1.6.0_20'
>>> local.env["JAVA_HOME"] = "foo"

And similarity to cwd is the context-manager nature of env; each level would have it's own private copy of the environment:

>>> with local.env(FOO="BAR"):
...     local.python("-c", "import os;print os.environ['FOO']")
...     with local.env(FOO="SPAM"):
...         local.python("-c", "import os;print os.environ['FOO']")
...     local.python("-c", "import os;print os.environ['FOO']")
>>> local.python("-c", "import os;print os.environ['FOO']")
Traceback (most recent call last):
ProcessExecutionError: Command line: ['c:\\python27\\python.exe', '-c', "import os;print os.environ['FOO']"]
Exit code: 1
Stderr:  | Traceback (most recent call last):
         |   File "<string>", line 1, in <module>
         |   File "c:\python27\lib\", line 423, in __getitem__
         |     return[key.upper()]
         | KeyError: 'FOO'

In order to make cross-platform-ness easier, the local.env object provides some convenience properties for getting the username (.user), the home path (.home), and the executable path (path) as a list. For instance:

>>> local.env.user
>>> local.env.home
<Path c:\Users\sebulba>
>>> local.env.path
[<Path c:\python27\lib\site-packages\gtk-2.0\runtime\bin>, <Path c:\Users\sebulba\bin>, ...]
>>> local.which("python")
<Path c:\python27\python.exe>
>>> local.env.path.insert(0, "c:\\python32")
>>> local.which("python")
<Path c:\python32\python.exe>

Local Paths

Apart from commands, Plumbum provides an easy to use path class that represents file system paths. You've already seen paths; for instance, local.cwd is one, and so is the result of local.which. Paths are created by :func:`local.path() <platform.local_machine.LocalMachine.path>`, and you can join paths using / (division), perform globbing using // (floor division), iterate over the files and subdirectories contained in a directory, read and write file contents, etc.

>>> p = local.path("c:\\windows")
>>> p.exists()
>>> p.isdir()
>>> p.isfile()
>>> p / "notepad.exe"
<LocalPath c:\windows\notepad.exe>
>>> (p / "notepad.exe").isfile()
>>> for p2, _ in zip(p, range(3)):
...     print p2
>>> p // "*.dll"
[<LocalPath c:\windows\masetupcaller.dll>, ...]
>>> p // "*/*.dll"
[<LocalPath c:\windows\apppatch\acgenral.dll>, ...]
>>> local.cwd / "docs" // "*.rst"
[<LocalPath d:\workspace\plumbum\docs\cli.rst>, ...]

If you need to copy, move, or delete paths, see the :ref:`utils modules <guide-utils>`

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