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Modules Documentation

A short summary of each module is directly below. Documentation for specific abilities of modules, or reference commands are further below.

Table of Contents

Command-line Variables

Feature Flag HTTP Service Port Description
WITH_MESH_POINT None Set to true if you have a suitable USB WiFi adapter and want to configure it as a 802.11s Mesh Point interface.
WITH_AD_HOC None Set to true if you have a suitable USB WiFi adapter and want to configure it as a IBSS Ad-hoc interface.
WITH_WIFI_AP None Set to true if you have a suitable Onboard WiFi adapter or USB WiFi adapter and want to use it as an Access Point. The default configuration routes all traffic to the Ethernet port eth0.
WITH_FIREWALL None Set to true if you want to enable a basic firewall on your node.
WITH_CJDNS_IPTUNNEL None Set to true if you want to use the cjdns iptunnel feature to set up an Internet gateway for your node. To configure as a server (exit Internet traffic for other nodes), create /etc/cjdns.iptunnel.server containing a newline-separated list of cjdns public keys of allowed clients. To configure as a client (use an exit server to access the Internet), create /etc/cjdns.iptunnel.client containing a newline-separated list of cjdns public keys of the gateway servers. You can only configure as one or the other, not both.
WITH_IPFS 80: HTTP-to-IPFS gateway at /ipfs/HASH Set to true if you want to install IPFS.
WITH_IPFS_PI_STREAM None Set to true if you want to install Pi stream service to live stream your camera over IPFS. Requires a Raspberry Pi with camera module. Player interface at /video-player Warning: By default the camera will start broadcasting after first reboot.
WITH_SSB Set to true if you want to install Scuttlebot (SSB) a secure scuttlebutt daemon.
WITH_SSB_PATCHFOO 80: SSB web interface at /patchfoo Set to true if you want to install Patchfoo, allows you to interact with the scuttlebot backend with a web interface.
WITH_SSB_WEB_PI 80: SSB web interface at /ssb-web-pi Set to true if you want to install SSB Web Pi, interact with scuttlebot api via a web interface. EXPERIMENTAL
WITH_PROMETHEUS_NODE_EXPORTER 9100: Node Exporter UI Set to true if you want to install Prometheus Node Exporter to report network metrics.
WITH_PROMETHEUS_SERVER 9090: Prometheus Server UI Set to true if you want to install Prometheus Server to collect network metrics. Requires Prometheus Node Exporter.
WITH_GRAFANA 3000: Grafana UI (login: admin/admin) Set to true if you want to install Grafana to display network metrics. Requires Prometheus Server.
WITH_H_DNS None Set to true if you want to use Hyperboria-compatible DNS servers: fc4d:c8e5:9efe:9ac2:8e72:fcf7:6ce8:39dc, fc6e:691e:dfaa:b992:a10a:7b49:5a1a:5e09, and fc16:b44c:2bf9:467:8098:51c6:5849:7b4f
WITH_H_NTP None Set to true if you want to use a Hyperboria-compatible NTP server: fc4d:c8e5:9efe:9ac2:8e72:fcf7:6ce8:39dc
WITH_EXTRA_TOOLS None Set to true if you want to install non-essential tools useful for network analysis: vim socat oping bmon iperf3
WITH_WATCHDOG None Set to true if you want to enable hardware watchdog that will reset the device when the operating system becomes unresponsive.
WITH_YRD None Set to true if you want to enable yrd, a helpful command-line tool for cjdns.
WITH_YGGDRASIL None Set to true if you want to install Yggdrasil, an alternate and possibly more efficient mesh routing software than CJDNS.
WITH_YGGDRASIL_IPTUNNEL None Set to true if you want to use the yggdrasil iptunnel feature to set up an Internet gateway for your node. To configure as a server (exit Internet traffic for other nodes), create /etc/yggdrasil.iptunnel.server containing a newline-separated list of yggdrasil public keys of allowed clients and an ipaddress for that client. To configure as a client (use an exit server to access the Internet), create /etc/yggdrasil.iptunnel.client containing a newline-separated list of yggdrasil public keys of the gateway servers followed by the IP address set on the server. You can only configure as one or the other, not both and you can only have one entry on the client.

To install all optional modules (not recommended), run the following command:

$ wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/tomeshnet/prototype-cjdns-pi/master/scripts/install && chmod +x install && WITH_MESH_POINT=true WITH_AD_HOC=false WITH_WIFI_AP=true WITH_FIREWALL=true WITH_CJDNS_IPTUNNEL=true WITH_IPFS=true WITH_SSB=true WITH_SSB_WEB_PI=true WITH_PROMETHEUS_NODE_EXPORTER=true WITH_PROMETHEUS_SERVER=true WITH_GRAFANA=true WITH_H_DNS=true WITH_H_NTP=true WITH_EXTRA_TOOLS=true WITH_WATCHDOG=true WITH_YRD=true ./install

Mesh-Point / Mesh-Adhoc

Configured Mesh Point or AdHoc wireless mesh on interface.

Config file: /etc/mesh.conf
Section [general]

mesh-name
Defines name of mesh. Used when creating AdHoc/MeshPoint SSID, as well as the hostname of the device. Examples are Tomesh, Massmesh, NYCmesh, etc. Value: ASCII character string with no spaces

frequency
Defines frquency AdHoc/MeshPoint will run on.
Value: valid frequency in Mhz
Default: 2412

ibss-dev Defines the interface AdHoc will run on. Value: interface on system
Default: The first interface that has a name other than wlan-ap

Hostapd - WITH_WIFI_AP

Configure hostapd to create an access point over one of the WiFi adapters available. The selected device will be pinned as wlan-ap to prevent run conditions.

During installation you will be asked to select additional settings.

Type of WPA

WPA-PSK

Traditional wireless password only encryption. You will be asked for a password as well.

WPA-EAP

Generates certificates and provides a Login/Password means of authentication. Note you may need to set the invalid CA. You will be asked for a password. The username will be guest. Additional accounts can be made by editing /etc/hostapd/hostapd.eap_user.

WiFi adapter

Onboard Adapter

Uses the onboard adapter if available for an Access Point

External Adapter

Select one of the adapters available on your device to be the Access Point. You can have the system recognize it by Mac address or Driver.

CJDNS

Cjdns (Caleb James DeLisle's Network Suite) is a networking protocol and reference implementation. It is founded on the ideology that networks should be easy to set up, protocols should scale smoothly, and security should be built in by default.

CJDNS uses cryptography to self-assign IPv6 address in the fc00::/8 subnet and will automatically peer with other nodes connected via Layer2 ethernet, broadcasts or configured UDP tunnels.

For more information please see the CJDNS FAQ.

To modify the ports that are accessable from CJDNS modify the cjdns table in the IPv6 firewall config file. See the Firewall section for more details.

CJDNS Internet Peering

Other peers can be found in the this repo of peers. Try to connect to only a few peers, and ones that are close to where you live.

You'll see the peering information that will give you the address (IPv4 or IPv6) and credentials to connect to the node. You must decide to use the IPv4 or IPv6 Internet address, in almost all cases you want IPv4. Now that we have this info, connect to your mesh device, and edit the following config file:

$ sudo nano /etc/cjdroute.conf

This file contains everything that is required for CJDNS to run, so be careful not to remove anything else, unless you know what you are doing. You need to head down to this line:

// Nodes to connect to (IPv4 only).
"connectTo":
{

This is where you input the IPv4 address. There is also a IPv6 field, if you are using the IPv6 address instead:

// Nodes to connect to (IPv6 only).
"connectTo":
{

Insert the respective code, and the save (ctrl-x to save, then y to confirm file name, then enter to confirm changes). Your code should look somewhat like this:

// Nodes to connect to (IPv4 only).
"connectTo":
  {
                "123.123.123.123:54321": {
                  "peerName": "cosmetic-name.com",
                  "login": "peer-login",
                  "password": "peer-passwowrd-here",
                  "publicKey": "1234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012.k"
                }
  }

Remember that multiple peers will need a comma and the end of the } for each peer except the last one!

Next you should restart CJDNS with a sudo systemctl restart cjdns command. This will reload CJDNS with the new config file. Run a status command on your node, and make sure when it prints out the text, that CJDNS is green with the text [ACTIVE]. if so, you have successfully connected to the remote peer, if it says [INACTIVE], then there might be a typo in your config file. Make sure its formatted correctly (the config file is written using JSON).

Yggdrasil

Yggdrasil is another piece of mesh routing software similar to CJDNS, but with potentially better performance and more active development. For more info visit the website.

Yggdrasil subnetting

Yggdrasil will give each node (like your Pi, for example) an IPv6 address, but it can also give each node a subnet to distribute to its clients. This means that if you connect to the WiFi of your Pi, your device can get a unique Yggdrasil address, with all the benefits it provides. These include being able to access your device directly, without being NATed or blocked.

However, the Pi does have a firewall, so various commands need be run to allow access to clients. By default all Yggdrasil client access is blocked. See Firewall/IPv6/Yggdrasil Clients to learn how to change that.

Yggdrasil Internet Peering

Other peers can be found in the public-peers repo. Try to connect to only a few peers, and ones that are close to where you live.

Some will be IPv4, others IPv6. Head over to your mesh node yet again, and enter the following in your terminal:

$ sudo nano /etc/yggdrasil.conf

We are interested in this section of the config file:

// List of connection strings for static peers in URI format, e.g. tcp://a.b.c.d:e or socks://a.b.c.d:e/f.g.h.i:j.
Peers: []

This is where we are going to insert the code to connect to the peer node. Your code should look similar to this:

Peers: ["tcp://11.22.33.44:1234"]

Exit out of nano and save the changes. Restart Yggdrasil with a sudo systemctl restart yggdrasil command. Pass a status command to terminal and you should see green text where Yggdrasil is printed with the words [ACTIVE] present. You are now connected to the remote peer with Yggdrasil. If you see[INACTIVE], then you need to check your code for typos, make sure there are qoute "" around the whole entire address. You may also need to wait a bit longer for the restart to complete.

Yggdrasil IPTunnel

This module uses the CKR function of yggdrasill to allow you to tunnel internet from an exit node (server) that has access to the internet to another node that does not. To do this you must exchange public keys. The public key can be found in /etc/yggdrasil.conf

To use this module you must have it installed. You can check to see if the file /usr/local/sbin/yggdrasil-setup exists. If it does then you have it enable it during the protoype install.

Additional configuration

Additional configurations can be made in the file /etc/yggdrasil.iptunnel.conf

Section [general]

yggdrasil-interface

Defines the Yggdrasil interface. You can configure this on yggdrasil.conf as for example IfName: ygg0.

Default: ygg0 Value: Yggdrasil interface on the system, usually ygg0 or tun0

exit-interface Server Only

Defines the exit interface that is connected to the Internet.

Default: eth0 Value: Any interface on the system

Section [ipv6tunnel]

nat Disables masquerading of IPv6 tunnels. Set to false when routable addresses are being used across the tunnel. This is used when you route another IPv6 route to be used by the remote node to issue IPv6 addresses to its clients.

Default: true Values: true , false

To add advertising of this subnet, add a prefix to /etc/radvd.conf under the correct interface. For example if the subnet you are routing has the prefix 20xx:xxxx:xxxx::/64

interface wlan-ap {
  AdvSendAdvert on;
  MaxRtrAdvInterval 30;
  prefix 20xx:xxxx:xxxx::/64
  {
    AdvOnLink on;
    AdvAutonomous on;
  };
};

If you installed hostapd you will have this already configured with a prefix. Simply add the new prefix under the existing one.

subnet Server only

Defines IPv6 addresses to add to the routing table that will be routed over through Yggdrasil. Must match IPs in yggdrasil.iptunnel.server

Default: fd00::/64 Value: Any ipv6 address range

subnet-interface Client Only

Defines the interface that will be used to route the routed IPv6 subnet.

Default: wlan-ap Value: Any interface on the system

Section [iptunnel]

subnet Server only

Defines IP addresses to add to the routing table that will be routed over through Yggdrasil. Must match the IPs in yggdrasil.iptunnel.server

Default: 10.10.0.0/24 Value: Any IPv4 address range

IPTunnel - Server

The IPTunnel server acts as a exit node. It will accept connections from other Yggdrasil peers listed in /etc/yggdrasil.iptunnel.server and form a tunnel between them allowing the remote peer to access Internet available on this node.

To configure as a server (exit Internet traffic for other nodes),

  1. Create /etc/yggdrasil.iptunnel.server
  2. Fill it with newline-separated list of:
  • EncryptionPublicKey key of the clients (found in /etc/yggdrasil.conf on the client's device)
  • Single white space
  • IPv4 Address in the 10.10.0.0/24 range that will be assigned to the client
  • optional Single white space
  • optional IPv6 address in the fd00::/64 range that will be assigned to the client
  • optional Single white space
  • optional IPv6 subnet that will be routed through the client

Example

1234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234 10.10.0.1 fd00::1  
2345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345 10.10.0.2  
3456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123467 10.10.0.3 fd00::3 fd00:1::/64  

Note: You do not have to assign an IPv6 address to all nodes, ones without an IPv6 address will simply not be issued one.

IPTunnel - Client

The IPTunnel client will establish a link to a server, and tunnel all traffic not currently in the routing table to this the server node. In most setups this means any traffic that is not for the local network you are directly connected to.

To configure as a client (use an exit server to access the Internet),

  1. Create /etc/yggdrasil.iptunnel.client
  2. Place a single line containing
    • EncryptionPublicKey of the server (found in /etc/yggdrasil.conf on the server's device)
    • Single white space
    • IPv4 Address assigned to you by the server
    • optional Single white space
    • optional IPv6 address assigned to you by the server
    • optional Single white space
    • optional IPv6 subnet that will be routed through the client

Example:

4567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567 10.10.0.4 fd00::4

or without IPv6

4567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567 10.10.0.4

or with IPv6 and subnet

4567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567 10.10.0.4 fd00::3 fd00:1::/64
IPTunnel Client and Internet Peer

If you wish to run an IPTunnel client on the same node as an Internet peer, you will need to ensure the path to the Yggdrasil peer goes over the Internet connection instead of using the tunnel.

In Yggdrasil config you can use the InterfacePeers: {"eth0": ["tcp://xxxx.xxx"] } instead of the Peers definition to force a specific interface to establish the internet peers.

IPFS

IPFS stands for Interplanetary File System. It is an open-source, peer-to-peer distributed hypermedia protocol that aims to function as a ubiquitous file system for all computing devices.

This module will install IPFS under the user where the script runs allowing you to access IPFS resouces both directly from the command line, and through the gateway available at /ipfs/

Firewall

The firewall module installes a basic firewall for your device. It will block all ports that were not meant to be open. By default there are no ports blocked from the Wireless Access Point interface (wlan-ap).

Applying changes

After making any changes to files as outlined below, run sudo systemctl restart hostapd to apply the changes. This will take down the Pi's WiFi for a moment, but it will come back up on it's own. SSH sessions will freeze, but should reconnect on their own as well.

IPv4

Default open ports to the device are below. Since both CJDNS and Yggdrasil use IPv6, these ports are open only for LAN or WiFi usage.

Port Protocol Policy Description
67:68 UDP Accept DHCP Client/Server
22 UDP Accept SSH
53 TCP/UDP Accept DNS Server
80 TCP Accept HTTP
443 TCP Accept SSL
8008 TCP/UDP Accept SSB
9100 TCP Accept NodeExporter
9090 TCP Accept Prometheus Server
3000 TCP Accept Grafana
5201 TCP Accept IPerf3
4001 TCP Accept IPFS Swarm port

Change open ports

To change the open ports you can edit the IPv4 configuration file located at /etc/iptables/rules.v4

Remove or comment out (#) the lines of the ports that you wish to close and add new lines for additional ports you wish to open.

Likely you will not need to edit this file as much, if you are interested in opening mesh ports look at the IPv6 section directly below.

These are standard iptables rules. The basic syntax is as follows:

-A INPUT -j ACCEPT -p <protocol> --dport <port>

protocol - either tcp or udp, not required but recommended

port - Port you wish to open between 1-65535

IPv6

Default open ports to the device over IPv6 are

Port Protocol Policy Description
67:68 UDP Accept DHCP Client/Server
22 UDP Accept SSH
53 TCP/UDP Accept DNS Server
80 TCP Accept HTTP
443 TCP Accept SSH
5201 TCP Accept IPerf3
4001 TCP Accept IPFS Swarm port
8008 TCP/UDP Accept SSB
9100 TCP Accept NodeExporter

Change open ports

To change the open ports you can edit the IPv6 configuration file located at /etc/iptables/rules.v6

Remove or comment out (#) the lines of the ports that you wish to close and add new lines for additional ports you wish to open.

These are standard ip6tables rules. The basic syntax is as follows:

-A <table> -j ACCEPT -p <protocol> --dport <port>

table - CJDNS or YGGDRASIL for opening the port to CJDNS or YGGDRASIL, YGGCLIENT for opening up access to Yggdrasil Clients, and INPUT to open the port up to all of IPv6.

protocol - either tcp or udp, not required but recommended

port - Port you wish to open between 1-65535

Make sure to put your rules in the right section of the file, there are different ones depending on the table, with comments defining each section.

Yggdrasil Clients

Below are some different scenarios for opening up Yggdrasil clients. You will need to put these rules in /etc/iptables/rules.v6, in the Yggdrasil client rules section indicated by a comment.

  • One client, one port

Doing this is not recommended, as Yggdrasil clients IP addresses may change.

  • All clients, one port

-A YGGCLIENT -j ACCEPT -p <PROTOCOL> --dport <PORT>

Specifying a protocol is not required, but recommended.

  • All clients, all ports

-A YGGCLIENT -j ACCEPT

If you use this rule, there is no point in having any other Yggdrasil client rules in the file.

You can specify a protocol, but that would limit the ports that are open.

Grafana

Note: An older version is used for i386 deployment due to lack of official support in the newer version.

Grafana is a dashboard used to display Prometheus collected data. Once installed you can visit http://<yournodeip>:3000. Default login is admin/admin. You can skip the welcome screen/wizard by clicking on the Grafana logo at the top left corner.

Known install bugs

At times Grafana will not start up properly during install and the dashboards will not install. To install them manually run the following commands from inside the prototype-cjdns-pi/scripts/grafana folder

BASE_DIR=`pwd`
curl --user admin:admin -X POST -H 'Content-Type: application/json' --data-binary "@$BASE_DIR/datasource.json" http://localhost:3000/api/datasources
curl --user admin:admin -X POST -H 'Content-Type: application/json' --data-binary "@$BASE_DIR/dashboard.json" http://localhost:3000/api/dashboards/db

Allow Anonymous access

To allow read-one guest access without a password edit /etc/grafana/grafana.ini

Uncomment/Change settings as follows

[auth.anonymous]
# enable anonymous access
enabled = true
# specify organization name that should be used for unauthenticated users
org_name = Main Org.
# specify role for unauthenticated users
org_role = Viewer

Prometheus

Prometheus is a monitoring system and time series database.

Note: Prometheus Server does not support i386 installation because there is no known binary for it.

To make Prometheus dynamically change the nodes it will monitor during runtime, you can tell it to read from a file and update its targets every time the file is changed. Make the following change in /opt/prometheus/prometheus.yml.

Change this:

    static_configs:
    - targets: ['[fc0e:741f:1953:b0be:8958:2265:14cf:1e94]:9100']

to this:

    file_sd_configs:
        - files:
            - "/etc/prometheus.json"

Then create a /etc/prometheus.json file:

[
 {
  "targets": [
   "[fc0e:741f:1953:b0be:8958:2265:14cf:1e94]:9100",
   "[fc00:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000]:9100"
  ]
 }
]

Finally, restart the Prometheus service: Run sudo systemctl restart prometheus-server

If you wish to monitor multiple nodes, simply add more nodes to the JSON file. Remember the last entry does not have a ,.

Secure Scuttlebutt

SSB is a decent(ralised) secure gossip platform. It allows for the offline and decentralized distribution and copying of data in a "feeds" format. In practice it is often used as a social network similar to Facebook (but P2P), but has many other applications.

Our nodes can run a Scuttlebutt pub, which allows your messages to propagate through the mesh network, if your node is connected to one. You can download a client like Patchwork, and if you installed the SSB module, you'll see the pub running on your Pi in the sidebar of the client when you connect to your node's WiFi network. This pub will sync with users of its network, and with mesh nodes nearby, spreading your messages and helping you get new ones.

SSB Pub Peering

Beyond connecting with mesh peers, or peers on the LAN, you will need to connect to a "pub" to get your Scuttlebutt feed across the Internet. You can find a list of public pubs to join here.