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A ruby-based script that monitors webpages, rss feeds, podcasts etc.
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websitary by Thomas Link rubyforge.org/projects/websitiary/

This ruby-based script monitors webpages, rss feeds, podcasts etc. and reports what's new. It reuses other programs to do the actual work. By default, it works on an ASCII basis, i.e. it runs diff on the output of text-based webbrowsers like w3m, lynx, or links. With the help of some friends, it works also with HTML. Maybe it of help for some of you.

Please see the requirements section below.

DESCRIPTION:

websitary (formerly known as websitiary with an extra “i”) monitors webpages, rss feeds, podcasts etc. It reuses other programs (w3m, diff etc.) to do most of the actual work. By default, it works on an ASCII basis, i.e. with the output of text-based webbrowsers like w3m (or lynx, links etc.) as the output can easily be post-processed. It can also work with HTML and highlight new items. This script was originally planned as a ruby-based websec replacement.

By default, this script will use w3m to dump HTML pages and then run diff over the current page and the previous backup. Some pages are better viewed with lynx or links. Downloaded documents (HTML or ASCII) can be post-processed (e.g., filtered through some ruby block that extracts elements via hpricot and the like). Please see the configuration options below to find out how to change this globally or for a single source.

This user manual is also available as PDF.

FEATURES/PROBLEMS:

  • Handle webpages, rss feeds (optionally save attachments in podcasts etc.)

  • Compare webpages with previous backups

  • Display differences between the current version and the backup

  • Provide hooks to post-process the downloaded documents and the diff

  • Display a one-page report summarizing all news

  • Automatically open the report in your favourite web-browser

  • Experimental: Download webpages on defined intervalls and generate incremental diffs.

ISSUES, TODO:

  • With HTML output, changes are presented on one single page, which means that pages with different encodings cause problems.

  • Improved support for robots.txt (test it)

  • The use of :website_below and :website is hardly tested (please report errors).

  • download => :body_html tries to rewrite references (a, img) which may fail on certain kind of urls (please report errors).

  • When using :body_html for download, it may happen that some JavaScript code is stripped, which breaks some JavaScript-generated links.

  • The –log command line will create a new instance of the logger and thus reset any previous options related to the logging level.

NOTE: The script was previously called websitiary but was renamed (from 0.2 on) to websitary (without the superfluous i).

Caveat

The script also includes experimental support for monitoring whole websites. Basically, this script supports robots.txt directives (see requirements) but this is hardly tested and may not work in some cases.

While it is okay for your own websites to ignore robots.txt, it is not for others. Please make sure that the webpages you run this program on allow such a use. Some webpages disallow the use of any automatic downloader or offline reader in their user agreements.

SYNOPSIS:

Usage

Example:

# Run "profile"
websitary profile

# Edit "~/.websitary/profile.rb"
websitary --edit=profile

# View the latest report
websitary -ereview

# Refetch all sources regardless of :days and :hours restrictions
websitary -signore_age=true

# Create html and rss reports for my websites
websitary -fhtml,rss mysites

# Add an url to the quicklist profile
websitary -eadd http://www.example.com

For example output see:

Configuration

Profiles are plain ruby files (with the '.rb' suffix) stored in ~/.websitary/.

The profile “config” (~/.websitary/config.rb) is always loaded if available.

There are two special profile names:

-

Read URLs from STDIN.

__END__

Read the profile contained in the script source after the __END__ line.

default 'PROFILE1', 'PROFILE2' …

Set the default profile(s). The default is: quicklist

Example:

default 'my_profile'

diff 'CMD “%s” “%s”'

Use this shell command to make the diff. %s %s will be replaced with the old and new filename.

diff is used by default.

diffprocess lambda {|text| …}

Use this ruby snippet to post-process the diff.

download 'CMD “%s”'

Use this shell command to download a page. %s will be replaced with the url.

w3m is used by default.

Example:

download 'lynx -dump "%s"'

downloadprocess lambda {|text| …}

Use this ruby snippet to post-process what was downloaded. Return the new text.

edit 'CMD “%s”'

Use this shell command to edit a profile. %s will be replaced with the filename.

vi is used by default.

Example:

edit 'gvim "%s"&'

option TYPE, OPTION => VALUE

Set a global option.

TYPE can be one of:

:diff

Generate a diff

:diffprocess

Post-process a diff (if necessary)

:format

Format the diff for output

:download

Download webpages

:downloadprocess

Post-process downloaded webpages

:page

The :format field defines the format of the final report. Here VALUE is a format string that takes 3 variables as arguments: report title, toc, contents.

:global

Set a “global” option.

DOWNLOAD is a symbol

VALUE is either a format string or a block of code (of class Proc).

Example:

set :download, :foo => lambda {|url| get_url(url)}

global OPTION => VALUE

This is the same a option :global, OPTION => VALUE.

Known global options:

:canonic_filename => BLOCK(FILENAME)

Rewrite filenames as they are stored in the mtimes register. This may useful if you want to use the same repository on several computers with in different locations etc.

:encoding => OUTPUT_DOCUMENT_ENCODING

The default is 'ISO-8859-1'.

:downloadhtml => SHORTCUT

The default shortcut for downloading plain HTML.

:file_url => BLOCK(FILENAME)

Rewrite a filename as it is used for creating file urls to local copies in the output. This may useful if you want to use the same repository on several computers with in different locations etc.

:filename_size => N

The max filename size. If a filename becomes longer, md5 encoding will be used for local copies in the cache.

:toggle_body => BOOLEAN

If true, make a news body collabsable on mouse-clicks (sort of).

:proxy => STRING, :proxy => ARRAY

The proxy. (currently only supported by mechanize)

:user_agent => STRING

Set the user agent (only for certain queries).

output_format FORMAT, output_format [FORMAT1, FORMAT2, …]

Set the output format. Format can be one of:

  • html

  • text, txt (this only works with text based downloaders)

  • rss (prove of concept only; it requires :rss[:url] to be set to the url, where the rss feed will be published, using the option :rss, :url => URL configuration command; you either have to use a text-based downloader or include :rss_format => 'html' to the url options)

set OPTION => VALUE; set TYPE, OPTION => VALUE; unset OPTIONS

(Un)Set an option for the following source commands.

Example:

set :download, :foo => lambda {|url| get_url(url)}
set :days => 7, sort => true
unset :days, :sort

source URL(S), [OPTIONS]

Options

:cols => FROM..TO

Use only these colums from the output (used after applying the :lines option)

:depth => INTEGER

In conjunction with a :website type of :download option, fetch url up to this depth.

:diff => "CMD", :diff => SHORTCUT

Use this command to make the diff for this page. Possible values for SHORTCUT are: :webdiff (useful in conjunction with :download => :curl, :wget, or :body_html), :websec_webdiff (use websec's webdiff tool), :body_html, :website_below, :website and :openuri are synonyms for :webdiff. NOTE: Since version 0.3, :webdiff is mapped to websitary's own htmldiff class (which can also be used as stand-alone script). Before 0.3, websitary used websec's webdiff script, which is now mapped to :websec_webdiff.

:diffprocess => lambda {|text| ...}

Use this ruby snippet to post-process this diff

:download => "CMD", :download => SHORTCUT

Use this command to download this page. For possible values for SHORTCUT see the section on shortcuts below.

:downloadprocess => lambda {|text| ...}

Use this ruby snippet to post-process what was downloaded. This is the place where, e.g., hpricot can be used to extract certain elements from the HTML code. Example:

lambda {|text| Hpricot(text).at('div#content').inner_html}

:format => "FORMAT %s STRING", :format => SHORTCUT

The format string for the diff text. The default (the :diff shortcut) wraps the output in pre tags. :webdiff, :body_html, :website_below, :website, and :openuri will simply add a newline character.

:iconv => ENCODING

If set, use iconv to convert the page body into the summary's document encoding (see the 'global' section). Websitary currently isn't able to automatically determine and convert encodings.

:timeout => SECONDS

When using openuri, download the page with a timeout.

:hours => HOURS, :days => DAYS

Don't download the file unless it's older than that

:days_of_month => DAY..DAY, :wdays => DAY..DAY

Download only once per month within a certain range of days (e.g., 15..31 … Check once after the 15th). The argument can also be an array (e.g, [1, 15]) or an integer.

:days_of_week => DAY..DAY, :mdays => DAY..DAY

Download only once per week within a certain range of days (e.g., 1..2 … Check once on monday or tuesday; sunday = 0). The argument can also be an array (e.g, [1, 15]) or an integer.

:daily => true

Download only once a day.

:ignore_age => true

Ignore any :days and :hours settings. This is useful in some cases when set on the command line.

:lines => FROM..TO

Use only these lines from the output

:match => REGEXP

When recursively walking a website, follow only links that match this regexp.

:rss_rewrite_enclosed_urls => true

If true, replace urls in the rss feed item description pointing to the enclosure with a file url pointing to the local copy

:rss_enclosure => true|"DIRECTORY"

If true, save rss feed enclosures in “~/.websitary/attachments/RSS_FEED_NAME/”. If a string, use this as destination directory. Only enclosures of new items will be saved – i.e. when downloading a feed for the first time, no enclosures will be saved.

:rss_find_enclosure => BLOCK

Certain RSS-feeds embed enclosures in the description. Use this option to scan the description (a Hpricot document) for an URL that is then saved as enclosure if the :rss_enclosure option is set. Example:

source 'http://www.example.com/rss',
  :title => 'Example',
  :use => :rss, :rss_enclosure => true,
  :rss_find_enclosure => lambda {|item, doc| (doc / 'img').map {|e| e['src']}[0]}

:rss_format (default: "plain_text")

When output format is :rss, create rss item descriptios as plain text.

:rss_format_local_copy => FORMAT_STRING | BLOCK

By default a hypertext reference to the local copy of an RSS enclosure is added to entry. Sometimes you may want to display something inline (e.g. an image). You can then use this option to define a format string (one field = the local copy's file url).

:show_initial => true

Include initial copies in the report (may not always work properly). This can also be set as a global option.

:sleep => SECS

Wait SECS seconds (float or integer) before downloading the page.

:sort => true, :sort => lambda {|a,b| ...}

Sort lines in output

:strip => true

Strip empty lines

:title => "TEXT"

Display TEXT instead of URL

:use => SYMBOL

Use SYMBOL for any other option. I.e. :download => :body_html :diff => :webdiff can be abbreviated as :use => :body_html (because for :diff :body_html is a synonym for :webdiff).

The order of age constraints is: :hours > :daily > :wdays > :mdays > :days > :months. I.e. if :wdays is set, :mdays, :days, or :months are ignored.

view 'CMD “%s”'

Use this shell command to view the output (usually a HTML file). %s will be replaced with the filename.

w3m is used by default.

Example:

view 'gnome-open "%s"' # Gnome Desktop
view 'kfmclient "%s"'  # KDE
view 'cygstart "%s"'   # Cygwin
view 'start "%s"'      # Windows
view 'firefox "%s"'

Shortcuts for use with :use, :download and other options

:w3m

Use w3m for downloading the source. Use diff for generating diffs.

:lynx

Use lynx for downloading the source. Use diff for generating diffs. Lynx doesn't try to recreate the layout of a page like w3m or links do. As a result the output IMHO sometimes deviates from the original design but is better suited for being post-processed in some situation.

:links

Use links for downloading the source. Use diff for generating diffs.

:curl

Use curl for downloading the source. Use webdiff for generating diffs.

:wget

Use wget for downloading the source. Use webdiff for generating diffs.

:openuri

Use open-uri for downloading the source. Use webdiff for generating diffs. This doesn't handle cookies and the like.

:mechanize

Use mechanize (must be installed) for downloading the source. Use webdiff for generating diffs. This calls the URL's :mechanize property (a lambda that takes 3 arguments: URL, agent, page => HTML as string) to post-process the page (or if not available, use the page body's HTML).

:text

This requires hpricot to be installed. Use open-uri for downloading and hpricot for converting HTML to plain text. This still requires diff as external helper.

:body_html

This requires hpricot to be installed. Use open-uri for downloading the source, use only the body. Use webdiff for generating diffs. Try to rewrite references (a, img) so that the point to the webpage. By default, this will also strip tags like script, form, object …

:website

Use :body_html to download the source. Follow all links referring to the same host with the same file suffix. Use webdiff for generating diff.

:website_below

Use :body_html to download the source. Follow all links referring to the same host and a file below the top directory with the same file suffix. Use webdiff for generating diff.

:website_txt

Use :website to download the source but convert the output to plain text.

:website_txt_below

Use :website_below to download the source but convert the output to plain text.

:rss

Download an rss feed, show changed items.

:opml

Experimental. Download the rss feeds registered in opml. No support for atom yet.

:img

Download an image and display it in the output if it has changed (according to diff). You can use hpricot to extract an image from a HTML source. Example:

Any shortcuts relying on :body_html will also try to rewrite any references so that the links point to the webpage.

Example configuration file for demonstration purposes

 # Daily
 set :days => 1

 # Use lynx instead of the default downloader (w3m).
 source 'http://www.example.com', :days => 7, :download => :lynx

 # Use the HTML body and process via webdiff.
 source 'http://www.example.com', :use => :body_html,
   :downloadprocess => lambda {|text| Hpricot(text).at('div#content').inner_html}

 # Download a podcast
 source 'http://www.example.com/podcast.xml', :title => 'Podcast',
   :use => :rss,
   :rss_enclosure => '/home/me/podcasts/example'

 # Check a rss feed.
 source 'http://www.example.com/news.xml', :title => 'News', :use => :rss

 # Get rss feed info from an opml file (EXPERIMENTAL).
 # @cfgdir is most likely '~/.websitary'.
source File.join(@cfgdir, 'news.opml'), :use => :opml

 # Weekly
 set :days => 7

 # Consider the page body only from the 10th line downwards.
 source 'http://www.example.com', :lines => 10..-1, :title => 'My Page'

 # Bi-weekly
 set :days => 14

 # Use these urls with the default options.
 source <<URLS
 http://www.example.com
 http://www.example.com/page.html
 URLS

 # Make HTML diffs and highlight occurences of a word
 source 'http://www.example.com',
   :title => 'Example',
   :use => :body_html,
   :diffprocess => highlighter(/word/i)

 # Download the whole website below this path (only pages with 
 # html-suffix), wait 30 secs between downloads.
 # Download only php and html pages
 # Follow links 2 levels deep
 source 'http://www.example.com/foo/bar.html',
   :title => 'Example -- Bar',
   :use => :website_below, :sleep => 30,
   :match => /\.(php|html)\b/, :depth => 2

 # Download images from some kind of daily-image site (check the user 
 # agreement first, if this is allowed). This may require some ruby 
 # hacking in order to extract the right url.
 source 'http://www.example.com/daily_image/', :title => 'Daily Image',
   :use => :img,
   :download => lambda {|url|
     rv = nil
     # Read the HTML.
     html = open(url) {|io| io.read}
     # This check is probably unnecessary as the failure to read 
     # the HTML document would most likely result in an 
     # exception.
     if html
       # Parse the HTML document.
       doc = Hpricot(html)
       # The following could actually be simplified using xpath 
       # or css search expressions. This isn't the most elegant 
       # solution but it works with any value of ALT.
       # This downloads the image <img src="..." alt="Current Image">
       # Check all img tags in the HTML document.
       for e in doc.search(%{//img})
         # Is this the image we're looking for?
         if e['alt'] == "Current Image"
           # Make relative urls absolute
           img = rewrite_href(e['src'], url)
           # Get the actual image data
           rv = open(img, 'rb') {|io| io.read}
           # Exit the for loop
           break
         end
       end
       rv
     end
   }

 unset :days

Commands for use with the -e command-line option

Most of these commands require you to name a profile on the command line. You can define default profiles with the “default” configuration command.

If no command is given, “downdiff” is executed.

add

Add the URLs given on the command line to the quicklist profile. ATTENTION: The following arguments on the command line are URLs, not profile names.

aggregate

Retrieve information and save changes for later review.

configuration

Show the fully qualified configuration of each source.

downdiff

Download and show differences (DEFAULT)

edit

Edit the profile given on the command line (use vi by default)

latest

Show the latest copies of the sources from the profiles given on the command line.

ls

List number of aggregated diffs.

rebuild

Rebuild the latest report.

review

Review the latest report (just show it with the browser)

show

Show previously aggregated items. A typical use would be to periodically run in the background a command like

websitary -eaggregate newsfeeds

and then

websitary -eshow newsfeeds

to review the changes.

unroll

Undo the latest fetch.

TIPS:

Ruby

The profiles are regular ruby sources that are evaluated in the context of the configuration object (Websitary::Configuration). Find out more about ruby at:

Cygwin

Mixing native Windows apps and cygwin apps can cause problems. The following settings (e.g. in ~/.websitary/config.rb) can be used to use a native Windows editor and browser:

# Use the default Windows programs (as if double-clicked)
view '/usr/bin/cygstart "%s"'

# Translate the profile filename and edit it with a native Windows editor
edit 'notepad.exe $(cygpath -w -- "%s")'

# Rewrite cygwin filenames for use with a native Windows browser
option :global, :file_url => lambda {|f| f.sub(/\/cygdrive\/.+?\/.websitary\//, '')}

Windows

Backslashes usually have to be escaped by backslashes – or use slashes. I.e. instead of 'c:foobar' write either 'c:\foo\bar' or 'c:/foo/bar'.

REQUIREMENTS:

websitary is a ruby-based application. You thus need a ruby interpreter.

It depends on how you use websitary whether you actually need the following libraries, applications.

By default this script expects the following applications to be present:

  • diff

  • vi (or some other editor)

and one of:

The use of :websec_webdiff as :diff application requires websec (or at Savannah) to be installed. By default, websitary uses it's own htmldiff class/script, which is less well tested and may return inferior results in comparison with websec's webdiff. In conjunction with :body_html, :openuri, or :curl, this will give you colored HTML diffs.

For downloading HTML, you need one of these:

  • open-uri (should be part of ruby)

  • hpricot (used e.g. by :body_html, :website, and :website_below)

  • curl

  • wget

The following ruby libraries are needed in conjunction with :body_html and :website related shortcuts:

I personally would suggest to choose the following setup:

INSTALL:

Use rubygems

Run

gem install websitary

This will download the package and install it.

Use the zip

The zip contains a file setup.rb that does the work. Run

ruby setup.rb

Initial Configuration

Please check the requirements section above and get the extra libraries needed:

  • hpricot

  • robot_rules.rb

These could be installed by:

# Install hpricot
gem install hpricot

# Install robot_rules.rb
wget http://www.rubyquiz.com/quiz64_sols.zip
# Check the correct path to site_ruby first!
unzip -p quiz64_sols.zip "solutions/James Edward Gray II/robot_rules.rb" > /lib/ruby/site_ruby/1.8/robot_rules.rb
rm quiz64_sols.zip

You might then want to create a profile ~/.websitary/config.rb that is loaded on every run. In this profile you could set the default output viewer and profile editor, as well as a default profile.

Example:

# Load standard.rb if no profile is given on the command line.
default 'standard'

# Use cygwin's cygstart to view the output with the default HTML 
# viewer
view '/usr/bin/cygstart "%s"'

# Use Windows gvim from cygwin ruby which is why we convert the path 
# first
edit 'gvim $(cygpath -w -- "%s")'

Where these configuration files reside, may differ. If the environment variable $HOME is defined, the default is $HOME/.websitary/ unless one of the following directories exist, which will then be used instead:

  • $USERPROFILE/websitary (on Windows)

  • SYSCONFDIR/websitary (where SYSCONFDIR usually is /etc but you can run ruby to find out more: ruby -e "p Config::CONFIG['sysconfdir']")

If neither directory exists and no $HOME variable is defined, the current directory will be used.

Now check out the configuration commands in the Synopsis section.

LICENSE:

websitary Webpage Monitor Copyright (C) 2007-2008 Thomas Link

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA

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