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AWS Lambda Function with Dependency Injection and Configuration

Demonstrates how to add .NET Core dependency injection and configuration services to an AWS Lambda Function project for .NET Core 2.1.


The idea behind this approach is to leverage the built-in configuration system of .NET Core, which can accept mulitple inputs that can override one another. This allows for use of an appsettings.json file with settings entries that can be overriden by environment variables applied when the Lambda Function is deployed. This allows for values that will be available when debugging the function locally, as well as values that can be set as part of a CICD pipeline.


  • Visual Studio 2017 or greater.
  • AWS Toolkit for Visual Studio 2017.
  • .NET Core 2.1 SDK

Setup Steps

  1. Open VS 2017 and create a new project.

    • Select AWS Lambda Project with Tests.
  2. Add version 2.1 following NuGet Packages

    • Microsoft.Extensions.Configuration
    • Microsoft.Extensions.Configuration.EnvironmentVariables
    • Microsoft.Extensions.Configuration.FileExtensions
    • Microsoft.Extensions.Configuration.Json
    • Microsoft.Extensions.DependencyInjection
  3. Add an appsettings.json file to the project.

    • Add the following content:
        "env1": "val1",
        "env2": "val2",
        "env3": "val3"
  4. Add an appsettings.Development.json file to the project.

    • Add the following content:
        "env1": "dev-val1",
        "env2": "dev-val2",
        "env3": "dev-val3"
  5. Select both JSON files, open the Propeties window of Visual Studio, then set the BuildAction property to Content and the Copy to Output Directory property to Copy always.

  6. Open the aws-lambda-tools-defaults.json file and add the following:

    "environment-variables" : "\"ASPNETCORE_ENVIRONMENT\"=\"Development\";\"env1\"=\"val1\";\"env2\"=\"val2\"",
  7. Add an environmentVariables property to the launchSettings.json file.

    "environmentVariables": {
        "ASPNETCORE_ENVIRONMENT": "Development"
  8. Add a Constants class to the project.

    public static class Constants
        public static class EnvironmentVariables
            public const string AspnetCoreEnvironment = "ASPNETCORE_ENVIRONMENT";
        public static class Environments
            public const string Production = "Production";
  9. Add a IEnvironmentService interface to the project.

    public interface IEnvironmentService
        string EnvironmentName { get; set; }
  10. Add a EnvironmentService class to the project.

    public class EnvironmentService : IEnvironmentService
        public EnvironmentService()
            EnvironmentName = Environment.GetEnvironmentVariable(EnvironmentVariables.AspnetCoreEnvironment)
                ?? Environments.Production;
        public string EnvironmentName { get; set; }
  11. Add a IConfigurationService interface to the project.

    public interface IConfigurationService
        IConfiguration GetConfiguration();
  12. Add a ConfigurationService class to the project.

    public class ConfigurationService : IConfigurationService
        public IConfiguration GetConfiguration()
            return new ConfigurationBuilder()
  13. Add a ConfigureServices method to the Function class in order to register services with the DI system.

    private void ConfigureServices(IServiceCollection serviceCollection)
        // Register services with DI system
        serviceCollection.AddTransient<IEnvironmentService, EnvironmentService>();
        serviceCollection.AddTransient<IConfigurationService, ConfigurationService>();
  14. Add a property and two constructors to the Function class.

    // Configuration Service
    public IConfigurationService ConfigService { get; }
    public Function()
        // Set up Dependency Injection
        var serviceCollection = new ServiceCollection();
        var serviceProvider = serviceCollection.BuildServiceProvider();
        // Get Configuration Service from DI system
        ConfigService = serviceProvider.GetService<IConfigurationService>();
    // Use this ctor from unit tests that can mock IConfigurationService
    public Function(IConfigurationService configService)
        ConfigService = configService;
  15. Flesh out the FunctionHandler method to use the ConfigService.

    • Use the input parameter for the key used to retrieve a setting.
    public string FunctionHandler(string input, ILambdaContext context)
        // Get config setting using input as a key
        return ConfigService.GetConfiguration()[input] ?? "None";

Local Debugging

  1. Press F5 to launch the Mock Lambda Test Tool and start debugging.

  2. Enter "env1" into Function Input, and click Execute Function.

    • A value of "val1" should be returned base on the appsettings.json file.

Unit Testing

  1. Add the NuGet package for Moq to the Test project.

  2. Add a reference to the NetCoreLambda project.

  3. Mock IConfiguration (from Microsoft.Extensions.Configuration) to return the expected value.

    var expected = "val1";
    var mockConfig = new Mock<IConfiguration>();
    mockConfig.Setup(p => p[It.IsAny<string>()]).Returns(expected);
  4. Mock IConfigurationService to return the mock IConfiguration.

    var mockConfigService = new Mock<IConfigurationService>();
    mockConfigService.Setup(p => p.GetConfiguration()).Returns(mockConfig.Object);
  5. Invoke the lambda function and confirm config value is returned.

    var function = new Function(mockConfigService.Object);
    var result = function.FunctionHandler("env1", new TestLambdaContext());
    Assert.Equal(expected, result);


  1. Right-click on the project in the Solutions Explorer and select Publish to AWS Lambda.

  2. Under Configuration you can change the values for the environment variables, and these will override the values from the appsettings.json file published with the Lambda Function.

Here are some steps to follow to get started from the command line:

Once you have edited your template and code you can deploy your application using the Amazon.Lambda.Tools Global Tool from the command line.

Install Amazon.Lambda.Tools Global Tools if not already installed.

    dotnet tool install -g Amazon.Lambda.Tools

If already installed check if new version is available.

    dotnet tool update -g Amazon.Lambda.Tools

Execute unit tests

    cd "NetCoreLambda/test/NetCoreLambda.Tests"
    dotnet test

Deploy function to AWS Lambda

    cd "NetCoreLambda/src/NetCoreLambda"
    dotnet lambda deploy-function


Demonstrates how to add .NET Core dependency injection and configuration services to an AWS Lambda Function project for .NET Core 2.1.






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