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Toggle buttons are useful for communicating and changing state. Here's what the user sees:

<ul class="user-experience">
  <li>Clicks on <a href="#" class="btn btn-default"><span class="fa fa-star">&nbsp;</span> Favorite</a></li>
  <li>An ajax request is started and the button becomes <a href="#" class="btn btn-default"><span class="fa fa-refresh fa-spin">&nbsp;</span> Favorite</a></li>
  <li>When the request succeeds the button becomes <a href="#" class="btn btn-warning"><span class="fa fa-star">&nbsp;</span> Favorite</a></li>

This pattern presents itself in every one of my applications, so I wanted to document how I implement it in Ruby on Rails, as it is a good introduction to ajax, unobtrusive javascript, and Rails handling javascript requests.


<p class="alert alert-info">
  Click the buttons below and look at your web-developer tools for how the ajax response swaps the links, but note this site runs on a static webserver, so the paths and HTTP methods don't mirror an actual Ruby on Rails application.

<div id="post-1" class="my-post">
  <p class="actions">
    <a href="/static/ruby-on-rails/ajax-toggle-buttons/1/favorite/put.js" data-method="GET" data-remote="true" data-type="script" class="btn btn-default favorite"><span class="fa fa-star">&nbsp;</span> Favorite</a>

    <a href="/static/ruby-on-rails/ajax-toggle-buttons/1/lock/delete.js" data-method="GET" data-remote="true" data-type="script" class="btn btn-danger lock"><span class="fa fa-lock">&nbsp;</span> Locked</a>

How it Works

  1. A Rails helper method renders the button in its current state.
  2. This button has an href along with data-method, data-type=script, and data-remote=true attributes which instruct jquery_ujs.js to perform an ajax request and evaluate the result as javascript.
  3. When the user clicks either button, a jQuery listener switches to the loading icon while another listener switches it back on completion.
  4. In Rails, the main resource has a child which provides #update and #destroy actions for toggling on and off respectively.
  5. After saving the change, Rails responds with one line of javascript that replaces the button with its new state.

The Code

# models/post.rb
class Post < ActiveRecord::Base

  def favorited?
    favorited_at != nil

  def favorite
    self.favorited_at =

  def favorite!

  def unfavorite
    self.favorited_at = nil

  def unfavorite!


# config/routes.rb
resources :posts do
  resource :favorite, only: %w(update destroy)

# controllers/posts/favorites_controller.rb
class Posts::FavoritesController < ApplicationController

  before_action :load_post

  def update

  def destroy


  def load_post
    @post = Post.find(params[:post_id])


# helpers/posts_helper.rb
module PostsHelper

  def link_to_toggle_post_favorite(post)
    url = post_favorite_path(post)

    if post.favorited?
      link_to_with_icon('icon-star', 'Favorite', url, {
        method: 'DELETE',
        remote: true,
        class: 'favorite btn btn-primary',
      link_to_with_icon('icon-star', 'Favorite', url, {
        method: 'PUT',
        remote: true,
        class: 'favorite btn',

  def link_to_with_icon(icon_css, title, url, options = {})
    icon = content_tag(:i, nil, class: icon_css)
    title_with_icon = icon << ' '.html_safe << h(title)
    link_to(title_with_icon, url, options)


# Gemfile
gem 'jquery-rails'

// assets/javascript/application.js
// jquery_ujs allows us to use 'data-remote',
// 'data-type', and 'data-method' attributes
//= require jquery
//= require jquery_ujs
//= require_tree .

/* assets/javascripts/loading.js */

// This isn't necessarily specific to toggle buttons
$(function() {

  // Change the link's icon while the request is performing
  $(document).on('click', 'a[data-remote]', function(event, b, c) {
    var icon = $(this).find('i');'old-class', icon.attr('class'));
    icon.attr('class', 'icon-refresh');

  // Change the link's icon back after it's finished.
  $(document).on('ajax:complete', function(e) {
    var icon = $('i');
    if ('old-class')) {
      icon.attr('class','old-class'));'old-class', null);

  // Don't fail silently
  $(document).ajaxError(function( event, jqxhr, settings, exception ) {
    if (jqxhr.status) {
      alert("We're sorry, but something went wrong (" + jqxhr.status + ')');


<%# views/posts/show.html.erb %>
<%= div_for @post do %>
  <%= link_to_toggle_post_favorite @post %>
<% end %>

/* views/posts/favorites/update.js.erb */
$('#post-<%= %> .favorite').replaceWith("<%=j link_to_toggle_post_favorite @post %>");

/* views/posts/favorites/destroy.js.erb */
$('#post-<%= %> .favorite').replaceWith("<%=j link_to_toggle_post_favorite @post %>");


Unobtrusive javascript allows the application logic to stay in Ruby.

We follow "The Rails' Way" to #update and #destroy in the controller, which will help the application gracefully grow when we add more functionality to posts like additional toggles, fields, or a public RESTful API.

Let me know what else you think could be improved.