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"""Server-side implementation of the WebSocket protocol.
`WebSockets <http://dev.w3.org/html5/websockets/>`_ allow for bidirectional
communication between the browser and server.
.. warning::
The WebSocket protocol was recently finalized as `RFC 6455
<http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6455>`_ and is not yet supported in
all browsers. Refer to http://caniuse.com/websockets for details
on compatibility. In addition, during development the protocol
went through several incompatible versions, and some browsers only
support older versions. By default this module only supports the
latest version of the protocol, but optional support for an older
version (known as "draft 76" or "hixie-76") can be enabled by
overriding `WebSocketHandler.allow_draft76` (see that method's
documentation for caveats).
"""
from __future__ import absolute_import, division, with_statement
# Author: Jacob Kristhammar, 2010
import array
import functools
import hashlib
import struct
import time
import base64
import tornado.escape
import tornado.web
from tornado.log import gen_log, app_log
from tornado.util import bytes_type, b
class WebSocketHandler(tornado.web.RequestHandler):
"""Subclass this class to create a basic WebSocket handler.
Override on_message to handle incoming messages. You can also override
open and on_close to handle opened and closed connections.
See http://dev.w3.org/html5/websockets/ for details on the
JavaScript interface. The protocol is specified at
http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6455.
Here is an example Web Socket handler that echos back all received messages
back to the client::
class EchoWebSocket(websocket.WebSocketHandler):
def open(self):
print "WebSocket opened"
def on_message(self, message):
self.write_message(u"You said: " + message)
def on_close(self):
print "WebSocket closed"
Web Sockets are not standard HTTP connections. The "handshake" is HTTP,
but after the handshake, the protocol is message-based. Consequently,
most of the Tornado HTTP facilities are not available in handlers of this
type. The only communication methods available to you are write_message()
and close(). Likewise, your request handler class should
implement open() method rather than get() or post().
If you map the handler above to "/websocket" in your application, you can
invoke it in JavaScript with::
var ws = new WebSocket("ws://localhost:8888/websocket");
ws.onopen = function() {
ws.send("Hello, world");
};
ws.onmessage = function (evt) {
alert(evt.data);
};
This script pops up an alert box that says "You said: Hello, world".
"""
def __init__(self, application, request, **kwargs):
tornado.web.RequestHandler.__init__(self, application, request,
**kwargs)
self.stream = request.connection.stream
self.ws_connection = None
def _execute(self, transforms, *args, **kwargs):
self.open_args = args
self.open_kwargs = kwargs
# Websocket only supports GET method
if self.request.method != 'GET':
self.stream.write(tornado.escape.utf8(
"HTTP/1.1 405 Method Not Allowed\r\n\r\n"
))
self.stream.close()
return
# Upgrade header should be present and should be equal to WebSocket
if self.request.headers.get("Upgrade", "").lower() != 'websocket':
self.stream.write(tornado.escape.utf8(
"HTTP/1.1 400 Bad Request\r\n\r\n"
"Can \"Upgrade\" only to \"WebSocket\"."
))
self.stream.close()
return
# Connection header should be upgrade. Some proxy servers/load balancers
# might mess with it.
headers = self.request.headers
connection = map(lambda s: s.strip().lower(), headers.get("Connection", "").split(","))
if 'upgrade' not in connection:
self.stream.write(tornado.escape.utf8(
"HTTP/1.1 400 Bad Request\r\n\r\n"
"\"Connection\" must be \"Upgrade\"."
))
self.stream.close()
return
# The difference between version 8 and 13 is that in 8 the
# client sends a "Sec-Websocket-Origin" header and in 13 it's
# simply "Origin".
if self.request.headers.get("Sec-WebSocket-Version") in ("7", "8", "13"):
self.ws_connection = WebSocketProtocol13(self)
self.ws_connection.accept_connection()
elif (self.allow_draft76() and
"Sec-WebSocket-Version" not in self.request.headers):
self.ws_connection = WebSocketProtocol76(self)
self.ws_connection.accept_connection()
else:
self.stream.write(tornado.escape.utf8(
"HTTP/1.1 426 Upgrade Required\r\n"
"Sec-WebSocket-Version: 8\r\n\r\n"))
self.stream.close()
def write_message(self, message, binary=False):
"""Sends the given message to the client of this Web Socket.
The message may be either a string or a dict (which will be
encoded as json). If the ``binary`` argument is false, the
message will be sent as utf8; in binary mode any byte string
is allowed.
"""
if isinstance(message, dict):
message = tornado.escape.json_encode(message)
self.ws_connection.write_message(message, binary=binary)
def select_subprotocol(self, subprotocols):
"""Invoked when a new WebSocket requests specific subprotocols.
``subprotocols`` is a list of strings identifying the
subprotocols proposed by the client. This method may be
overridden to return one of those strings to select it, or
``None`` to not select a subprotocol. Failure to select a
subprotocol does not automatically abort the connection,
although clients may close the connection if none of their
proposed subprotocols was selected.
"""
return None
def open(self):
"""Invoked when a new WebSocket is opened.
The arguments to `open` are extracted from the `tornado.web.URLSpec`
regular expression, just like the arguments to
`tornado.web.RequestHandler.get`.
"""
pass
def on_message(self, message):
"""Handle incoming messages on the WebSocket
This method must be overridden.
"""
raise NotImplementedError
def ping(self, data):
"""Send ping frame to the remote end."""
self.ws_connection.write_ping(data)
def on_pong(self, data):
"""Invoked when the response to a ping frame is received."""
pass
def on_close(self):
"""Invoked when the WebSocket is closed."""
pass
def close(self):
"""Closes this Web Socket.
Once the close handshake is successful the socket will be closed.
"""
self.ws_connection.close()
def allow_draft76(self):
"""Override to enable support for the older "draft76" protocol.
The draft76 version of the websocket protocol is disabled by
default due to security concerns, but it can be enabled by
overriding this method to return True.
Connections using the draft76 protocol do not support the
``binary=True`` flag to `write_message`.
Support for the draft76 protocol is deprecated and will be
removed in a future version of Tornado.
"""
return False
def get_websocket_scheme(self):
"""Return the url scheme used for this request, either "ws" or "wss".
This is normally decided by HTTPServer, but applications
may wish to override this if they are using an SSL proxy
that does not provide the X-Scheme header as understood
by HTTPServer.
Note that this is only used by the draft76 protocol.
"""
return "wss" if self.request.protocol == "https" else "ws"
def async_callback(self, callback, *args, **kwargs):
"""Wrap callbacks with this if they are used on asynchronous requests.
Catches exceptions properly and closes this WebSocket if an exception
is uncaught. (Note that this is usually unnecessary thanks to
`tornado.stack_context`)
"""
return self.ws_connection.async_callback(callback, *args, **kwargs)
def _not_supported(self, *args, **kwargs):
raise Exception("Method not supported for Web Sockets")
def on_connection_close(self):
if self.ws_connection:
self.ws_connection.on_connection_close()
self.ws_connection = None
self.on_close()
for method in ["write", "redirect", "set_header", "send_error", "set_cookie",
"set_status", "flush", "finish"]:
setattr(WebSocketHandler, method, WebSocketHandler._not_supported)
class WebSocketProtocol(object):
"""Base class for WebSocket protocol versions.
"""
def __init__(self, handler):
self.handler = handler
self.request = handler.request
self.stream = handler.stream
self.client_terminated = False
self.server_terminated = False
def async_callback(self, callback, *args, **kwargs):
"""Wrap callbacks with this if they are used on asynchronous requests.
Catches exceptions properly and closes this WebSocket if an exception
is uncaught.
"""
if args or kwargs:
callback = functools.partial(callback, *args, **kwargs)
def wrapper(*args, **kwargs):
try:
return callback(*args, **kwargs)
except Exception:
app_log.error("Uncaught exception in %s",
self.request.path, exc_info=True)
self._abort()
return wrapper
def on_connection_close(self):
self._abort()
def _abort(self):
"""Instantly aborts the WebSocket connection by closing the socket"""
self.client_terminated = True
self.server_terminated = True
self.stream.close() # forcibly tear down the connection
self.close() # let the subclass cleanup
class WebSocketProtocol76(WebSocketProtocol):
"""Implementation of the WebSockets protocol, version hixie-76.
This class provides basic functionality to process WebSockets requests as
specified in
http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-hixie-thewebsocketprotocol-76
"""
def __init__(self, handler):
WebSocketProtocol.__init__(self, handler)
self.challenge = None
self._waiting = None
def accept_connection(self):
try:
self._handle_websocket_headers()
except ValueError:
gen_log.debug("Malformed WebSocket request received")
self._abort()
return
scheme = self.handler.get_websocket_scheme()
# draft76 only allows a single subprotocol
subprotocol_header = ''
subprotocol = self.request.headers.get("Sec-WebSocket-Protocol", None)
if subprotocol:
selected = self.handler.select_subprotocol([subprotocol])
if selected:
assert selected == subprotocol
subprotocol_header = "Sec-WebSocket-Protocol: %s\r\n" % selected
# Write the initial headers before attempting to read the challenge.
# This is necessary when using proxies (such as HAProxy), which
# need to see the Upgrade headers before passing through the
# non-HTTP traffic that follows.
self.stream.write(tornado.escape.utf8(
"HTTP/1.1 101 WebSocket Protocol Handshake\r\n"
"Upgrade: WebSocket\r\n"
"Connection: Upgrade\r\n"
"Server: TornadoServer/%(version)s\r\n"
"Sec-WebSocket-Origin: %(origin)s\r\n"
"Sec-WebSocket-Location: %(scheme)s://%(host)s%(uri)s\r\n"
"%(subprotocol)s"
"\r\n" % (dict(
version=tornado.version,
origin=self.request.headers["Origin"],
scheme=scheme,
host=self.request.host,
uri=self.request.uri,
subprotocol=subprotocol_header))))
self.stream.read_bytes(8, self._handle_challenge)
def challenge_response(self, challenge):
"""Generates the challenge response that's needed in the handshake
The challenge parameter should be the raw bytes as sent from the
client.
"""
key_1 = self.request.headers.get("Sec-Websocket-Key1")
key_2 = self.request.headers.get("Sec-Websocket-Key2")
try:
part_1 = self._calculate_part(key_1)
part_2 = self._calculate_part(key_2)
except ValueError:
raise ValueError("Invalid Keys/Challenge")
return self._generate_challenge_response(part_1, part_2, challenge)
def _handle_challenge(self, challenge):
try:
challenge_response = self.challenge_response(challenge)
except ValueError:
gen_log.debug("Malformed key data in WebSocket request")
self._abort()
return
self._write_response(challenge_response)
def _write_response(self, challenge):
self.stream.write(challenge)
self.async_callback(self.handler.open)(*self.handler.open_args, **self.handler.open_kwargs)
self._receive_message()
def _handle_websocket_headers(self):
"""Verifies all invariant- and required headers
If a header is missing or have an incorrect value ValueError will be
raised
"""
fields = ("Origin", "Host", "Sec-Websocket-Key1",
"Sec-Websocket-Key2")
if not all(map(lambda f: self.request.headers.get(f), fields)):
raise ValueError("Missing/Invalid WebSocket headers")
def _calculate_part(self, key):
"""Processes the key headers and calculates their key value.
Raises ValueError when feed invalid key."""
number = int(''.join(c for c in key if c.isdigit()))
spaces = len([c for c in key if c.isspace()])
try:
key_number = number // spaces
except (ValueError, ZeroDivisionError):
raise ValueError
return struct.pack(">I", key_number)
def _generate_challenge_response(self, part_1, part_2, part_3):
m = hashlib.md5()
m.update(part_1)
m.update(part_2)
m.update(part_3)
return m.digest()
def _receive_message(self):
self.stream.read_bytes(1, self._on_frame_type)
def _on_frame_type(self, byte):
frame_type = ord(byte)
if frame_type == 0x00:
self.stream.read_until(b("\xff"), self._on_end_delimiter)
elif frame_type == 0xff:
self.stream.read_bytes(1, self._on_length_indicator)
else:
self._abort()
def _on_end_delimiter(self, frame):
if not self.client_terminated:
self.async_callback(self.handler.on_message)(
frame[:-1].decode("utf-8", "replace"))
if not self.client_terminated:
self._receive_message()
def _on_length_indicator(self, byte):
if ord(byte) != 0x00:
self._abort()
return
self.client_terminated = True
self.close()
def write_message(self, message, binary=False):
"""Sends the given message to the client of this Web Socket."""
if binary:
raise ValueError(
"Binary messages not supported by this version of websockets")
if isinstance(message, unicode):
message = message.encode("utf-8")
assert isinstance(message, bytes_type)
self.stream.write(b("\x00") + message + b("\xff"))
def write_ping(self, data):
"""Send ping frame."""
raise ValueError("Ping messages not supported by this version of websockets")
def close(self):
"""Closes the WebSocket connection."""
if not self.server_terminated:
if not self.stream.closed():
self.stream.write("\xff\x00")
self.server_terminated = True
if self.client_terminated:
if self._waiting is not None:
self.stream.io_loop.remove_timeout(self._waiting)
self._waiting = None
self.stream.close()
elif self._waiting is None:
self._waiting = self.stream.io_loop.add_timeout(
time.time() + 5, self._abort)
class WebSocketProtocol13(WebSocketProtocol):
"""Implementation of the WebSocket protocol from RFC 6455.
This class supports versions 7 and 8 of the protocol in addition to the
final version 13.
"""
def __init__(self, handler):
WebSocketProtocol.__init__(self, handler)
self._final_frame = False
self._frame_opcode = None
self._frame_mask = None
self._frame_length = None
self._fragmented_message_buffer = None
self._fragmented_message_opcode = None
self._waiting = None
def accept_connection(self):
try:
self._handle_websocket_headers()
self._accept_connection()
except ValueError:
gen_log.debug("Malformed WebSocket request received")
self._abort()
return
def _handle_websocket_headers(self):
"""Verifies all invariant- and required headers
If a header is missing or have an incorrect value ValueError will be
raised
"""
fields = ("Host", "Sec-Websocket-Key", "Sec-Websocket-Version")
if not all(map(lambda f: self.request.headers.get(f), fields)):
raise ValueError("Missing/Invalid WebSocket headers")
def _challenge_response(self):
sha1 = hashlib.sha1()
sha1.update(tornado.escape.utf8(
self.request.headers.get("Sec-Websocket-Key")))
sha1.update(b("258EAFA5-E914-47DA-95CA-C5AB0DC85B11")) # Magic value
return tornado.escape.native_str(base64.b64encode(sha1.digest()))
def _accept_connection(self):
subprotocol_header = ''
subprotocols = self.request.headers.get("Sec-WebSocket-Protocol", '')
subprotocols = [s.strip() for s in subprotocols.split(',')]
if subprotocols:
selected = self.handler.select_subprotocol(subprotocols)
if selected:
assert selected in subprotocols
subprotocol_header = "Sec-WebSocket-Protocol: %s\r\n" % selected
self.stream.write(tornado.escape.utf8(
"HTTP/1.1 101 Switching Protocols\r\n"
"Upgrade: websocket\r\n"
"Connection: Upgrade\r\n"
"Sec-WebSocket-Accept: %s\r\n"
"%s"
"\r\n" % (self._challenge_response(), subprotocol_header)))
self.async_callback(self.handler.open)(*self.handler.open_args, **self.handler.open_kwargs)
self._receive_frame()
def _write_frame(self, fin, opcode, data):
if fin:
finbit = 0x80
else:
finbit = 0
frame = struct.pack("B", finbit | opcode)
l = len(data)
if l < 126:
frame += struct.pack("B", l)
elif l <= 0xFFFF:
frame += struct.pack("!BH", 126, l)
else:
frame += struct.pack("!BQ", 127, l)
frame += data
self.stream.write(frame)
def write_message(self, message, binary=False):
"""Sends the given message to the client of this Web Socket."""
if binary:
opcode = 0x2
else:
opcode = 0x1
message = tornado.escape.utf8(message)
assert isinstance(message, bytes_type)
self._write_frame(True, opcode, message)
def write_ping(self, data):
"""Send ping frame."""
assert isinstance(data, bytes_type)
self._write_frame(True, 0x9, data)
def _receive_frame(self):
self.stream.read_bytes(2, self._on_frame_start)
def _on_frame_start(self, data):
header, payloadlen = struct.unpack("BB", data)
self._final_frame = header & 0x80
reserved_bits = header & 0x70
self._frame_opcode = header & 0xf
self._frame_opcode_is_control = self._frame_opcode & 0x8
if reserved_bits:
# client is using as-yet-undefined extensions; abort
self._abort()
return
if not (payloadlen & 0x80):
# Unmasked frame -> abort connection
self._abort()
return
payloadlen = payloadlen & 0x7f
if self._frame_opcode_is_control and payloadlen >= 126:
# control frames must have payload < 126
self._abort()
return
if payloadlen < 126:
self._frame_length = payloadlen
self.stream.read_bytes(4, self._on_masking_key)
elif payloadlen == 126:
self.stream.read_bytes(2, self._on_frame_length_16)
elif payloadlen == 127:
self.stream.read_bytes(8, self._on_frame_length_64)
def _on_frame_length_16(self, data):
self._frame_length = struct.unpack("!H", data)[0]
self.stream.read_bytes(4, self._on_masking_key)
def _on_frame_length_64(self, data):
self._frame_length = struct.unpack("!Q", data)[0]
self.stream.read_bytes(4, self._on_masking_key)
def _on_masking_key(self, data):
self._frame_mask = array.array("B", data)
self.stream.read_bytes(self._frame_length, self._on_frame_data)
def _on_frame_data(self, data):
unmasked = array.array("B", data)
for i in xrange(len(data)):
unmasked[i] = unmasked[i] ^ self._frame_mask[i % 4]
if self._frame_opcode_is_control:
# control frames may be interleaved with a series of fragmented
# data frames, so control frames must not interact with
# self._fragmented_*
if not self._final_frame:
# control frames must not be fragmented
self._abort()
return
opcode = self._frame_opcode
elif self._frame_opcode == 0: # continuation frame
if self._fragmented_message_buffer is None:
# nothing to continue
self._abort()
return
self._fragmented_message_buffer += unmasked
if self._final_frame:
opcode = self._fragmented_message_opcode
unmasked = self._fragmented_message_buffer
self._fragmented_message_buffer = None
else: # start of new data message
if self._fragmented_message_buffer is not None:
# can't start new message until the old one is finished
self._abort()
return
if self._final_frame:
opcode = self._frame_opcode
else:
self._fragmented_message_opcode = self._frame_opcode
self._fragmented_message_buffer = unmasked
if self._final_frame:
self._handle_message(opcode, unmasked.tostring())
if not self.client_terminated:
self._receive_frame()
def _handle_message(self, opcode, data):
if self.client_terminated:
return
if opcode == 0x1:
# UTF-8 data
try:
decoded = data.decode("utf-8")
except UnicodeDecodeError:
self._abort()
return
self.async_callback(self.handler.on_message)(decoded)
elif opcode == 0x2:
# Binary data
self.async_callback(self.handler.on_message)(data)
elif opcode == 0x8:
# Close
self.client_terminated = True
self.close()
elif opcode == 0x9:
# Ping
self._write_frame(True, 0xA, data)
elif opcode == 0xA:
# Pong
self.async_callback(self.handler.on_pong)(data)
else:
self._abort()
def close(self):
"""Closes the WebSocket connection."""
if not self.server_terminated:
if not self.stream.closed():
self._write_frame(True, 0x8, b(""))
self.server_terminated = True
if self.client_terminated:
if self._waiting is not None:
self.stream.io_loop.remove_timeout(self._waiting)
self._waiting = None
self.stream.close()
elif self._waiting is None:
# Give the client a few seconds to complete a clean shutdown,
# otherwise just close the connection.
self._waiting = self.stream.io_loop.add_timeout(
self.stream.io_loop.time() + 5, self._abort)
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