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#!/usr/bin/env python
# Copyright 2009 Facebook
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"); you may
# not use this file except in compliance with the License. You may obtain
# a copy of the License at
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT
# WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the
# License for the specific language governing permissions and limitations
# under the License.
"""A non-blocking, single-threaded HTTP server."""
import cgi
import errno
import logging
import os
import socket
import time
import urlparse
from tornado import httputil
from tornado import ioloop
from tornado import iostream
from tornado import stack_context
import fcntl
except ImportError:
if == 'nt':
from tornado import win32_support as fcntl
import ssl # Python 2.6+
except ImportError:
ssl = None
import multiprocessing # Python 2.6+
except ImportError:
multiprocessing = None
def _cpu_count():
if multiprocessing is not None:
return multiprocessing.cpu_count()
except NotImplementedError:
return os.sysconf("SC_NPROCESSORS_CONF")
except ValueError:
logging.error("Could not detect number of processors; "
"running with one process")
return 1
class HTTPServer(object):
"""A non-blocking, single-threaded HTTP server.
A server is defined by a request callback that takes an HTTPRequest
instance as an argument and writes a valid HTTP response with
request.write(). request.finish() finishes the request (but does not
necessarily close the connection in the case of HTTP/1.1 keep-alive
requests). A simple example server that echoes back the URI you
import httpserver
import ioloop
def handle_request(request):
message = "You requested %s\n" % request.uri
request.write("HTTP/1.1 200 OK\r\nContent-Length: %d\r\n\r\n%s" % (
len(message), message))
http_server = httpserver.HTTPServer(handle_request)
HTTPServer is a very basic connection handler. Beyond parsing the
HTTP request body and headers, the only HTTP semantics implemented
in HTTPServer is HTTP/1.1 keep-alive connections. We do not, however,
implement chunked encoding, so the request callback must provide a
Content-Length header or implement chunked encoding for HTTP/1.1
requests for the server to run correctly for HTTP/1.1 clients. If
the request handler is unable to do this, you can provide the
no_keep_alive argument to the HTTPServer constructor, which will
ensure the connection is closed on every request no matter what HTTP
version the client is using.
If xheaders is True, we support the X-Real-Ip and X-Scheme headers,
which override the remote IP and HTTP scheme for all requests. These
headers are useful when running Tornado behind a reverse proxy or
load balancer.
HTTPServer can serve HTTPS (SSL) traffic with Python 2.6+ and OpenSSL.
To make this server serve SSL traffic, send the ssl_options dictionary
argument with the arguments required for the ssl.wrap_socket() method,
including "certfile" and "keyfile":
HTTPServer(applicaton, ssl_options={
"certfile": os.path.join(data_dir, "mydomain.crt"),
"keyfile": os.path.join(data_dir, "mydomain.key"),
By default, listen() runs in a single thread in a single process. You
can utilize all available CPUs on this machine by calling bind() and
start() instead of listen():
http_server = httpserver.HTTPServer(handle_request)
http_server.start(0) # Forks multiple sub-processes
start(0) detects the number of CPUs on this machine and "pre-forks" that
number of child processes so that we have one Tornado process per CPU,
all with their own IOLoop. You can also pass in the specific number of
child processes you want to run with if you want to override this
def __init__(self, request_callback, no_keep_alive=False, io_loop=None,
xheaders=False, ssl_options=None):
"""Initializes the server with the given request callback.
If you use pre-forking/start() instead of the listen() method to
start your server, you should not pass an IOLoop instance to this
constructor. Each pre-forked child process will create its own
IOLoop instance after the forking process.
self.request_callback = request_callback
self.no_keep_alive = no_keep_alive
self.io_loop = io_loop
self.xheaders = xheaders
self.ssl_options = ssl_options
self._socket = None
self._started = False
def listen(self, port, address=""):
"""Binds to the given port and starts the server in a single process.
This method is a shortcut for:
server.bind(port, address)
self.bind(port, address)
def bind(self, port, address=""):
"""Binds this server to the given port on the given IP address.
To start the server, call start(). If you want to run this server
in a single process, you can call listen() as a shortcut to the
sequence of bind() and start() calls.
assert not self._socket
self._socket = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_STREAM, 0)
flags = fcntl.fcntl(self._socket.fileno(), fcntl.F_GETFD)
flags |= fcntl.FD_CLOEXEC
fcntl.fcntl(self._socket.fileno(), fcntl.F_SETFD, flags)
self._socket.setsockopt(socket.SOL_SOCKET, socket.SO_REUSEADDR, 1)
self._socket.bind((address, port))
def start(self, num_processes=1):
"""Starts this server in the IOLoop.
By default, we run the server in this process and do not fork any
additional child process.
If num_processes is None or <= 0, we detect the number of cores
available on this machine and fork that number of child
processes. If num_processes is given and > 1, we fork that
specific number of sub-processes.
Since we use processes and not threads, there is no shared memory
between any server code.
Note that multiple processes are not compatible with the autoreload
module (or the debug=True option to tornado.web.Application).
When using multiple processes, no IOLoops can be created or
referenced until after the call to HTTPServer.start(n).
assert not self._started
self._started = True
if num_processes is None or num_processes <= 0:
num_processes = _cpu_count()
if num_processes > 1 and ioloop.IOLoop.initialized():
logging.error("Cannot run in multiple processes: IOLoop instance "
"has already been initialized. You cannot call "
"IOLoop.instance() before calling start()")
num_processes = 1
if num_processes > 1:"Pre-forking %d server processes", num_processes)
for i in range(num_processes):
if os.fork() == 0:
import random
from binascii import hexlify
# If available, use the same method as
seed = long(hexlify(os.urandom(16)), 16)
except NotImplementedError:
# Include the pid to avoid initializing two
# processes to the same value
seed(int(time.time() * 1000) ^ os.getpid())
self.io_loop = ioloop.IOLoop.instance()
self._socket.fileno(), self._handle_events,
os.waitpid(-1, 0)
if not self.io_loop:
self.io_loop = ioloop.IOLoop.instance()
def stop(self):
def _handle_events(self, fd, events):
while True:
connection, address = self._socket.accept()
except socket.error, e:
if e.args[0] in (errno.EWOULDBLOCK, errno.EAGAIN):
if self.ssl_options is not None:
assert ssl, "Python 2.6+ and OpenSSL required for SSL"
connection = ssl.wrap_socket(connection,
except ssl.SSLError, err:
if err.args[0] == ssl.SSL_ERROR_EOF:
return connection.close()
except socket.error, err:
if err.args[0] == errno.ECONNABORTED:
return connection.close()
if self.ssl_options is not None:
stream = iostream.SSLIOStream(connection, io_loop=self.io_loop)
stream = iostream.IOStream(connection, io_loop=self.io_loop)
HTTPConnection(stream, address, self.request_callback,
self.no_keep_alive, self.xheaders)
logging.error("Error in connection callback", exc_info=True)
class _BadRequestException(Exception):
"""Exception class for malformed HTTP requests."""
class HTTPConnection(object):
"""Handles a connection to an HTTP client, executing HTTP requests.
We parse HTTP headers and bodies, and execute the request callback
until the HTTP conection is closed.
def __init__(self, stream, address, request_callback, no_keep_alive=False,
xheaders=False): = stream
self.address = address
self.request_callback = request_callback
self.no_keep_alive = no_keep_alive
self.xheaders = xheaders
self._request = None
self._request_finished = False
# Save stack context here, outside of any request. This keeps
# contexts from one request from leaking into the next.
self._header_callback = stack_context.wrap(self._on_headers)"\r\n\r\n", self._header_callback)
def write(self, chunk):
assert self._request, "Request closed"
if not, self._on_write_complete)
def finish(self):
assert self._request, "Request closed"
self._request_finished = True
if not
def _on_write_complete(self):
if self._request_finished:
def _finish_request(self):
if self.no_keep_alive:
disconnect = True
connection_header = self._request.headers.get("Connection")
if self._request.supports_http_1_1():
disconnect = connection_header == "close"
elif ("Content-Length" in self._request.headers
or self._request.method in ("HEAD", "GET")):
disconnect = connection_header != "Keep-Alive"
disconnect = True
self._request = None
self._request_finished = False
if disconnect:
return"\r\n\r\n", self._header_callback)
def _on_headers(self, data):
eol = data.find("\r\n")
start_line = data[:eol]
method, uri, version = start_line.split(" ")
except ValueError:
raise _BadRequestException("Malformed HTTP request line")
if not version.startswith("HTTP/"):
raise _BadRequestException("Malformed HTTP version in HTTP Request-Line")
headers = httputil.HTTPHeaders.parse(data[eol:])
self._request = HTTPRequest(
connection=self, method=method, uri=uri, version=version,
headers=headers, remote_ip=self.address[0])
content_length = headers.get("Content-Length")
if content_length:
content_length = int(content_length)
if content_length >
raise _BadRequestException("Content-Length too long")
if headers.get("Expect") == "100-continue":"HTTP/1.1 100 (Continue)\r\n\r\n"), self._on_request_body)
except _BadRequestException, e:"Malformed HTTP request from %s: %s",
self.address[0], e)
def _on_request_body(self, data):
self._request.body = data
content_type = self._request.headers.get("Content-Type", "")
if self._request.method in ("POST", "PUT"):
if content_type.startswith("application/x-www-form-urlencoded"):
arguments = cgi.parse_qs(self._request.body)
for name, values in arguments.iteritems():
values = [v for v in values if v]
if values:
self._request.arguments.setdefault(name, []).extend(
elif content_type.startswith("multipart/form-data"):
fields = content_type.split(";")
for field in fields:
k, sep, v = field.strip().partition("=")
if k == "boundary" and v:
self._parse_mime_body(v, data)
logging.warning("Invalid multipart/form-data")
def _parse_mime_body(self, boundary, data):
# The standard allows for the boundary to be quoted in the header,
# although it's rare (it happens at least for google app engine
# xmpp). I think we're also supposed to handle backslash-escapes
# here but I'll save that until we see a client that uses them
# in the wild.
if boundary.startswith('"') and boundary.endswith('"'):
boundary = boundary[1:-1]
if data.endswith("\r\n"):
footer_length = len(boundary) + 6
footer_length = len(boundary) + 4
parts = data[:-footer_length].split("--" + boundary + "\r\n")
for part in parts:
if not part: continue
eoh = part.find("\r\n\r\n")
if eoh == -1:
logging.warning("multipart/form-data missing headers")
headers = httputil.HTTPHeaders.parse(part[:eoh])
name_header = headers.get("Content-Disposition", "")
if not name_header.startswith("form-data;") or \
not part.endswith("\r\n"):
logging.warning("Invalid multipart/form-data")
value = part[eoh + 4:-2]
name_values = {}
for name_part in name_header[10:].split(";"):
name, name_value = name_part.strip().split("=", 1)
name_values[name] = name_value.strip('"').decode("utf-8")
if not name_values.get("name"):
logging.warning("multipart/form-data value missing name")
name = name_values["name"]
if name_values.get("filename"):
ctype = headers.get("Content-Type", "application/unknown")
self._request.files.setdefault(name, []).append(dict(
filename=name_values["filename"], body=value,
self._request.arguments.setdefault(name, []).append(value)
class HTTPRequest(object):
"""A single HTTP request.
GET/POST arguments are available in the arguments property, which
maps arguments names to lists of values (to support multiple values
for individual names). Names and values are both unicode always.
File uploads are available in the files property, which maps file
names to list of files. Each file is a dictionary of the form
{"filename":..., "content_type":..., "body":...}. The content_type
comes from the provided HTTP header and should not be trusted
outright given that it can be easily forged.
An HTTP request is attached to a single HTTP connection, which can
be accessed through the "connection" attribute. Since connections
are typically kept open in HTTP/1.1, multiple requests can be handled
sequentially on a single connection.
def __init__(self, method, uri, version="HTTP/1.0", headers=None,
body=None, remote_ip=None, protocol=None, host=None,
files=None, connection=None):
self.method = method
self.uri = uri
self.version = version
self.headers = headers or httputil.HTTPHeaders()
self.body = body or ""
if connection and connection.xheaders:
# Squid uses X-Forwarded-For, others use X-Real-Ip
self.remote_ip = self.headers.get(
"X-Real-Ip", self.headers.get("X-Forwarded-For", remote_ip))
# AWS uses X-Forwarded-Proto
self.protocol = self.headers.get(
"X-Scheme", self.headers.get("X-Forwarded-Proto", protocol))
if self.protocol not in ("http", "https"):
self.protocol = "http"
self.remote_ip = remote_ip
if protocol:
self.protocol = protocol
elif connection and isinstance(,
self.protocol = "https"
self.protocol = "http" = host or self.headers.get("Host") or ""
self.files = files or {}
self.connection = connection
self._start_time = time.time()
self._finish_time = None
scheme, netloc, path, query, fragment = urlparse.urlsplit(uri)
self.path = path
self.query = query
arguments = cgi.parse_qs(query)
self.arguments = {}
for name, values in arguments.iteritems():
values = [v for v in values if v]
if values: self.arguments[name] = values
def supports_http_1_1(self):
"""Returns True if this request supports HTTP/1.1 semantics"""
return self.version == "HTTP/1.1"
def write(self, chunk):
"""Writes the given chunk to the response stream."""
assert isinstance(chunk, str)
def finish(self):
"""Finishes this HTTP request on the open connection."""
self._finish_time = time.time()
def full_url(self):
"""Reconstructs the full URL for this request."""
return self.protocol + "://" + + self.uri
def request_time(self):
"""Returns the amount of time it took for this request to execute."""
if self._finish_time is None:
return time.time() - self._start_time
return self._finish_time - self._start_time
def get_ssl_certificate(self):
"""Returns the client's SSL certificate, if any.
To use client certificates, the HTTPServer must have been constructed
with cert_reqs set in ssl_options, e.g.:
server = HTTPServer(app,
The return value is a dictionary, see SSLSocket.getpeercert() in
the standard library for more details.
except ssl.SSLError:
return None
def __repr__(self):
attrs = ("protocol", "host", "method", "uri", "version", "remote_ip",
args = ", ".join(["%s=%r" % (n, getattr(self, n)) for n in attrs])
return "%s(%s, headers=%s)" % (
self.__class__.__name__, args, dict(self.headers))