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#!/usr/bin/env python
#
# Copyright 2009 Facebook
#
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"); you may
# not use this file except in compliance with the License. You may obtain
# a copy of the License at
#
# http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT
# WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the
# License for the specific language governing permissions and limitations
# under the License.
"""A utility class to write to and read from a non-blocking socket."""
from __future__ import with_statement
import collections
import errno
import logging
import socket
import sys
import re
from tornado import ioloop
from tornado import stack_context
from tornado.util import b, bytes_type
try:
import ssl # Python 2.6+
except ImportError:
ssl = None
class IOStream(object):
r"""A utility class to write to and read from a non-blocking socket.
We support a non-blocking ``write()`` and a family of ``read_*()`` methods.
All of the methods take callbacks (since writing and reading are
non-blocking and asynchronous).
The socket parameter may either be connected or unconnected. For
server operations the socket is the result of calling socket.accept().
For client operations the socket is created with socket.socket(),
and may either be connected before passing it to the IOStream or
connected with IOStream.connect.
A very simple (and broken) HTTP client using this class::
from tornado import ioloop
from tornado import iostream
import socket
def send_request():
stream.write("GET / HTTP/1.0\r\nHost: friendfeed.com\r\n\r\n")
stream.read_until("\r\n\r\n", on_headers)
def on_headers(data):
headers = {}
for line in data.split("\r\n"):
parts = line.split(":")
if len(parts) == 2:
headers[parts[0].strip()] = parts[1].strip()
stream.read_bytes(int(headers["Content-Length"]), on_body)
def on_body(data):
print data
stream.close()
ioloop.IOLoop.instance().stop()
s = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_STREAM, 0)
stream = iostream.IOStream(s)
stream.connect(("friendfeed.com", 80), send_request)
ioloop.IOLoop.instance().start()
"""
def __init__(self, socket, io_loop=None, max_buffer_size=104857600,
read_chunk_size=4096):
self.socket = socket
self.socket.setblocking(False)
self.io_loop = io_loop or ioloop.IOLoop.instance()
self.max_buffer_size = max_buffer_size
self.read_chunk_size = read_chunk_size
self._read_buffer = collections.deque()
self._write_buffer = collections.deque()
self._read_buffer_size = 0
self._write_buffer_frozen = False
self._read_delimiter = None
self._read_regex = None
self._read_bytes = None
self._read_until_close = False
self._read_callback = None
self._streaming_callback = None
self._write_callback = None
self._close_callback = None
self._connect_callback = None
self._connecting = False
self._state = None
self._pending_callbacks = 0
def connect(self, address, callback=None):
"""Connects the socket to a remote address without blocking.
May only be called if the socket passed to the constructor was
not previously connected. The address parameter is in the
same format as for socket.connect, i.e. a (host, port) tuple.
If callback is specified, it will be called when the
connection is completed.
Note that it is safe to call IOStream.write while the
connection is pending, in which case the data will be written
as soon as the connection is ready. Calling IOStream read
methods before the socket is connected works on some platforms
but is non-portable.
"""
self._connecting = True
try:
self.socket.connect(address)
except socket.error, e:
# In non-blocking mode we expect connect() to raise an
# exception with EINPROGRESS or EWOULDBLOCK.
#
# On freebsd, other errors such as ECONNREFUSED may be
# returned immediately when attempting to connect to
# localhost, so handle them the same way as an error
# reported later in _handle_connect.
if e.args[0] not in (errno.EINPROGRESS, errno.EWOULDBLOCK):
logging.warning("Connect error on fd %d: %s",
self.socket.fileno(), e)
self.close()
return
self._connect_callback = stack_context.wrap(callback)
self._add_io_state(self.io_loop.WRITE)
def read_until_regex(self, regex, callback):
"""Call callback when we read the given regex pattern."""
assert not self._read_callback, "Already reading"
self._read_regex = re.compile(regex)
self._read_callback = stack_context.wrap(callback)
while True:
# See if we've already got the data from a previous read
if self._read_from_buffer():
return
self._check_closed()
if self._read_to_buffer() == 0:
break
self._add_io_state(self.io_loop.READ)
def read_until(self, delimiter, callback):
"""Call callback when we read the given delimiter."""
assert not self._read_callback, "Already reading"
self._read_delimiter = delimiter
self._read_callback = stack_context.wrap(callback)
while True:
# See if we've already got the data from a previous read
if self._read_from_buffer():
return
self._check_closed()
if self._read_to_buffer() == 0:
break
self._add_io_state(self.io_loop.READ)
def read_bytes(self, num_bytes, callback, streaming_callback=None):
"""Call callback when we read the given number of bytes.
If a ``streaming_callback`` is given, it will be called with chunks
of data as they become available, and the argument to the final
``callback`` will be empty.
"""
assert not self._read_callback, "Already reading"
assert isinstance(num_bytes, (int, long))
self._read_bytes = num_bytes
self._read_callback = stack_context.wrap(callback)
self._streaming_callback = stack_context.wrap(streaming_callback)
while True:
if self._read_from_buffer():
return
self._check_closed()
if self._read_to_buffer() == 0:
break
self._add_io_state(self.io_loop.READ)
def read_until_close(self, callback, streaming_callback=None):
"""Reads all data from the socket until it is closed.
If a ``streaming_callback`` is given, it will be called with chunks
of data as they become available, and the argument to the final
``callback`` will be empty.
Subject to ``max_buffer_size`` limit from `IOStream` constructor if
a ``streaming_callback`` is not used.
"""
assert not self._read_callback, "Already reading"
if self.closed():
self._run_callback(callback, self._consume(self._read_buffer_size))
return
self._read_until_close = True
self._read_callback = stack_context.wrap(callback)
self._streaming_callback = stack_context.wrap(streaming_callback)
self._add_io_state(self.io_loop.READ)
def write(self, data, callback=None):
"""Write the given data to this stream.
If callback is given, we call it when all of the buffered write
data has been successfully written to the stream. If there was
previously buffered write data and an old write callback, that
callback is simply overwritten with this new callback.
"""
assert isinstance(data, bytes_type)
self._check_closed()
self._write_buffer.append(data)
self._write_callback = stack_context.wrap(callback)
self._handle_write()
if self._write_buffer:
self._add_io_state(self.io_loop.WRITE)
self._maybe_add_error_listener()
def set_close_callback(self, callback):
"""Call the given callback when the stream is closed."""
self._close_callback = stack_context.wrap(callback)
def close(self):
"""Close this stream."""
if self.socket is not None:
if self._read_until_close:
callback = self._read_callback
self._read_callback = None
self._read_until_close = False
self._run_callback(callback,
self._consume(self._read_buffer_size))
if self._state is not None:
self.io_loop.remove_handler(self.socket.fileno())
self._state = None
self.socket.close()
self.socket = None
if self._close_callback and self._pending_callbacks == 0:
# if there are pending callbacks, don't run the close callback
# until they're done (see _maybe_add_error_handler)
cb = self._close_callback
self._close_callback = None
self._run_callback(cb)
def reading(self):
"""Returns true if we are currently reading from the stream."""
return self._read_callback is not None
def writing(self):
"""Returns true if we are currently writing to the stream."""
return bool(self._write_buffer)
def closed(self):
"""Returns true if the stream has been closed."""
return self.socket is None
def _handle_events(self, fd, events):
if not self.socket:
logging.warning("Got events for closed stream %d", fd)
return
try:
if events & self.io_loop.READ:
self._handle_read()
if not self.socket:
return
if events & self.io_loop.WRITE:
if self._connecting:
self._handle_connect()
self._handle_write()
if not self.socket:
return
if events & self.io_loop.ERROR:
# We may have queued up a user callback in _handle_read or
# _handle_write, so don't close the IOStream until those
# callbacks have had a chance to run.
self.io_loop.add_callback(self.close)
return
state = self.io_loop.ERROR
if self.reading():
state |= self.io_loop.READ
if self.writing():
state |= self.io_loop.WRITE
if state == self.io_loop.ERROR:
state |= self.io_loop.READ
if state != self._state:
assert self._state is not None, \
"shouldn't happen: _handle_events without self._state"
self._state = state
self.io_loop.update_handler(self.socket.fileno(), self._state)
except Exception:
logging.error("Uncaught exception, closing connection.",
exc_info=True)
self.close()
raise
def _run_callback(self, callback, *args):
def wrapper():
self._pending_callbacks -= 1
try:
callback(*args)
except Exception:
logging.error("Uncaught exception, closing connection.",
exc_info=True)
# Close the socket on an uncaught exception from a user callback
# (It would eventually get closed when the socket object is
# gc'd, but we don't want to rely on gc happening before we
# run out of file descriptors)
self.close()
# Re-raise the exception so that IOLoop.handle_callback_exception
# can see it and log the error
raise
self._maybe_add_error_listener()
# We schedule callbacks to be run on the next IOLoop iteration
# rather than running them directly for several reasons:
# * Prevents unbounded stack growth when a callback calls an
# IOLoop operation that immediately runs another callback
# * Provides a predictable execution context for e.g.
# non-reentrant mutexes
# * Ensures that the try/except in wrapper() is run outside
# of the application's StackContexts
with stack_context.NullContext():
# stack_context was already captured in callback, we don't need to
# capture it again for IOStream's wrapper. This is especially
# important if the callback was pre-wrapped before entry to
# IOStream (as in HTTPConnection._header_callback), as we could
# capture and leak the wrong context here.
self._pending_callbacks += 1
self.io_loop.add_callback(wrapper)
def _handle_read(self):
while True:
try:
# Read from the socket until we get EWOULDBLOCK or equivalent.
# SSL sockets do some internal buffering, and if the data is
# sitting in the SSL object's buffer select() and friends
# can't see it; the only way to find out if it's there is to
# try to read it.
result = self._read_to_buffer()
except Exception:
self.close()
return
if result == 0:
break
else:
if self._read_from_buffer():
return
def _read_from_socket(self):
"""Attempts to read from the socket.
Returns the data read or None if there is nothing to read.
May be overridden in subclasses.
"""
try:
chunk = self.socket.recv(self.read_chunk_size)
except socket.error, e:
if e.args[0] in (errno.EWOULDBLOCK, errno.EAGAIN):
return None
else:
raise
if not chunk:
self.close()
return None
return chunk
def _read_to_buffer(self):
"""Reads from the socket and appends the result to the read buffer.
Returns the number of bytes read. Returns 0 if there is nothing
to read (i.e. the read returns EWOULDBLOCK or equivalent). On
error closes the socket and raises an exception.
"""
try:
chunk = self._read_from_socket()
except socket.error, e:
# ssl.SSLError is a subclass of socket.error
logging.warning("Read error on %d: %s",
self.socket.fileno(), e)
self.close()
raise
if chunk is None:
return 0
self._read_buffer.append(chunk)
self._read_buffer_size += len(chunk)
if self._read_buffer_size >= self.max_buffer_size:
logging.error("Reached maximum read buffer size")
self.close()
raise IOError("Reached maximum read buffer size")
return len(chunk)
def _read_from_buffer(self):
"""Attempts to complete the currently-pending read from the buffer.
Returns True if the read was completed.
"""
if self._read_bytes is not None:
if self._streaming_callback is not None and self._read_buffer_size:
bytes_to_consume = min(self._read_bytes, self._read_buffer_size)
self._read_bytes -= bytes_to_consume
self._run_callback(self._streaming_callback,
self._consume(bytes_to_consume))
if self._read_buffer_size >= self._read_bytes:
num_bytes = self._read_bytes
callback = self._read_callback
self._read_callback = None
self._streaming_callback = None
self._read_bytes = None
self._run_callback(callback, self._consume(num_bytes))
return True
elif self._read_delimiter is not None:
_merge_prefix(self._read_buffer, sys.maxint)
loc = self._read_buffer[0].find(self._read_delimiter)
if loc != -1:
callback = self._read_callback
delimiter_len = len(self._read_delimiter)
self._read_callback = None
self._streaming_callback = None
self._read_delimiter = None
self._run_callback(callback,
self._consume(loc + delimiter_len))
return True
elif self._read_regex is not None:
_merge_prefix(self._read_buffer, sys.maxint)
m = self._read_regex.search(self._read_buffer[0])
if m:
callback = self._read_callback
self._read_callback = None
self._streaming_callback = None
self._read_regex = None
self._run_callback(callback, self._consume(m.end()))
return True
elif self._read_until_close:
if self._streaming_callback is not None and self._read_buffer_size:
self._run_callback(self._streaming_callback,
self._consume(self._read_buffer_size))
return False
def _handle_connect(self):
err = self.socket.getsockopt(socket.SOL_SOCKET, socket.SO_ERROR)
if err != 0:
# IOLoop implementations may vary: some of them return
# an error state before the socket becomes writable, so
# in that case a connection failure would be handled by the
# error path in _handle_events instead of here.
logging.warning("Connect error on fd %d: %s",
self.socket.fileno(), errno.errorcode[err])
self.close()
return
if self._connect_callback is not None:
callback = self._connect_callback
self._connect_callback = None
self._run_callback(callback)
self._connecting = False
def _handle_write(self):
while self._write_buffer:
try:
if not self._write_buffer_frozen:
# On windows, socket.send blows up if given a
# write buffer that's too large, instead of just
# returning the number of bytes it was able to
# process. Therefore we must not call socket.send
# with more than 128KB at a time.
_merge_prefix(self._write_buffer, 128 * 1024)
num_bytes = self.socket.send(self._write_buffer[0])
if num_bytes == 0:
# With OpenSSL, if we couldn't write the entire buffer,
# the very same string object must be used on the
# next call to send. Therefore we suppress
# merging the write buffer after an incomplete send.
# A cleaner solution would be to set
# SSL_MODE_ACCEPT_MOVING_WRITE_BUFFER, but this is
# not yet accessible from python
# (http://bugs.python.org/issue8240)
self._write_buffer_frozen = True
break
self._write_buffer_frozen = False
_merge_prefix(self._write_buffer, num_bytes)
self._write_buffer.popleft()
except socket.error, e:
if e.args[0] in (errno.EWOULDBLOCK, errno.EAGAIN):
self._write_buffer_frozen = True
break
else:
logging.warning("Write error on %d: %s",
self.socket.fileno(), e)
self.close()
return
if not self._write_buffer and self._write_callback:
callback = self._write_callback
self._write_callback = None
self._run_callback(callback)
def _consume(self, loc):
if loc == 0:
return b("")
_merge_prefix(self._read_buffer, loc)
self._read_buffer_size -= loc
return self._read_buffer.popleft()
def _check_closed(self):
if not self.socket:
raise IOError("Stream is closed")
def _maybe_add_error_listener(self):
if self._state is None and self._pending_callbacks == 0:
if self.socket is None:
cb = self._close_callback
if cb is not None:
self._close_callback = None
self._run_callback(cb)
else:
self._add_io_state(ioloop.IOLoop.READ)
def _add_io_state(self, state):
"""Adds `state` (IOLoop.{READ,WRITE} flags) to our event handler.
Implementation notes: Reads and writes have a fast path and a
slow path. The fast path reads synchronously from socket
buffers, while the slow path uses `_add_io_state` to schedule
an IOLoop callback. Note that in both cases, the callback is
run asynchronously with `_run_callback`.
To detect closed connections, we must have called
`_add_io_state` at some point, but we want to delay this as
much as possible so we don't have to set an `IOLoop.ERROR`
listener that will be overwritten by the next slow-path
operation. As long as there are callbacks scheduled for
fast-path ops, those callbacks may do more reads.
If a sequence of fast-path ops do not end in a slow-path op,
(e.g. for an @asynchronous long-poll request), we must add
the error handler. This is done in `_run_callback` and `write`
(since the write callback is optional so we can have a
fast-path write with no `_run_callback`)
"""
if self.socket is None:
# connection has been closed, so there can be no future events
return
if self._state is None:
self._state = ioloop.IOLoop.ERROR | state
with stack_context.NullContext():
self.io_loop.add_handler(
self.socket.fileno(), self._handle_events, self._state)
elif not self._state & state:
self._state = self._state | state
self.io_loop.update_handler(self.socket.fileno(), self._state)
class SSLIOStream(IOStream):
"""A utility class to write to and read from a non-blocking SSL socket.
If the socket passed to the constructor is already connected,
it should be wrapped with::
ssl.wrap_socket(sock, do_handshake_on_connect=False, **kwargs)
before constructing the SSLIOStream. Unconnected sockets will be
wrapped when IOStream.connect is finished.
"""
def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs):
"""Creates an SSLIOStream.
If a dictionary is provided as keyword argument ssl_options,
it will be used as additional keyword arguments to ssl.wrap_socket.
"""
self._ssl_options = kwargs.pop('ssl_options', {})
super(SSLIOStream, self).__init__(*args, **kwargs)
self._ssl_accepting = True
self._handshake_reading = False
self._handshake_writing = False
def reading(self):
return self._handshake_reading or super(SSLIOStream, self).reading()
def writing(self):
return self._handshake_writing or super(SSLIOStream, self).writing()
def _do_ssl_handshake(self):
# Based on code from test_ssl.py in the python stdlib
try:
self._handshake_reading = False
self._handshake_writing = False
self.socket.do_handshake()
except ssl.SSLError, err:
if err.args[0] == ssl.SSL_ERROR_WANT_READ:
self._handshake_reading = True
return
elif err.args[0] == ssl.SSL_ERROR_WANT_WRITE:
self._handshake_writing = True
return
elif err.args[0] in (ssl.SSL_ERROR_EOF,
ssl.SSL_ERROR_ZERO_RETURN):
return self.close()
elif err.args[0] == ssl.SSL_ERROR_SSL:
logging.warning("SSL Error on %d: %s", self.socket.fileno(), err)
return self.close()
raise
except socket.error, err:
if err.args[0] == errno.ECONNABORTED:
return self.close()
else:
self._ssl_accepting = False
super(SSLIOStream, self)._handle_connect()
def _handle_read(self):
if self._ssl_accepting:
self._do_ssl_handshake()
return
super(SSLIOStream, self)._handle_read()
def _handle_write(self):
if self._ssl_accepting:
self._do_ssl_handshake()
return
super(SSLIOStream, self)._handle_write()
def _handle_connect(self):
self.socket = ssl.wrap_socket(self.socket,
do_handshake_on_connect=False,
**self._ssl_options)
# Don't call the superclass's _handle_connect (which is responsible
# for telling the application that the connection is complete)
# until we've completed the SSL handshake (so certificates are
# available, etc).
def _read_from_socket(self):
try:
# SSLSocket objects have both a read() and recv() method,
# while regular sockets only have recv().
# The recv() method blocks (at least in python 2.6) if it is
# called when there is nothing to read, so we have to use
# read() instead.
chunk = self.socket.read(self.read_chunk_size)
except ssl.SSLError, e:
# SSLError is a subclass of socket.error, so this except
# block must come first.
if e.args[0] == ssl.SSL_ERROR_WANT_READ:
return None
else:
raise
except socket.error, e:
if e.args[0] in (errno.EWOULDBLOCK, errno.EAGAIN):
return None
else:
raise
if not chunk:
self.close()
return None
return chunk
def _merge_prefix(deque, size):
"""Replace the first entries in a deque of strings with a single
string of up to size bytes.
>>> d = collections.deque(['abc', 'de', 'fghi', 'j'])
>>> _merge_prefix(d, 5); print d
deque(['abcde', 'fghi', 'j'])
Strings will be split as necessary to reach the desired size.
>>> _merge_prefix(d, 7); print d
deque(['abcdefg', 'hi', 'j'])
>>> _merge_prefix(d, 3); print d
deque(['abc', 'defg', 'hi', 'j'])
>>> _merge_prefix(d, 100); print d
deque(['abcdefghij'])
"""
if len(deque) == 1 and len(deque[0]) <= size:
return
prefix = []
remaining = size
while deque and remaining > 0:
chunk = deque.popleft()
if len(chunk) > remaining:
deque.appendleft(chunk[remaining:])
chunk = chunk[:remaining]
prefix.append(chunk)
remaining -= len(chunk)
# This data structure normally just contains byte strings, but
# the unittest gets messy if it doesn't use the default str() type,
# so do the merge based on the type of data that's actually present.
if prefix:
deque.appendleft(type(prefix[0])().join(prefix))
if not deque:
deque.appendleft(b(""))
def doctests():
import doctest
return doctest.DocTestSuite()
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