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#
# Copyright 2009 Facebook
#
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"); you may
# not use this file except in compliance with the License. You may obtain
# a copy of the License at
#
# http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT
# WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the
# License for the specific language governing permissions and limitations
# under the License.
"""This module contains implementations of various third-party
authentication schemes.
All the classes in this file are class mixins designed to be used with
the `tornado.web.RequestHandler` class. They are used in two ways:
* On a login handler, use methods such as ``authenticate_redirect()``,
``authorize_redirect()``, and ``get_authenticated_user()`` to
establish the user's identity and store authentication tokens to your
database and/or cookies.
* In non-login handlers, use methods such as ``facebook_request()``
or ``twitter_request()`` to use the authentication tokens to make
requests to the respective services.
They all take slightly different arguments due to the fact all these
services implement authentication and authorization slightly differently.
See the individual service classes below for complete documentation.
Example usage for Google OAuth:
.. testcode::
class GoogleOAuth2LoginHandler(tornado.web.RequestHandler,
tornado.auth.GoogleOAuth2Mixin):
async def get(self):
if self.get_argument('code', False):
user = await self.get_authenticated_user(
redirect_uri='http://your.site.com/auth/google',
code=self.get_argument('code'))
# Save the user with e.g. set_secure_cookie
else:
await self.authorize_redirect(
redirect_uri='http://your.site.com/auth/google',
client_id=self.settings['google_oauth']['key'],
scope=['profile', 'email'],
response_type='code',
extra_params={'approval_prompt': 'auto'})
.. testoutput::
:hide:
"""
import base64
import binascii
import hashlib
import hmac
import time
import urllib.parse
import uuid
from tornado import httpclient
from tornado import escape
from tornado.httputil import url_concat
from tornado.util import unicode_type
from tornado.web import RequestHandler
from typing import List, Any, Dict, cast, Iterable, Union, Optional
class AuthError(Exception):
pass
class OpenIdMixin(object):
"""Abstract implementation of OpenID and Attribute Exchange.
Class attributes:
* ``_OPENID_ENDPOINT``: the identity provider's URI.
"""
def authenticate_redirect(
self,
callback_uri: str = None,
ax_attrs: List[str] = ["name", "email", "language", "username"],
) -> None:
"""Redirects to the authentication URL for this service.
After authentication, the service will redirect back to the given
callback URI with additional parameters including ``openid.mode``.
We request the given attributes for the authenticated user by
default (name, email, language, and username). If you don't need
all those attributes for your app, you can request fewer with
the ax_attrs keyword argument.
.. versionchanged:: 6.0
The ``callback`` argument was removed and this method no
longer returns an awaitable object. It is now an ordinary
synchronous function.
"""
handler = cast(RequestHandler, self)
callback_uri = callback_uri or handler.request.uri
assert callback_uri is not None
args = self._openid_args(callback_uri, ax_attrs=ax_attrs)
endpoint = self._OPENID_ENDPOINT # type: ignore
handler.redirect(endpoint + "?" + urllib.parse.urlencode(args))
async def get_authenticated_user(
self, http_client: httpclient.AsyncHTTPClient = None
) -> Dict[str, Any]:
"""Fetches the authenticated user data upon redirect.
This method should be called by the handler that receives the
redirect from the `authenticate_redirect()` method (which is
often the same as the one that calls it; in that case you would
call `get_authenticated_user` if the ``openid.mode`` parameter
is present and `authenticate_redirect` if it is not).
The result of this method will generally be used to set a cookie.
.. versionchanged:: 6.0
The ``callback`` argument was removed. Use the returned
awaitable object instead.
"""
handler = cast(RequestHandler, self)
# Verify the OpenID response via direct request to the OP
args = dict(
(k, v[-1]) for k, v in handler.request.arguments.items()
) # type: Dict[str, Union[str, bytes]]
args["openid.mode"] = u"check_authentication"
url = self._OPENID_ENDPOINT # type: ignore
if http_client is None:
http_client = self.get_auth_http_client()
resp = await http_client.fetch(
url, method="POST", body=urllib.parse.urlencode(args)
)
return self._on_authentication_verified(resp)
def _openid_args(
self, callback_uri: str, ax_attrs: Iterable[str] = [], oauth_scope: str = None
) -> Dict[str, str]:
handler = cast(RequestHandler, self)
url = urllib.parse.urljoin(handler.request.full_url(), callback_uri)
args = {
"openid.ns": "http://specs.openid.net/auth/2.0",
"openid.claimed_id": "http://specs.openid.net/auth/2.0/identifier_select",
"openid.identity": "http://specs.openid.net/auth/2.0/identifier_select",
"openid.return_to": url,
"openid.realm": urllib.parse.urljoin(url, "/"),
"openid.mode": "checkid_setup",
}
if ax_attrs:
args.update(
{
"openid.ns.ax": "http://openid.net/srv/ax/1.0",
"openid.ax.mode": "fetch_request",
}
)
ax_attrs = set(ax_attrs)
required = [] # type: List[str]
if "name" in ax_attrs:
ax_attrs -= set(["name", "firstname", "fullname", "lastname"])
required += ["firstname", "fullname", "lastname"]
args.update(
{
"openid.ax.type.firstname": "http://axschema.org/namePerson/first",
"openid.ax.type.fullname": "http://axschema.org/namePerson",
"openid.ax.type.lastname": "http://axschema.org/namePerson/last",
}
)
known_attrs = {
"email": "http://axschema.org/contact/email",
"language": "http://axschema.org/pref/language",
"username": "http://axschema.org/namePerson/friendly",
}
for name in ax_attrs:
args["openid.ax.type." + name] = known_attrs[name]
required.append(name)
args["openid.ax.required"] = ",".join(required)
if oauth_scope:
args.update(
{
"openid.ns.oauth": "http://specs.openid.net/extensions/oauth/1.0",
"openid.oauth.consumer": handler.request.host.split(":")[0],
"openid.oauth.scope": oauth_scope,
}
)
return args
def _on_authentication_verified(
self, response: httpclient.HTTPResponse
) -> Dict[str, Any]:
handler = cast(RequestHandler, self)
if b"is_valid:true" not in response.body:
raise AuthError("Invalid OpenID response: %s" % response.body)
# Make sure we got back at least an email from attribute exchange
ax_ns = None
for key in handler.request.arguments:
if (
key.startswith("openid.ns.")
and handler.get_argument(key) == u"http://openid.net/srv/ax/1.0"
):
ax_ns = key[10:]
break
def get_ax_arg(uri: str) -> str:
if not ax_ns:
return u""
prefix = "openid." + ax_ns + ".type."
ax_name = None
for name in handler.request.arguments.keys():
if handler.get_argument(name) == uri and name.startswith(prefix):
part = name[len(prefix) :]
ax_name = "openid." + ax_ns + ".value." + part
break
if not ax_name:
return u""
return handler.get_argument(ax_name, u"")
email = get_ax_arg("http://axschema.org/contact/email")
name = get_ax_arg("http://axschema.org/namePerson")
first_name = get_ax_arg("http://axschema.org/namePerson/first")
last_name = get_ax_arg("http://axschema.org/namePerson/last")
username = get_ax_arg("http://axschema.org/namePerson/friendly")
locale = get_ax_arg("http://axschema.org/pref/language").lower()
user = dict()
name_parts = []
if first_name:
user["first_name"] = first_name
name_parts.append(first_name)
if last_name:
user["last_name"] = last_name
name_parts.append(last_name)
if name:
user["name"] = name
elif name_parts:
user["name"] = u" ".join(name_parts)
elif email:
user["name"] = email.split("@")[0]
if email:
user["email"] = email
if locale:
user["locale"] = locale
if username:
user["username"] = username
claimed_id = handler.get_argument("openid.claimed_id", None)
if claimed_id:
user["claimed_id"] = claimed_id
return user
def get_auth_http_client(self) -> httpclient.AsyncHTTPClient:
"""Returns the `.AsyncHTTPClient` instance to be used for auth requests.
May be overridden by subclasses to use an HTTP client other than
the default.
"""
return httpclient.AsyncHTTPClient()
class OAuthMixin(object):
"""Abstract implementation of OAuth 1.0 and 1.0a.
See `TwitterMixin` below for an example implementation.
Class attributes:
* ``_OAUTH_AUTHORIZE_URL``: The service's OAuth authorization url.
* ``_OAUTH_ACCESS_TOKEN_URL``: The service's OAuth access token url.
* ``_OAUTH_VERSION``: May be either "1.0" or "1.0a".
* ``_OAUTH_NO_CALLBACKS``: Set this to True if the service requires
advance registration of callbacks.
Subclasses must also override the `_oauth_get_user_future` and
`_oauth_consumer_token` methods.
"""
async def authorize_redirect(
self,
callback_uri: str = None,
extra_params: Dict[str, Any] = None,
http_client: httpclient.AsyncHTTPClient = None,
) -> None:
"""Redirects the user to obtain OAuth authorization for this service.
The ``callback_uri`` may be omitted if you have previously
registered a callback URI with the third-party service. For
some services, you must use a previously-registered callback
URI and cannot specify a callback via this method.
This method sets a cookie called ``_oauth_request_token`` which is
subsequently used (and cleared) in `get_authenticated_user` for
security purposes.
This method is asynchronous and must be called with ``await``
or ``yield`` (This is different from other ``auth*_redirect``
methods defined in this module). It calls
`.RequestHandler.finish` for you so you should not write any
other response after it returns.
.. versionchanged:: 3.1
Now returns a `.Future` and takes an optional callback, for
compatibility with `.gen.coroutine`.
.. versionchanged:: 6.0
The ``callback`` argument was removed. Use the returned
awaitable object instead.
"""
if callback_uri and getattr(self, "_OAUTH_NO_CALLBACKS", False):
raise Exception("This service does not support oauth_callback")
if http_client is None:
http_client = self.get_auth_http_client()
assert http_client is not None
if getattr(self, "_OAUTH_VERSION", "1.0a") == "1.0a":
response = await http_client.fetch(
self._oauth_request_token_url(
callback_uri=callback_uri, extra_params=extra_params
)
)
else:
response = await http_client.fetch(self._oauth_request_token_url())
url = self._OAUTH_AUTHORIZE_URL # type: ignore
self._on_request_token(url, callback_uri, response)
async def get_authenticated_user(
self, http_client: httpclient.AsyncHTTPClient = None
) -> Dict[str, Any]:
"""Gets the OAuth authorized user and access token.
This method should be called from the handler for your
OAuth callback URL to complete the registration process. We run the
callback with the authenticated user dictionary. This dictionary
will contain an ``access_key`` which can be used to make authorized
requests to this service on behalf of the user. The dictionary will
also contain other fields such as ``name``, depending on the service
used.
.. versionchanged:: 6.0
The ``callback`` argument was removed. Use the returned
awaitable object instead.
"""
handler = cast(RequestHandler, self)
request_key = escape.utf8(handler.get_argument("oauth_token"))
oauth_verifier = handler.get_argument("oauth_verifier", None)
request_cookie = handler.get_cookie("_oauth_request_token")
if not request_cookie:
raise AuthError("Missing OAuth request token cookie")
handler.clear_cookie("_oauth_request_token")
cookie_key, cookie_secret = [
base64.b64decode(escape.utf8(i)) for i in request_cookie.split("|")
]
if cookie_key != request_key:
raise AuthError("Request token does not match cookie")
token = dict(
key=cookie_key, secret=cookie_secret
) # type: Dict[str, Union[str, bytes]]
if oauth_verifier:
token["verifier"] = oauth_verifier
if http_client is None:
http_client = self.get_auth_http_client()
assert http_client is not None
response = await http_client.fetch(self._oauth_access_token_url(token))
access_token = _oauth_parse_response(response.body)
user = await self._oauth_get_user_future(access_token)
if not user:
raise AuthError("Error getting user")
user["access_token"] = access_token
return user
def _oauth_request_token_url(
self, callback_uri: str = None, extra_params: Dict[str, Any] = None
) -> str:
handler = cast(RequestHandler, self)
consumer_token = self._oauth_consumer_token()
url = self._OAUTH_REQUEST_TOKEN_URL # type: ignore
args = dict(
oauth_consumer_key=escape.to_basestring(consumer_token["key"]),
oauth_signature_method="HMAC-SHA1",
oauth_timestamp=str(int(time.time())),
oauth_nonce=escape.to_basestring(binascii.b2a_hex(uuid.uuid4().bytes)),
oauth_version="1.0",
)
if getattr(self, "_OAUTH_VERSION", "1.0a") == "1.0a":
if callback_uri == "oob":
args["oauth_callback"] = "oob"
elif callback_uri:
args["oauth_callback"] = urllib.parse.urljoin(
handler.request.full_url(), callback_uri
)
if extra_params:
args.update(extra_params)
signature = _oauth10a_signature(consumer_token, "GET", url, args)
else:
signature = _oauth_signature(consumer_token, "GET", url, args)
args["oauth_signature"] = signature
return url + "?" + urllib.parse.urlencode(args)
def _on_request_token(
self,
authorize_url: str,
callback_uri: Optional[str],
response: httpclient.HTTPResponse,
) -> None:
handler = cast(RequestHandler, self)
request_token = _oauth_parse_response(response.body)
data = (
base64.b64encode(escape.utf8(request_token["key"]))
+ b"|"
+ base64.b64encode(escape.utf8(request_token["secret"]))
)
handler.set_cookie("_oauth_request_token", data)
args = dict(oauth_token=request_token["key"])
if callback_uri == "oob":
handler.finish(authorize_url + "?" + urllib.parse.urlencode(args))
return
elif callback_uri:
args["oauth_callback"] = urllib.parse.urljoin(
handler.request.full_url(), callback_uri
)
handler.redirect(authorize_url + "?" + urllib.parse.urlencode(args))
def _oauth_access_token_url(self, request_token: Dict[str, Any]) -> str:
consumer_token = self._oauth_consumer_token()
url = self._OAUTH_ACCESS_TOKEN_URL # type: ignore
args = dict(
oauth_consumer_key=escape.to_basestring(consumer_token["key"]),
oauth_token=escape.to_basestring(request_token["key"]),
oauth_signature_method="HMAC-SHA1",
oauth_timestamp=str(int(time.time())),
oauth_nonce=escape.to_basestring(binascii.b2a_hex(uuid.uuid4().bytes)),
oauth_version="1.0",
)
if "verifier" in request_token:
args["oauth_verifier"] = request_token["verifier"]
if getattr(self, "_OAUTH_VERSION", "1.0a") == "1.0a":
signature = _oauth10a_signature(
consumer_token, "GET", url, args, request_token
)
else:
signature = _oauth_signature(
consumer_token, "GET", url, args, request_token
)
args["oauth_signature"] = signature
return url + "?" + urllib.parse.urlencode(args)
def _oauth_consumer_token(self) -> Dict[str, Any]:
"""Subclasses must override this to return their OAuth consumer keys.
The return value should be a `dict` with keys ``key`` and ``secret``.
"""
raise NotImplementedError()
async def _oauth_get_user_future(
self, access_token: Dict[str, Any]
) -> Dict[str, Any]:
"""Subclasses must override this to get basic information about the
user.
Should be a coroutine whose result is a dictionary
containing information about the user, which may have been
retrieved by using ``access_token`` to make a request to the
service.
The access token will be added to the returned dictionary to make
the result of `get_authenticated_user`.
.. versionchanged:: 5.1
Subclasses may also define this method with ``async def``.
.. versionchanged:: 6.0
A synchronous fallback to ``_oauth_get_user`` was removed.
"""
raise NotImplementedError()
def _oauth_request_parameters(
self,
url: str,
access_token: Dict[str, Any],
parameters: Dict[str, Any] = {},
method: str = "GET",
) -> Dict[str, Any]:
"""Returns the OAuth parameters as a dict for the given request.
parameters should include all POST arguments and query string arguments
that will be sent with the request.
"""
consumer_token = self._oauth_consumer_token()
base_args = dict(
oauth_consumer_key=escape.to_basestring(consumer_token["key"]),
oauth_token=escape.to_basestring(access_token["key"]),
oauth_signature_method="HMAC-SHA1",
oauth_timestamp=str(int(time.time())),
oauth_nonce=escape.to_basestring(binascii.b2a_hex(uuid.uuid4().bytes)),
oauth_version="1.0",
)
args = {}
args.update(base_args)
args.update(parameters)
if getattr(self, "_OAUTH_VERSION", "1.0a") == "1.0a":
signature = _oauth10a_signature(
consumer_token, method, url, args, access_token
)
else:
signature = _oauth_signature(
consumer_token, method, url, args, access_token
)
base_args["oauth_signature"] = escape.to_basestring(signature)
return base_args
def get_auth_http_client(self) -> httpclient.AsyncHTTPClient:
"""Returns the `.AsyncHTTPClient` instance to be used for auth requests.
May be overridden by subclasses to use an HTTP client other than
the default.
"""
return httpclient.AsyncHTTPClient()
class OAuth2Mixin(object):
"""Abstract implementation of OAuth 2.0.
See `FacebookGraphMixin` or `GoogleOAuth2Mixin` below for example
implementations.
Class attributes:
* ``_OAUTH_AUTHORIZE_URL``: The service's authorization url.
* ``_OAUTH_ACCESS_TOKEN_URL``: The service's access token url.
"""
def authorize_redirect(
self,
redirect_uri: str = None,
client_id: str = None,
client_secret: str = None,
extra_params: Dict[str, Any] = None,
scope: str = None,
response_type: str = "code",
) -> None:
"""Redirects the user to obtain OAuth authorization for this service.
Some providers require that you register a redirect URL with
your application instead of passing one via this method. You
should call this method to log the user in, and then call
``get_authenticated_user`` in the handler for your
redirect URL to complete the authorization process.
.. versionchanged:: 6.0
The ``callback`` argument and returned awaitable were removed;
this is now an ordinary synchronous function.
"""
handler = cast(RequestHandler, self)
args = {"response_type": response_type}
if redirect_uri is not None:
args["redirect_uri"] = redirect_uri
if client_id is not None:
args["client_id"] = client_id
if extra_params:
args.update(extra_params)
if scope:
args["scope"] = " ".join(scope)
url = self._OAUTH_AUTHORIZE_URL # type: ignore
handler.redirect(url_concat(url, args))
def _oauth_request_token_url(
self,
redirect_uri: str = None,
client_id: str = None,
client_secret: str = None,
code: str = None,
extra_params: Dict[str, Any] = None,
) -> str:
url = self._OAUTH_ACCESS_TOKEN_URL # type: ignore
args = {} # type: Dict[str, str]
if redirect_uri is not None:
args["redirect_uri"] = redirect_uri
if code is not None:
args["code"] = code
if client_id is not None:
args["client_id"] = client_id
if client_secret is not None:
args["client_secret"] = client_secret
if extra_params:
args.update(extra_params)
return url_concat(url, args)
async def oauth2_request(
self,
url: str,
access_token: str = None,
post_args: Dict[str, Any] = None,
**args: Any
) -> Any:
"""Fetches the given URL auth an OAuth2 access token.
If the request is a POST, ``post_args`` should be provided. Query
string arguments should be given as keyword arguments.
Example usage:
..testcode::
class MainHandler(tornado.web.RequestHandler,
tornado.auth.FacebookGraphMixin):
@tornado.web.authenticated
async def get(self):
new_entry = await self.oauth2_request(
"https://graph.facebook.com/me/feed",
post_args={"message": "I am posting from my Tornado application!"},
access_token=self.current_user["access_token"])
if not new_entry:
# Call failed; perhaps missing permission?
await self.authorize_redirect()
return
self.finish("Posted a message!")
.. testoutput::
:hide:
.. versionadded:: 4.3
.. versionchanged::: 6.0
The ``callback`` argument was removed. Use the returned awaitable object instead.
"""
all_args = {}
if access_token:
all_args["access_token"] = access_token
all_args.update(args)
if all_args:
url += "?" + urllib.parse.urlencode(all_args)
http = self.get_auth_http_client()
if post_args is not None:
response = await http.fetch(
url, method="POST", body=urllib.parse.urlencode(post_args)
)
else:
response = await http.fetch(url)
return escape.json_decode(response.body)
def get_auth_http_client(self) -> httpclient.AsyncHTTPClient:
"""Returns the `.AsyncHTTPClient` instance to be used for auth requests.
May be overridden by subclasses to use an HTTP client other than
the default.
.. versionadded:: 4.3
"""
return httpclient.AsyncHTTPClient()
class TwitterMixin(OAuthMixin):
"""Twitter OAuth authentication.
To authenticate with Twitter, register your application with
Twitter at http://twitter.com/apps. Then copy your Consumer Key
and Consumer Secret to the application
`~tornado.web.Application.settings` ``twitter_consumer_key`` and
``twitter_consumer_secret``. Use this mixin on the handler for the
URL you registered as your application's callback URL.
When your application is set up, you can use this mixin like this
to authenticate the user with Twitter and get access to their stream:
.. testcode::
class TwitterLoginHandler(tornado.web.RequestHandler,
tornado.auth.TwitterMixin):
async def get(self):
if self.get_argument("oauth_token", None):
user = await self.get_authenticated_user()
# Save the user using e.g. set_secure_cookie()
else:
await self.authorize_redirect()
.. testoutput::
:hide:
The user object returned by `~OAuthMixin.get_authenticated_user`
includes the attributes ``username``, ``name``, ``access_token``,
and all of the custom Twitter user attributes described at
https://dev.twitter.com/docs/api/1.1/get/users/show
"""
_OAUTH_REQUEST_TOKEN_URL = "https://api.twitter.com/oauth/request_token"
_OAUTH_ACCESS_TOKEN_URL = "https://api.twitter.com/oauth/access_token"
_OAUTH_AUTHORIZE_URL = "https://api.twitter.com/oauth/authorize"
_OAUTH_AUTHENTICATE_URL = "https://api.twitter.com/oauth/authenticate"
_OAUTH_NO_CALLBACKS = False
_TWITTER_BASE_URL = "https://api.twitter.com/1.1"
async def authenticate_redirect(self, callback_uri: str = None) -> None:
"""Just like `~OAuthMixin.authorize_redirect`, but
auto-redirects if authorized.
This is generally the right interface to use if you are using
Twitter for single-sign on.
.. versionchanged:: 3.1
Now returns a `.Future` and takes an optional callback, for
compatibility with `.gen.coroutine`.
.. versionchanged:: 6.0
The ``callback`` argument was removed. Use the returned
awaitable object instead.
"""
http = self.get_auth_http_client()
response = await http.fetch(
self._oauth_request_token_url(callback_uri=callback_uri)
)
self._on_request_token(self._OAUTH_AUTHENTICATE_URL, None, response)
async def twitter_request(
self,
path: str,
access_token: Dict[str, Any],
post_args: Dict[str, Any] = None,
**args: Any
) -> Any:
"""Fetches the given API path, e.g., ``statuses/user_timeline/btaylor``
The path should not include the format or API version number.
(we automatically use JSON format and API version 1).
If the request is a POST, ``post_args`` should be provided. Query
string arguments should be given as keyword arguments.
All the Twitter methods are documented at http://dev.twitter.com/
Many methods require an OAuth access token which you can
obtain through `~OAuthMixin.authorize_redirect` and
`~OAuthMixin.get_authenticated_user`. The user returned through that
process includes an 'access_token' attribute that can be used
to make authenticated requests via this method. Example
usage:
.. testcode::
class MainHandler(tornado.web.RequestHandler,
tornado.auth.TwitterMixin):
@tornado.web.authenticated
async def get(self):
new_entry = await self.twitter_request(
"/statuses/update",
post_args={"status": "Testing Tornado Web Server"},
access_token=self.current_user["access_token"])
if not new_entry:
# Call failed; perhaps missing permission?
yield self.authorize_redirect()
return
self.finish("Posted a message!")
.. testoutput::
:hide:
.. versionchanged:: 6.0
The ``callback`` argument was removed. Use the returned
awaitable object instead.
"""
if path.startswith("http:") or path.startswith("https:"):
# Raw urls are useful for e.g. search which doesn't follow the
# usual pattern: http://search.twitter.com/search.json
url = path
else:
url = self._TWITTER_BASE_URL + path + ".json"
# Add the OAuth resource request signature if we have credentials
if access_token:
all_args = {}
all_args.update(args)
all_args.update(post_args or {})
method = "POST" if post_args is not None else "GET"
oauth = self._oauth_request_parameters(
url, access_token, all_args, method=method
)
args.update(oauth)
if args:
url += "?" + urllib.parse.urlencode(args)
http = self.get_auth_http_client()
if post_args is not None:
response = await http.fetch(
url, method="POST", body=urllib.parse.urlencode(post_args)
)
else:
response = await http.fetch(url)
return escape.json_decode(response.body)
def _oauth_consumer_token(self) -> Dict[str, Any]:
handler = cast(RequestHandler, self)
handler.require_setting("twitter_consumer_key", "Twitter OAuth")
handler.require_setting("twitter_consumer_secret", "Twitter OAuth")
return dict(
key=handler.settings["twitter_consumer_key"],
secret=handler.settings["twitter_consumer_secret"],
)
async def _oauth_get_user_future(
self, access_token: Dict[str, Any]
) -> Dict[str, Any]:
user = await self.twitter_request(
"/account/verify_credentials", access_token=access_token
)
if user:
user["username"] = user["screen_name"]
return user
class GoogleOAuth2Mixin(OAuth2Mixin):
"""Google authentication using OAuth2.
In order to use, register your application with Google and copy the
relevant parameters to your application settings.
* Go to the Google Dev Console at http://console.developers.google.com
* Select a project, or create a new one.
* In the sidebar on the left, select APIs & Auth.
* In the list of APIs, find the Google+ API service and set it to ON.
* In the sidebar on the left, select Credentials.
* In the OAuth section of the page, select Create New Client ID.
* Set the Redirect URI to point to your auth handler
* Copy the "Client secret" and "Client ID" to the application settings as
{"google_oauth": {"key": CLIENT_ID, "secret": CLIENT_SECRET}}
.. versionadded:: 3.2
"""
_OAUTH_AUTHORIZE_URL = "https://accounts.google.com/o/oauth2/v2/auth"
_OAUTH_ACCESS_TOKEN_URL = "https://www.googleapis.com/oauth2/v4/token"
_OAUTH_USERINFO_URL = "https://www.googleapis.com/oauth2/v1/userinfo"
_OAUTH_NO_CALLBACKS = False
_OAUTH_SETTINGS_KEY = "google_oauth"
async def get_authenticated_user(
self, redirect_uri: str, code: str
) -> Dict[str, Any]:
"""Handles the login for the Google user, returning an access token.
The result is a dictionary containing an ``access_token`` field
([among others](https://developers.google.com/identity/protocols/OAuth2WebServer#handlingtheresponse)).
Unlike other ``get_authenticated_user`` methods in this package,
this method does not return any additional information about the user.
The returned access token can be used with `OAuth2Mixin.oauth2_request`
to request additional information (perhaps from
``https://www.googleapis.com/oauth2/v2/userinfo``)
Example usage:
.. testcode::
class GoogleOAuth2LoginHandler(tornado.web.RequestHandler,
tornado.auth.GoogleOAuth2Mixin):
async def get(self):
if self.get_argument('code', False):
access = await self.get_authenticated_user(
redirect_uri='http://your.site.com/auth/google',
code=self.get_argument('code'))
user = await self.oauth2_request(
"https://www.googleapis.com/oauth2/v1/userinfo",
access_token=access["access_token"])
# Save the user and access token with
# e.g. set_secure_cookie.
else:
await self.authorize_redirect(
redirect_uri='http://your.site.com/auth/google',
client_id=self.settings['google_oauth']['key'],
scope=['profile', 'email'],
response_type='code',
extra_params={'approval_prompt': 'auto'})
.. testoutput::
:hide:
.. versionchanged:: 6.0
The ``callback`` argument was removed. Use the returned awaitable object instead.
""" # noqa: E501
handler = cast(RequestHandler, self)
http = self.get_auth_http_client()
body = urllib.parse.urlencode(
{
"redirect_uri": redirect_uri,
"code": code,
"client_id": handler.settings[self._OAUTH_SETTINGS_KEY]["key"],
"client_secret": handler.settings[self._OAUTH_SETTINGS_KEY]["secret"],
"grant_type": "authorization_code",
}
)
response = await http.fetch(
self._OAUTH_ACCESS_TOKEN_URL,
method="POST",
headers={"Content-Type": "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"},
body=body,
)
return escape.json_decode(response.body)
class FacebookGraphMixin(OAuth2Mixin):
"""Facebook authentication using the new Graph API and OAuth2."""
_OAUTH_ACCESS_TOKEN_URL = "https://graph.facebook.com/oauth/access_token?"
_OAUTH_AUTHORIZE_URL = "https://www.facebook.com/dialog/oauth?"
_OAUTH_NO_CALLBACKS = False
_FACEBOOK_BASE_URL = "https://graph.facebook.com"
async def get_authenticated_user(
self,
redirect_uri: str,
client_id: str,
client_secret: str,
code: str,
extra_fields: Dict[str, Any] = None,
) -> Optional[Dict[str, Any]]:
"""Handles the login for the Facebook user, returning a user object.
Example usage:
.. testcode::
class FacebookGraphLoginHandler(tornado.web.RequestHandler,
tornado.auth.FacebookGraphMixin):
async def get(self):
if self.get_argument("code", False):
user = await self.get_authenticated_user(
redirect_uri='/auth/facebookgraph/',
client_id=self.settings["facebook_api_key"],
client_secret=self.settings["facebook_secret"],
code=self.get_argument("code"))
# Save the user with e.g. set_secure_cookie
else:
await self.authorize_redirect(
redirect_uri='/auth/facebookgraph/',
client_id=self.settings["facebook_api_key"],
extra_params={"scope": "read_stream,offline_access"})
.. testoutput::
:hide:
This method returns a dictionary which may contain the following fields:
* ``access_token``, a string which may be passed to `facebook_request`
* ``session_expires``, an integer encoded as a string representing
the time until the access token expires in seconds. This field should
be used like ``int(user['session_expires'])``; in a future version of
Tornado it will change from a string to an integer.
* ``id``, ``name``, ``first_name``, ``last_name``, ``locale``, ``picture``,
``link``, plus any fields named in the ``extra_fields`` argument. These
fields are copied from the Facebook graph API
`user object <https://developers.facebook.com/docs/graph-api/reference/user>`_
.. versionchanged:: 4.5
The ``session_expires`` field was updated to support changes made to the
Facebook API in March 2017.
.. versionchanged:: 6.0
The ``callback`` argument was removed. Use the returned awaitable object instead.
"""
http = self.get_auth_http_client()
args = {
"redirect_uri": redirect_uri,
"code": code,
"client_id": client_id,
"client_secret": client_secret,
}
fields = set(
["id", "name", "first_name", "last_name", "locale", "picture", "link"]
)
if extra_fields:
fields.update(extra_fields)
response = await http.fetch(
self._oauth_request_token_url(**args) # type: ignore
)
args = escape.json_decode(response.body)
session = {
"access_token": args.get("access_token"),
"expires_in": args.get("expires_in"),
}
assert session["access_token"] is not None
user = await self.facebook_request(
path="/me",
access_token=session["access_token"],
appsecret_proof=hmac.new(
key=client_secret.encode("utf8"),
msg=session["access_token"].encode("utf8"),
digestmod=hashlib.sha256,
).hexdigest(),
fields=",".join(fields),
)
if user is None:
return None
fieldmap = {}
for field in fields:
fieldmap[field] = user.get(field)
# session_expires is converted to str for compatibility with
# older versions in which the server used url-encoding and
# this code simply returned the string verbatim.
# This should change in Tornado 5.0.
fieldmap.update(
{
"access_token": session["access_token"],
"session_expires": str(session.get("expires_in")),
}
)
return fieldmap
async def facebook_request(
self,
path: str,
access_token: str = None,
post_args: Dict[str, Any] = None,
**args: Any
) -> Any:
"""Fetches the given relative API path, e.g., "/btaylor/picture"
If the request is a POST, ``post_args`` should be provided. Query
string arguments should be given as keyword arguments.
An introduction to the Facebook Graph API can be found at
http://developers.facebook.com/docs/api
Many methods require an OAuth access token which you can
obtain through `~OAuth2Mixin.authorize_redirect` and
`get_authenticated_user`. The user returned through that
process includes an ``access_token`` attribute that can be
used to make authenticated requests via this method.
Example usage:
.. testcode::
class MainHandler(tornado.web.RequestHandler,
tornado.auth.FacebookGraphMixin):
@tornado.web.authenticated
async def get(self):
new_entry = await self.facebook_request(
"/me/feed",
post_args={"message": "I am posting from my Tornado application!"},
access_token=self.current_user["access_token"])
if not new_entry:
# Call failed; perhaps missing permission?
yield self.authorize_redirect()
return
self.finish("Posted a message!")
.. testoutput::
:hide:
The given path is relative to ``self._FACEBOOK_BASE_URL``,
by default "https://graph.facebook.com".
This method is a wrapper around `OAuth2Mixin.oauth2_request`;
the only difference is that this method takes a relative path,
while ``oauth2_request`` takes a complete url.
.. versionchanged:: 3.1
Added the ability to override ``self._FACEBOOK_BASE_URL``.
.. versionchanged:: 6.0
The ``callback`` argument was removed. Use the returned awaitable object instead.
"""
url = self._FACEBOOK_BASE_URL + path
return await self.oauth2_request(
url, access_token=access_token, post_args=post_args, **args
)
def _oauth_signature(
consumer_token: Dict[str, Any],
method: str,
url: str,
parameters: Dict[str, Any] = {},
token: Dict[str, Any] = None,
) -> bytes:
"""Calculates the HMAC-SHA1 OAuth signature for the given request.
See http://oauth.net/core/1.0/#signing_process
"""
parts = urllib.parse.urlparse(url)
scheme, netloc, path = parts[:3]
normalized_url = scheme.lower() + "://" + netloc.lower() + path
base_elems = []
base_elems.append(method.upper())
base_elems.append(normalized_url)
base_elems.append(
"&".join(
"%s=%s" % (k, _oauth_escape(str(v))) for k, v in sorted(parameters.items())
)
)
base_string = "&".join(_oauth_escape(e) for e in base_elems)
key_elems = [escape.utf8(consumer_token["secret"])]
key_elems.append(escape.utf8(token["secret"] if token else ""))
key = b"&".join(key_elems)
hash = hmac.new(key, escape.utf8(base_string), hashlib.sha1)
return binascii.b2a_base64(hash.digest())[:-1]
def _oauth10a_signature(
consumer_token: Dict[str, Any],
method: str,
url: str,
parameters: Dict[str, Any] = {},
token: Dict[str, Any] = None,
) -> bytes:
"""Calculates the HMAC-SHA1 OAuth 1.0a signature for the given request.
See http://oauth.net/core/1.0a/#signing_process
"""
parts = urllib.parse.urlparse(url)
scheme, netloc, path = parts[:3]
normalized_url = scheme.lower() + "://" + netloc.lower() + path
base_elems = []
base_elems.append(method.upper())
base_elems.append(normalized_url)
base_elems.append(
"&".join(
"%s=%s" % (k, _oauth_escape(str(v))) for k, v in sorted(parameters.items())
)
)
base_string = "&".join(_oauth_escape(e) for e in base_elems)
key_elems = [escape.utf8(urllib.parse.quote(consumer_token["secret"], safe="~"))]
key_elems.append(
escape.utf8(urllib.parse.quote(token["secret"], safe="~") if token else "")
)
key = b"&".join(key_elems)
hash = hmac.new(key, escape.utf8(base_string), hashlib.sha1)
return binascii.b2a_base64(hash.digest())[:-1]
def _oauth_escape(val: Union[str, bytes]) -> str:
if isinstance(val, unicode_type):
val = val.encode("utf-8")
return urllib.parse.quote(val, safe="~")
def _oauth_parse_response(body: bytes) -> Dict[str, Any]:
# I can't find an officially-defined encoding for oauth responses and
# have never seen anyone use non-ascii. Leave the response in a byte
# string for python 2, and use utf8 on python 3.
body_str = escape.native_str(body)
p = urllib.parse.parse_qs(body_str, keep_blank_values=False)
token = dict(key=p["oauth_token"][0], secret=p["oauth_token_secret"][0])
# Add the extra parameters the Provider included to the token
special = ("oauth_token", "oauth_token_secret")
token.update((k, p[k][0]) for k in p if k not in special)
return token