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#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
# Copyright 2009 Facebook
#
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"); you may
# not use this file except in compliance with the License. You may obtain
# a copy of the License at
#
# http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT
# WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the
# License for the specific language governing permissions and limitations
# under the License.
"""Translation methods for generating localized strings.
To load a locale and generate a translated string::
user_locale = tornado.locale.get("es_LA")
print(user_locale.translate("Sign out"))
`tornado.locale.get()` returns the closest matching locale, not necessarily the
specific locale you requested. You can support pluralization with
additional arguments to `~Locale.translate()`, e.g.::
people = [...]
message = user_locale.translate(
"%(list)s is online", "%(list)s are online", len(people))
print(message % {"list": user_locale.list(people)})
The first string is chosen if ``len(people) == 1``, otherwise the second
string is chosen.
Applications should call one of `load_translations` (which uses a simple
CSV format) or `load_gettext_translations` (which uses the ``.mo`` format
supported by `gettext` and related tools). If neither method is called,
the `Locale.translate` method will simply return the original string.
"""
from __future__ import absolute_import, division, print_function
import codecs
import csv
import datetime
from io import BytesIO
import numbers
import os
import re
from tornado import escape
from tornado.log import gen_log
from tornado.util import PY3
from tornado._locale_data import LOCALE_NAMES
_default_locale = "en_US"
_translations = {} # type: dict
_supported_locales = frozenset([_default_locale])
_use_gettext = False
CONTEXT_SEPARATOR = "\x04"
def get(*locale_codes):
"""Returns the closest match for the given locale codes.
We iterate over all given locale codes in order. If we have a tight
or a loose match for the code (e.g., "en" for "en_US"), we return
the locale. Otherwise we move to the next code in the list.
By default we return ``en_US`` if no translations are found for any of
the specified locales. You can change the default locale with
`set_default_locale()`.
"""
return Locale.get_closest(*locale_codes)
def set_default_locale(code):
"""Sets the default locale.
The default locale is assumed to be the language used for all strings
in the system. The translations loaded from disk are mappings from
the default locale to the destination locale. Consequently, you don't
need to create a translation file for the default locale.
"""
global _default_locale
global _supported_locales
_default_locale = code
_supported_locales = frozenset(list(_translations.keys()) + [_default_locale])
def load_translations(directory, encoding=None):
"""Loads translations from CSV files in a directory.
Translations are strings with optional Python-style named placeholders
(e.g., ``My name is %(name)s``) and their associated translations.
The directory should have translation files of the form ``LOCALE.csv``,
e.g. ``es_GT.csv``. The CSV files should have two or three columns: string,
translation, and an optional plural indicator. Plural indicators should
be one of "plural" or "singular". A given string can have both singular
and plural forms. For example ``%(name)s liked this`` may have a
different verb conjugation depending on whether %(name)s is one
name or a list of names. There should be two rows in the CSV file for
that string, one with plural indicator "singular", and one "plural".
For strings with no verbs that would change on translation, simply
use "unknown" or the empty string (or don't include the column at all).
The file is read using the `csv` module in the default "excel" dialect.
In this format there should not be spaces after the commas.
If no ``encoding`` parameter is given, the encoding will be
detected automatically (among UTF-8 and UTF-16) if the file
contains a byte-order marker (BOM), defaulting to UTF-8 if no BOM
is present.
Example translation ``es_LA.csv``::
"I love you","Te amo"
"%(name)s liked this","A %(name)s les gustó esto","plural"
"%(name)s liked this","A %(name)s le gustó esto","singular"
.. versionchanged:: 4.3
Added ``encoding`` parameter. Added support for BOM-based encoding
detection, UTF-16, and UTF-8-with-BOM.
"""
global _translations
global _supported_locales
_translations = {}
for path in os.listdir(directory):
if not path.endswith(".csv"):
continue
locale, extension = path.split(".")
if not re.match("[a-z]+(_[A-Z]+)?$", locale):
gen_log.error("Unrecognized locale %r (path: %s)", locale,
os.path.join(directory, path))
continue
full_path = os.path.join(directory, path)
if encoding is None:
# Try to autodetect encoding based on the BOM.
with open(full_path, 'rb') as f:
data = f.read(len(codecs.BOM_UTF16_LE))
if data in (codecs.BOM_UTF16_LE, codecs.BOM_UTF16_BE):
encoding = 'utf-16'
else:
# utf-8-sig is "utf-8 with optional BOM". It's discouraged
# in most cases but is common with CSV files because Excel
# cannot read utf-8 files without a BOM.
encoding = 'utf-8-sig'
if PY3:
# python 3: csv.reader requires a file open in text mode.
# Force utf8 to avoid dependence on $LANG environment variable.
f = open(full_path, "r", encoding=encoding)
else:
# python 2: csv can only handle byte strings (in ascii-compatible
# encodings), which we decode below. Transcode everything into
# utf8 before passing it to csv.reader.
f = BytesIO()
with codecs.open(full_path, "r", encoding=encoding) as infile:
f.write(escape.utf8(infile.read()))
f.seek(0)
_translations[locale] = {}
for i, row in enumerate(csv.reader(f)):
if not row or len(row) < 2:
continue
row = [escape.to_unicode(c).strip() for c in row]
english, translation = row[:2]
if len(row) > 2:
plural = row[2] or "unknown"
else:
plural = "unknown"
if plural not in ("plural", "singular", "unknown"):
gen_log.error("Unrecognized plural indicator %r in %s line %d",
plural, path, i + 1)
continue
_translations[locale].setdefault(plural, {})[english] = translation
f.close()
_supported_locales = frozenset(list(_translations.keys()) + [_default_locale])
gen_log.debug("Supported locales: %s", sorted(_supported_locales))
def load_gettext_translations(directory, domain):
"""Loads translations from `gettext`'s locale tree
Locale tree is similar to system's ``/usr/share/locale``, like::
{directory}/{lang}/LC_MESSAGES/{domain}.mo
Three steps are required to have your app translated:
1. Generate POT translation file::
xgettext --language=Python --keyword=_:1,2 -d mydomain file1.py file2.html etc
2. Merge against existing POT file::
msgmerge old.po mydomain.po > new.po
3. Compile::
msgfmt mydomain.po -o {directory}/pt_BR/LC_MESSAGES/mydomain.mo
"""
import gettext
global _translations
global _supported_locales
global _use_gettext
_translations = {}
for lang in os.listdir(directory):
if lang.startswith('.'):
continue # skip .svn, etc
if os.path.isfile(os.path.join(directory, lang)):
continue
try:
os.stat(os.path.join(directory, lang, "LC_MESSAGES", domain + ".mo"))
_translations[lang] = gettext.translation(domain, directory,
languages=[lang])
except Exception as e:
gen_log.error("Cannot load translation for '%s': %s", lang, str(e))
continue
_supported_locales = frozenset(list(_translations.keys()) + [_default_locale])
_use_gettext = True
gen_log.debug("Supported locales: %s", sorted(_supported_locales))
def get_supported_locales():
"""Returns a list of all the supported locale codes."""
return _supported_locales
class Locale(object):
"""Object representing a locale.
After calling one of `load_translations` or `load_gettext_translations`,
call `get` or `get_closest` to get a Locale object.
"""
@classmethod
def get_closest(cls, *locale_codes):
"""Returns the closest match for the given locale code."""
for code in locale_codes:
if not code:
continue
code = code.replace("-", "_")
parts = code.split("_")
if len(parts) > 2:
continue
elif len(parts) == 2:
code = parts[0].lower() + "_" + parts[1].upper()
if code in _supported_locales:
return cls.get(code)
if parts[0].lower() in _supported_locales:
return cls.get(parts[0].lower())
return cls.get(_default_locale)
@classmethod
def get(cls, code):
"""Returns the Locale for the given locale code.
If it is not supported, we raise an exception.
"""
if not hasattr(cls, "_cache"):
cls._cache = {}
if code not in cls._cache:
assert code in _supported_locales
translations = _translations.get(code, None)
if translations is None:
locale = CSVLocale(code, {})
elif _use_gettext:
locale = GettextLocale(code, translations)
else:
locale = CSVLocale(code, translations)
cls._cache[code] = locale
return cls._cache[code]
def __init__(self, code, translations):
self.code = code
self.name = LOCALE_NAMES.get(code, {}).get("name", u"Unknown")
self.rtl = False
for prefix in ["fa", "ar", "he"]:
if self.code.startswith(prefix):
self.rtl = True
break
self.translations = translations
# Initialize strings for date formatting
_ = self.translate
self._months = [
_("January"), _("February"), _("March"), _("April"),
_("May"), _("June"), _("July"), _("August"),
_("September"), _("October"), _("November"), _("December")]
self._weekdays = [
_("Monday"), _("Tuesday"), _("Wednesday"), _("Thursday"),
_("Friday"), _("Saturday"), _("Sunday")]
def translate(self, message, plural_message=None, count=None):
"""Returns the translation for the given message for this locale.
If ``plural_message`` is given, you must also provide
``count``. We return ``plural_message`` when ``count != 1``,
and we return the singular form for the given message when
``count == 1``.
"""
raise NotImplementedError()
def pgettext(self, context, message, plural_message=None, count=None):
raise NotImplementedError()
def format_date(self, date, gmt_offset=0, relative=True, shorter=False,
full_format=False):
"""Formats the given date (which should be GMT).
By default, we return a relative time (e.g., "2 minutes ago"). You
can return an absolute date string with ``relative=False``.
You can force a full format date ("July 10, 1980") with
``full_format=True``.
This method is primarily intended for dates in the past.
For dates in the future, we fall back to full format.
"""
if isinstance(date, numbers.Real):
date = datetime.datetime.utcfromtimestamp(date)
now = datetime.datetime.utcnow()
if date > now:
if relative and (date - now).seconds < 60:
# Due to click skew, things are some things slightly
# in the future. Round timestamps in the immediate
# future down to now in relative mode.
date = now
else:
# Otherwise, future dates always use the full format.
full_format = True
local_date = date - datetime.timedelta(minutes=gmt_offset)
local_now = now - datetime.timedelta(minutes=gmt_offset)
local_yesterday = local_now - datetime.timedelta(hours=24)
difference = now - date
seconds = difference.seconds
days = difference.days
_ = self.translate
format = None
if not full_format:
if relative and days == 0:
if seconds < 50:
return _("1 second ago", "%(seconds)d seconds ago",
seconds) % {"seconds": seconds}
if seconds < 50 * 60:
minutes = round(seconds / 60.0)
return _("1 minute ago", "%(minutes)d minutes ago",
minutes) % {"minutes": minutes}
hours = round(seconds / (60.0 * 60))
return _("1 hour ago", "%(hours)d hours ago",
hours) % {"hours": hours}
if days == 0:
format = _("%(time)s")
elif days == 1 and local_date.day == local_yesterday.day and \
relative:
format = _("yesterday") if shorter else \
_("yesterday at %(time)s")
elif days < 5:
format = _("%(weekday)s") if shorter else \
_("%(weekday)s at %(time)s")
elif days < 334: # 11mo, since confusing for same month last year
format = _("%(month_name)s %(day)s") if shorter else \
_("%(month_name)s %(day)s at %(time)s")
if format is None:
format = _("%(month_name)s %(day)s, %(year)s") if shorter else \
_("%(month_name)s %(day)s, %(year)s at %(time)s")
tfhour_clock = self.code not in ("en", "en_US", "zh_CN")
if tfhour_clock:
str_time = "%d:%02d" % (local_date.hour, local_date.minute)
elif self.code == "zh_CN":
str_time = "%s%d:%02d" % (
(u'\u4e0a\u5348', u'\u4e0b\u5348')[local_date.hour >= 12],
local_date.hour % 12 or 12, local_date.minute)
else:
str_time = "%d:%02d %s" % (
local_date.hour % 12 or 12, local_date.minute,
("am", "pm")[local_date.hour >= 12])
return format % {
"month_name": self._months[local_date.month - 1],
"weekday": self._weekdays[local_date.weekday()],
"day": str(local_date.day),
"year": str(local_date.year),
"time": str_time
}
def format_day(self, date, gmt_offset=0, dow=True):
"""Formats the given date as a day of week.
Example: "Monday, January 22". You can remove the day of week with
``dow=False``.
"""
local_date = date - datetime.timedelta(minutes=gmt_offset)
_ = self.translate
if dow:
return _("%(weekday)s, %(month_name)s %(day)s") % {
"month_name": self._months[local_date.month - 1],
"weekday": self._weekdays[local_date.weekday()],
"day": str(local_date.day),
}
else:
return _("%(month_name)s %(day)s") % {
"month_name": self._months[local_date.month - 1],
"day": str(local_date.day),
}
def list(self, parts):
"""Returns a comma-separated list for the given list of parts.
The format is, e.g., "A, B and C", "A and B" or just "A" for lists
of size 1.
"""
_ = self.translate
if len(parts) == 0:
return ""
if len(parts) == 1:
return parts[0]
comma = u' \u0648 ' if self.code.startswith("fa") else u", "
return _("%(commas)s and %(last)s") % {
"commas": comma.join(parts[:-1]),
"last": parts[len(parts) - 1],
}
def friendly_number(self, value):
"""Returns a comma-separated number for the given integer."""
if self.code not in ("en", "en_US"):
return str(value)
value = str(value)
parts = []
while value:
parts.append(value[-3:])
value = value[:-3]
return ",".join(reversed(parts))
class CSVLocale(Locale):
"""Locale implementation using tornado's CSV translation format."""
def translate(self, message, plural_message=None, count=None):
if plural_message is not None:
assert count is not None
if count != 1:
message = plural_message
message_dict = self.translations.get("plural", {})
else:
message_dict = self.translations.get("singular", {})
else:
message_dict = self.translations.get("unknown", {})
return message_dict.get(message, message)
def pgettext(self, context, message, plural_message=None, count=None):
if self.translations:
gen_log.warning('pgettext is not supported by CSVLocale')
return self.translate(message, plural_message, count)
class GettextLocale(Locale):
"""Locale implementation using the `gettext` module."""
def __init__(self, code, translations):
try:
# python 2
self.ngettext = translations.ungettext
self.gettext = translations.ugettext
except AttributeError:
# python 3
self.ngettext = translations.ngettext
self.gettext = translations.gettext
# self.gettext must exist before __init__ is called, since it
# calls into self.translate
super(GettextLocale, self).__init__(code, translations)
def translate(self, message, plural_message=None, count=None):
if plural_message is not None:
assert count is not None
return self.ngettext(message, plural_message, count)
else:
return self.gettext(message)
def pgettext(self, context, message, plural_message=None, count=None):
"""Allows to set context for translation, accepts plural forms.
Usage example::
pgettext("law", "right")
pgettext("good", "right")
Plural message example::
pgettext("organization", "club", "clubs", len(clubs))
pgettext("stick", "club", "clubs", len(clubs))
To generate POT file with context, add following options to step 1
of `load_gettext_translations` sequence::
xgettext [basic options] --keyword=pgettext:1c,2 --keyword=pgettext:1c,2,3
.. versionadded:: 4.2
"""
if plural_message is not None:
assert count is not None
msgs_with_ctxt = ("%s%s%s" % (context, CONTEXT_SEPARATOR, message),
"%s%s%s" % (context, CONTEXT_SEPARATOR, plural_message),
count)
result = self.ngettext(*msgs_with_ctxt)
if CONTEXT_SEPARATOR in result:
# Translation not found
result = self.ngettext(message, plural_message, count)
return result
else:
msg_with_ctxt = "%s%s%s" % (context, CONTEXT_SEPARATOR, message)
result = self.gettext(msg_with_ctxt)
if CONTEXT_SEPARATOR in result:
# Translation not found
result = message
return result