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#
# Copyright 2009 Facebook
#
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"); you may
# not use this file except in compliance with the License. You may obtain
# a copy of the License at
#
# http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT
# WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the
# License for the specific language governing permissions and limitations
# under the License.
"""``tornado.web`` provides a simple web framework with asynchronous
features that allow it to scale to large numbers of open connections,
making it ideal for `long polling
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Push_technology#Long_polling>`_.
Here is a simple "Hello, world" example app:
.. testcode::
import tornado.ioloop
import tornado.web
class MainHandler(tornado.web.RequestHandler):
def get(self):
self.write("Hello, world")
if __name__ == "__main__":
application = tornado.web.Application([
(r"/", MainHandler),
])
application.listen(8888)
tornado.ioloop.IOLoop.current().start()
.. testoutput::
:hide:
See the :doc:`guide` for additional information.
Thread-safety notes
-------------------
In general, methods on `RequestHandler` and elsewhere in Tornado are
not thread-safe. In particular, methods such as
`~RequestHandler.write()`, `~RequestHandler.finish()`, and
`~RequestHandler.flush()` must only be called from the main thread. If
you use multiple threads it is important to use `.IOLoop.add_callback`
to transfer control back to the main thread before finishing the
request, or to limit your use of other threads to
`.IOLoop.run_in_executor` and ensure that your callbacks running in
the executor do not refer to Tornado objects.
"""
import base64
import binascii
import datetime
import email.utils
import functools
import gzip
import hashlib
import hmac
import http.cookies
from inspect import isclass
from io import BytesIO
import mimetypes
import numbers
import os.path
import re
import sys
import threading
import time
import tornado
import traceback
import types
import urllib.parse
from urllib.parse import urlencode
from tornado.concurrent import Future, future_set_result_unless_cancelled
from tornado import escape
from tornado import gen
from tornado.httpserver import HTTPServer
from tornado import httputil
from tornado import iostream
import tornado.locale
from tornado import locale
from tornado.log import access_log, app_log, gen_log
from tornado import template
from tornado.escape import utf8, _unicode
from tornado.routing import (
AnyMatches,
DefaultHostMatches,
HostMatches,
ReversibleRouter,
Rule,
ReversibleRuleRouter,
URLSpec,
_RuleList,
)
from tornado.util import ObjectDict, unicode_type, _websocket_mask
url = URLSpec
from typing import (
Dict,
Any,
Union,
Optional,
Awaitable,
Tuple,
List,
Callable,
Iterable,
Generator,
Type,
cast,
overload,
)
from types import TracebackType
import typing
if typing.TYPE_CHECKING:
from typing import Set # noqa: F401
# The following types are accepted by RequestHandler.set_header
# and related methods.
_HeaderTypes = Union[bytes, unicode_type, int, numbers.Integral, datetime.datetime]
_CookieSecretTypes = Union[str, bytes, Dict[int, str], Dict[int, bytes]]
MIN_SUPPORTED_SIGNED_VALUE_VERSION = 1
"""The oldest signed value version supported by this version of Tornado.
Signed values older than this version cannot be decoded.
.. versionadded:: 3.2.1
"""
MAX_SUPPORTED_SIGNED_VALUE_VERSION = 2
"""The newest signed value version supported by this version of Tornado.
Signed values newer than this version cannot be decoded.
.. versionadded:: 3.2.1
"""
DEFAULT_SIGNED_VALUE_VERSION = 2
"""The signed value version produced by `.RequestHandler.create_signed_value`.
May be overridden by passing a ``version`` keyword argument.
.. versionadded:: 3.2.1
"""
DEFAULT_SIGNED_VALUE_MIN_VERSION = 1
"""The oldest signed value accepted by `.RequestHandler.get_secure_cookie`.
May be overridden by passing a ``min_version`` keyword argument.
.. versionadded:: 3.2.1
"""
class _ArgDefaultMarker:
pass
_ARG_DEFAULT = _ArgDefaultMarker()
class RequestHandler(object):
"""Base class for HTTP request handlers.
Subclasses must define at least one of the methods defined in the
"Entry points" section below.
"""
SUPPORTED_METHODS = ("GET", "HEAD", "POST", "DELETE", "PATCH", "PUT", "OPTIONS")
_template_loaders = {} # type: Dict[str, template.BaseLoader]
_template_loader_lock = threading.Lock()
_remove_control_chars_regex = re.compile(r"[\x00-\x08\x0e-\x1f]")
_stream_request_body = False
# Will be set in _execute.
_transforms = None # type: List[OutputTransform]
path_args = None # type: List[str]
path_kwargs = None # type: Dict[str, str]
def __init__(
self,
application: "Application",
request: httputil.HTTPServerRequest,
**kwargs: Any
) -> None:
super(RequestHandler, self).__init__()
self.application = application
self.request = request
self._headers_written = False
self._finished = False
self._auto_finish = True
self._prepared_future = None
self.ui = ObjectDict(
(n, self._ui_method(m)) for n, m in application.ui_methods.items()
)
# UIModules are available as both `modules` and `_tt_modules` in the
# template namespace. Historically only `modules` was available
# but could be clobbered by user additions to the namespace.
# The template {% module %} directive looks in `_tt_modules` to avoid
# possible conflicts.
self.ui["_tt_modules"] = _UIModuleNamespace(self, application.ui_modules)
self.ui["modules"] = self.ui["_tt_modules"]
self.clear()
assert self.request.connection is not None
# TODO: need to add set_close_callback to HTTPConnection interface
self.request.connection.set_close_callback( # type: ignore
self.on_connection_close
)
self.initialize(**kwargs) # type: ignore
def _initialize(self) -> None:
pass
initialize = _initialize # type: Callable[..., None]
"""Hook for subclass initialization. Called for each request.
A dictionary passed as the third argument of a url spec will be
supplied as keyword arguments to initialize().
Example::
class ProfileHandler(RequestHandler):
def initialize(self, database):
self.database = database
def get(self, username):
...
app = Application([
(r'/user/(.*)', ProfileHandler, dict(database=database)),
])
"""
@property
def settings(self) -> Dict[str, Any]:
"""An alias for `self.application.settings <Application.settings>`."""
return self.application.settings
def _unimplemented_method(self, *args: str, **kwargs: str) -> None:
raise HTTPError(405)
head = _unimplemented_method # type: Callable[..., Optional[Awaitable[None]]]
get = _unimplemented_method # type: Callable[..., Optional[Awaitable[None]]]
post = _unimplemented_method # type: Callable[..., Optional[Awaitable[None]]]
delete = _unimplemented_method # type: Callable[..., Optional[Awaitable[None]]]
patch = _unimplemented_method # type: Callable[..., Optional[Awaitable[None]]]
put = _unimplemented_method # type: Callable[..., Optional[Awaitable[None]]]
options = _unimplemented_method # type: Callable[..., Optional[Awaitable[None]]]
def prepare(self) -> Optional[Awaitable[None]]:
"""Called at the beginning of a request before `get`/`post`/etc.
Override this method to perform common initialization regardless
of the request method.
Asynchronous support: Decorate this method with `.gen.coroutine`
or use ``async def`` to make it asynchronous.
If this method returns a `.Future` execution will not proceed
until the `.Future` is done.
.. versionadded:: 3.1
Asynchronous support.
"""
pass
def on_finish(self) -> None:
"""Called after the end of a request.
Override this method to perform cleanup, logging, etc.
This method is a counterpart to `prepare`. ``on_finish`` may
not produce any output, as it is called after the response
has been sent to the client.
"""
pass
def on_connection_close(self) -> None:
"""Called in async handlers if the client closed the connection.
Override this to clean up resources associated with
long-lived connections. Note that this method is called only if
the connection was closed during asynchronous processing; if you
need to do cleanup after every request override `on_finish`
instead.
Proxies may keep a connection open for a time (perhaps
indefinitely) after the client has gone away, so this method
may not be called promptly after the end user closes their
connection.
"""
if _has_stream_request_body(self.__class__):
if not self.request._body_future.done():
self.request._body_future.set_exception(iostream.StreamClosedError())
self.request._body_future.exception()
def clear(self) -> None:
"""Resets all headers and content for this response."""
self._headers = httputil.HTTPHeaders(
{
"Server": "TornadoServer/%s" % tornado.version,
"Content-Type": "text/html; charset=UTF-8",
"Date": httputil.format_timestamp(time.time()),
}
)
self.set_default_headers()
self._write_buffer = [] # type: List[bytes]
self._status_code = 200
self._reason = httputil.responses[200]
def set_default_headers(self) -> None:
"""Override this to set HTTP headers at the beginning of the request.
For example, this is the place to set a custom ``Server`` header.
Note that setting such headers in the normal flow of request
processing may not do what you want, since headers may be reset
during error handling.
"""
pass
def set_status(self, status_code: int, reason: str = None) -> None:
"""Sets the status code for our response.
:arg int status_code: Response status code.
:arg str reason: Human-readable reason phrase describing the status
code. If ``None``, it will be filled in from
`http.client.responses` or "Unknown".
.. versionchanged:: 5.0
No longer validates that the response code is in
`http.client.responses`.
"""
self._status_code = status_code
if reason is not None:
self._reason = escape.native_str(reason)
else:
self._reason = httputil.responses.get(status_code, "Unknown")
def get_status(self) -> int:
"""Returns the status code for our response."""
return self._status_code
def set_header(self, name: str, value: _HeaderTypes) -> None:
"""Sets the given response header name and value.
If a datetime is given, we automatically format it according to the
HTTP specification. If the value is not a string, we convert it to
a string. All header values are then encoded as UTF-8.
"""
self._headers[name] = self._convert_header_value(value)
def add_header(self, name: str, value: _HeaderTypes) -> None:
"""Adds the given response header and value.
Unlike `set_header`, `add_header` may be called multiple times
to return multiple values for the same header.
"""
self._headers.add(name, self._convert_header_value(value))
def clear_header(self, name: str) -> None:
"""Clears an outgoing header, undoing a previous `set_header` call.
Note that this method does not apply to multi-valued headers
set by `add_header`.
"""
if name in self._headers:
del self._headers[name]
_INVALID_HEADER_CHAR_RE = re.compile(r"[\x00-\x1f]")
def _convert_header_value(self, value: _HeaderTypes) -> str:
# Convert the input value to a str. This type check is a bit
# subtle: The bytes case only executes on python 3, and the
# unicode case only executes on python 2, because the other
# cases are covered by the first match for str.
if isinstance(value, str):
retval = value
elif isinstance(value, bytes): # py3
# Non-ascii characters in headers are not well supported,
# but if you pass bytes, use latin1 so they pass through as-is.
retval = value.decode("latin1")
elif isinstance(value, unicode_type): # py2
# TODO: This is inconsistent with the use of latin1 above,
# but it's been that way for a long time. Should it change?
retval = escape.utf8(value)
elif isinstance(value, numbers.Integral):
# return immediately since we know the converted value will be safe
return str(value)
elif isinstance(value, datetime.datetime):
return httputil.format_timestamp(value)
else:
raise TypeError("Unsupported header value %r" % value)
# If \n is allowed into the header, it is possible to inject
# additional headers or split the request.
if RequestHandler._INVALID_HEADER_CHAR_RE.search(retval):
raise ValueError("Unsafe header value %r", retval)
return retval
@overload
def get_argument(self, name: str, default: str, strip: bool = True) -> str:
pass
@overload # noqa: F811
def get_argument(
self, name: str, default: _ArgDefaultMarker = _ARG_DEFAULT, strip: bool = True
) -> str:
pass
@overload # noqa: F811
def get_argument(
self, name: str, default: None, strip: bool = True
) -> Optional[str]:
pass
def get_argument( # noqa: F811
self,
name: str,
default: Union[None, str, _ArgDefaultMarker] = _ARG_DEFAULT,
strip: bool = True,
) -> Optional[str]:
"""Returns the value of the argument with the given name.
If default is not provided, the argument is considered to be
required, and we raise a `MissingArgumentError` if it is missing.
If the argument appears in the url more than once, we return the
last value.
The returned value is always unicode.
"""
return self._get_argument(name, default, self.request.arguments, strip)
def get_arguments(self, name: str, strip: bool = True) -> List[str]:
"""Returns a list of the arguments with the given name.
If the argument is not present, returns an empty list.
The returned values are always unicode.
"""
# Make sure `get_arguments` isn't accidentally being called with a
# positional argument that's assumed to be a default (like in
# `get_argument`.)
assert isinstance(strip, bool)
return self._get_arguments(name, self.request.arguments, strip)
def get_body_argument(
self,
name: str,
default: Union[None, str, _ArgDefaultMarker] = _ARG_DEFAULT,
strip: bool = True,
) -> Optional[str]:
"""Returns the value of the argument with the given name
from the request body.
If default is not provided, the argument is considered to be
required, and we raise a `MissingArgumentError` if it is missing.
If the argument appears in the url more than once, we return the
last value.
The returned value is always unicode.
.. versionadded:: 3.2
"""
return self._get_argument(name, default, self.request.body_arguments, strip)
def get_body_arguments(self, name: str, strip: bool = True) -> List[str]:
"""Returns a list of the body arguments with the given name.
If the argument is not present, returns an empty list.
The returned values are always unicode.
.. versionadded:: 3.2
"""
return self._get_arguments(name, self.request.body_arguments, strip)
def get_query_argument(
self,
name: str,
default: Union[None, str, _ArgDefaultMarker] = _ARG_DEFAULT,
strip: bool = True,
) -> Optional[str]:
"""Returns the value of the argument with the given name
from the request query string.
If default is not provided, the argument is considered to be
required, and we raise a `MissingArgumentError` if it is missing.
If the argument appears in the url more than once, we return the
last value.
The returned value is always unicode.
.. versionadded:: 3.2
"""
return self._get_argument(name, default, self.request.query_arguments, strip)
def get_query_arguments(self, name: str, strip: bool = True) -> List[str]:
"""Returns a list of the query arguments with the given name.
If the argument is not present, returns an empty list.
The returned values are always unicode.
.. versionadded:: 3.2
"""
return self._get_arguments(name, self.request.query_arguments, strip)
def _get_argument(
self,
name: str,
default: Union[None, str, _ArgDefaultMarker],
source: Dict[str, List[bytes]],
strip: bool = True,
) -> Optional[str]:
args = self._get_arguments(name, source, strip=strip)
if not args:
if isinstance(default, _ArgDefaultMarker):
raise MissingArgumentError(name)
return default
return args[-1]
def _get_arguments(
self, name: str, source: Dict[str, List[bytes]], strip: bool = True
) -> List[str]:
values = []
for v in source.get(name, []):
s = self.decode_argument(v, name=name)
if isinstance(s, unicode_type):
# Get rid of any weird control chars (unless decoding gave
# us bytes, in which case leave it alone)
s = RequestHandler._remove_control_chars_regex.sub(" ", s)
if strip:
s = s.strip()
values.append(s)
return values
def decode_argument(self, value: bytes, name: str = None) -> str:
"""Decodes an argument from the request.
The argument has been percent-decoded and is now a byte string.
By default, this method decodes the argument as utf-8 and returns
a unicode string, but this may be overridden in subclasses.
This method is used as a filter for both `get_argument()` and for
values extracted from the url and passed to `get()`/`post()`/etc.
The name of the argument is provided if known, but may be None
(e.g. for unnamed groups in the url regex).
"""
try:
return _unicode(value)
except UnicodeDecodeError:
raise HTTPError(
400, "Invalid unicode in %s: %r" % (name or "url", value[:40])
)
@property
def cookies(self) -> Dict[str, http.cookies.Morsel]:
"""An alias for
`self.request.cookies <.httputil.HTTPServerRequest.cookies>`."""
return self.request.cookies
def get_cookie(self, name: str, default: str = None) -> Optional[str]:
"""Returns the value of the request cookie with the given name.
If the named cookie is not present, returns ``default``.
This method only returns cookies that were present in the request.
It does not see the outgoing cookies set by `set_cookie` in this
handler.
"""
if self.request.cookies is not None and name in self.request.cookies:
return self.request.cookies[name].value
return default
def set_cookie(
self,
name: str,
value: Union[str, bytes],
domain: str = None,
expires: Union[float, Tuple, datetime.datetime] = None,
path: str = "/",
expires_days: int = None,
**kwargs: Any
) -> None:
"""Sets an outgoing cookie name/value with the given options.
Newly-set cookies are not immediately visible via `get_cookie`;
they are not present until the next request.
expires may be a numeric timestamp as returned by `time.time`,
a time tuple as returned by `time.gmtime`, or a
`datetime.datetime` object.
Additional keyword arguments are set on the cookies.Morsel
directly.
See https://docs.python.org/3/library/http.cookies.html#http.cookies.Morsel
for available attributes.
"""
# The cookie library only accepts type str, in both python 2 and 3
name = escape.native_str(name)
value = escape.native_str(value)
if re.search(r"[\x00-\x20]", name + value):
# Don't let us accidentally inject bad stuff
raise ValueError("Invalid cookie %r: %r" % (name, value))
if not hasattr(self, "_new_cookie"):
self._new_cookie = http.cookies.SimpleCookie()
if name in self._new_cookie:
del self._new_cookie[name]
self._new_cookie[name] = value
morsel = self._new_cookie[name]
if domain:
morsel["domain"] = domain
if expires_days is not None and not expires:
expires = datetime.datetime.utcnow() + datetime.timedelta(days=expires_days)
if expires:
morsel["expires"] = httputil.format_timestamp(expires)
if path:
morsel["path"] = path
for k, v in kwargs.items():
if k == "max_age":
k = "max-age"
# skip falsy values for httponly and secure flags because
# SimpleCookie sets them regardless
if k in ["httponly", "secure"] and not v:
continue
morsel[k] = v
def clear_cookie(self, name: str, path: str = "/", domain: str = None) -> None:
"""Deletes the cookie with the given name.
Due to limitations of the cookie protocol, you must pass the same
path and domain to clear a cookie as were used when that cookie
was set (but there is no way to find out on the server side
which values were used for a given cookie).
Similar to `set_cookie`, the effect of this method will not be
seen until the following request.
"""
expires = datetime.datetime.utcnow() - datetime.timedelta(days=365)
self.set_cookie(name, value="", path=path, expires=expires, domain=domain)
def clear_all_cookies(self, path: str = "/", domain: str = None) -> None:
"""Deletes all the cookies the user sent with this request.
See `clear_cookie` for more information on the path and domain
parameters.
Similar to `set_cookie`, the effect of this method will not be
seen until the following request.
.. versionchanged:: 3.2
Added the ``path`` and ``domain`` parameters.
"""
for name in self.request.cookies:
self.clear_cookie(name, path=path, domain=domain)
def set_secure_cookie(
self,
name: str,
value: Union[str, bytes],
expires_days: int = 30,
version: int = None,
**kwargs: Any
) -> None:
"""Signs and timestamps a cookie so it cannot be forged.
You must specify the ``cookie_secret`` setting in your Application
to use this method. It should be a long, random sequence of bytes
to be used as the HMAC secret for the signature.
To read a cookie set with this method, use `get_secure_cookie()`.
Note that the ``expires_days`` parameter sets the lifetime of the
cookie in the browser, but is independent of the ``max_age_days``
parameter to `get_secure_cookie`.
Secure cookies may contain arbitrary byte values, not just unicode
strings (unlike regular cookies)
Similar to `set_cookie`, the effect of this method will not be
seen until the following request.
.. versionchanged:: 3.2.1
Added the ``version`` argument. Introduced cookie version 2
and made it the default.
"""
self.set_cookie(
name,
self.create_signed_value(name, value, version=version),
expires_days=expires_days,
**kwargs
)
def create_signed_value(
self, name: str, value: Union[str, bytes], version: int = None
) -> bytes:
"""Signs and timestamps a string so it cannot be forged.
Normally used via set_secure_cookie, but provided as a separate
method for non-cookie uses. To decode a value not stored
as a cookie use the optional value argument to get_secure_cookie.
.. versionchanged:: 3.2.1
Added the ``version`` argument. Introduced cookie version 2
and made it the default.
"""
self.require_setting("cookie_secret", "secure cookies")
secret = self.application.settings["cookie_secret"]
key_version = None
if isinstance(secret, dict):
if self.application.settings.get("key_version") is None:
raise Exception("key_version setting must be used for secret_key dicts")
key_version = self.application.settings["key_version"]
return create_signed_value(
secret, name, value, version=version, key_version=key_version
)
def get_secure_cookie(
self,
name: str,
value: str = None,
max_age_days: int = 31,
min_version: int = None,
) -> Optional[bytes]:
"""Returns the given signed cookie if it validates, or None.
The decoded cookie value is returned as a byte string (unlike
`get_cookie`).
Similar to `get_cookie`, this method only returns cookies that
were present in the request. It does not see outgoing cookies set by
`set_secure_cookie` in this handler.
.. versionchanged:: 3.2.1
Added the ``min_version`` argument. Introduced cookie version 2;
both versions 1 and 2 are accepted by default.
"""
self.require_setting("cookie_secret", "secure cookies")
if value is None:
value = self.get_cookie(name)
return decode_signed_value(
self.application.settings["cookie_secret"],
name,
value,
max_age_days=max_age_days,
min_version=min_version,
)
def get_secure_cookie_key_version(
self, name: str, value: str = None
) -> Optional[int]:
"""Returns the signing key version of the secure cookie.
The version is returned as int.
"""
self.require_setting("cookie_secret", "secure cookies")
if value is None:
value = self.get_cookie(name)
if value is None:
return None
return get_signature_key_version(value)
def redirect(self, url: str, permanent: bool = False, status: int = None) -> None:
"""Sends a redirect to the given (optionally relative) URL.
If the ``status`` argument is specified, that value is used as the
HTTP status code; otherwise either 301 (permanent) or 302
(temporary) is chosen based on the ``permanent`` argument.
The default is 302 (temporary).
"""
if self._headers_written:
raise Exception("Cannot redirect after headers have been written")
if status is None:
status = 301 if permanent else 302
else:
assert isinstance(status, int) and 300 <= status <= 399
self.set_status(status)
self.set_header("Location", utf8(url))
self.finish()
def write(self, chunk: Union[str, bytes, dict]) -> None:
"""Writes the given chunk to the output buffer.
To write the output to the network, use the flush() method below.
If the given chunk is a dictionary, we write it as JSON and set
the Content-Type of the response to be ``application/json``.
(if you want to send JSON as a different ``Content-Type``, call
set_header *after* calling write()).
Note that lists are not converted to JSON because of a potential
cross-site security vulnerability. All JSON output should be
wrapped in a dictionary. More details at
http://haacked.com/archive/2009/06/25/json-hijacking.aspx/ and
https://github.com/facebook/tornado/issues/1009
"""
if self._finished:
raise RuntimeError("Cannot write() after finish()")
if not isinstance(chunk, (bytes, unicode_type, dict)):
message = "write() only accepts bytes, unicode, and dict objects"
if isinstance(chunk, list):
message += (
". Lists not accepted for security reasons; see "
+ "http://www.tornadoweb.org/en/stable/web.html#tornado.web.RequestHandler.write" # noqa: E501
)
raise TypeError(message)
if isinstance(chunk, dict):
chunk = escape.json_encode(chunk)
self.set_header("Content-Type", "application/json; charset=UTF-8")
chunk = utf8(chunk)
self._write_buffer.append(chunk)
def render(self, template_name: str, **kwargs: Any) -> "Future[None]":
"""Renders the template with the given arguments as the response.
``render()`` calls ``finish()``, so no other output methods can be called
after it.
Returns a `.Future` with the same semantics as the one returned by `finish`.
Awaiting this `.Future` is optional.
.. versionchanged:: 5.1
Now returns a `.Future` instead of ``None``.
"""
if self._finished:
raise RuntimeError("Cannot render() after finish()")
html = self.render_string(template_name, **kwargs)
# Insert the additional JS and CSS added by the modules on the page
js_embed = []
js_files = []
css_embed = []
css_files = []
html_heads = []
html_bodies = []
for module in getattr(self, "_active_modules", {}).values():
embed_part = module.embedded_javascript()
if embed_part:
js_embed.append(utf8(embed_part))
file_part = module.javascript_files()
if file_part:
if isinstance(file_part, (unicode_type, bytes)):
js_files.append(_unicode(file_part))
else:
js_files.extend(file_part)
embed_part = module.embedded_css()
if embed_part:
css_embed.append(utf8(embed_part))
file_part = module.css_files()
if file_part:
if isinstance(file_part, (unicode_type, bytes)):
css_files.append(_unicode(file_part))
else:
css_files.extend(file_part)
head_part = module.html_head()
if head_part:
html_heads.append(utf8(head_part))
body_part = module.html_body()
if body_part:
html_bodies.append(utf8(body_part))
if js_files:
# Maintain order of JavaScript files given by modules
js = self.render_linked_js(js_files)
sloc = html.rindex(b"</body>")
html = html[:sloc] + utf8(js) + b"\n" + html[sloc:]
if js_embed:
js_bytes = self.render_embed_js(js_embed)
sloc = html.rindex(b"</body>")
html = html[:sloc] + js_bytes + b"\n" + html[sloc:]
if css_files:
css = self.render_linked_css(css_files)
hloc = html.index(b"</head>")
html = html[:hloc] + utf8(css) + b"\n" + html[hloc:]
if css_embed:
css_bytes = self.render_embed_css(css_embed)
hloc = html.index(b"</head>")
html = html[:hloc] + css_bytes + b"\n" + html[hloc:]
if html_heads:
hloc = html.index(b"</head>")
html = html[:hloc] + b"".join(html_heads) + b"\n" + html[hloc:]
if html_bodies:
hloc = html.index(b"</body>")
html = html[:hloc] + b"".join(html_bodies) + b"\n" + html[hloc:]
return self.finish(html)
def render_linked_js(self, js_files: Iterable[str]) -> str:
"""Default method used to render the final js links for the
rendered webpage.
Override this method in a sub-classed controller to change the output.
"""
paths = []
unique_paths = set() # type: Set[str]
for path in js_files:
if not is_absolute(path):
path = self.static_url(path)
if path not in unique_paths:
paths.append(path)
unique_paths.add(path)
return "".join(
'<script src="'
+ escape.xhtml_escape(p)
+ '" type="text/javascript"></script>'
for p in paths
)
def render_embed_js(self, js_embed: Iterable[bytes]) -> bytes:
"""Default method used to render the final embedded js for the
rendered webpage.
Override this method in a sub-classed controller to change the output.
"""
return (
b'<script type="text/javascript">\n//<![CDATA[\n'
+ b"\n".join(js_embed)
+ b"\n//]]>\n</script>"
)
def render_linked_css(self, css_files: Iterable[str]) -> str:
"""Default method used to render the final css links for the
rendered webpage.
Override this method in a sub-classed controller to change the output.
"""
paths = []
unique_paths = set() # type: Set[str]
for path in css_files:
if not is_absolute(path):
path = self.static_url(path)
if path not in unique_paths:
paths.append(path)
unique_paths.add(path)
return "".join(
'<link href="' + escape.xhtml_escape(p) + '" '
'type="text/css" rel="stylesheet"/>'
for p in paths
)
def render_embed_css(self, css_embed: Iterable[bytes]) -> bytes:
"""Default method used to render the final embedded css for the
rendered webpage.
Override this method in a sub-classed controller to change the output.
"""
return b'<style type="text/css">\n' + b"\n".join(css_embed) + b"\n</style>"
def render_string(self, template_name: str, **kwargs: Any) -> bytes:
"""Generate the given template with the given arguments.
We return the generated byte string (in utf8). To generate and
write a template as a response, use render() above.
"""
# If no template_path is specified, use the path of the calling file
template_path = self.get_template_path()
if not template_path:
frame = sys._getframe(0)
web_file = frame.f_code.co_filename
while frame.f_code.co_filename == web_file:
frame = frame.f_back
assert frame.f_code.co_filename is not None
template_path = os.path.dirname(frame.f_code.co_filename)
with RequestHandler._template_loader_lock:
if template_path not in RequestHandler._template_loaders:
loader = self.create_template_loader(template_path)
RequestHandler._template_loaders[template_path] = loader
else:
loader = RequestHandler._template_loaders[template_path]
t = loader.load(template_name)
namespace = self.get_template_namespace()
namespace.update(kwargs)
return t.generate(**namespace)
def get_template_namespace(self) -> Dict[str, Any]:
"""Returns a dictionary to be used as the default template namespace.
May be overridden by subclasses to add or modify values.
The results of this method will be combined with additional
defaults in the `tornado.template` module and keyword arguments
to `render` or `render_string`.
"""
namespace = dict(
handler=self,
request=self.request,
current_user=self.current_user,
locale=self.locale,
_=self.locale.translate,
pgettext=self.locale.pgettext,
static_url=self.static_url,
xsrf_form_html=self.xsrf_form_html,
reverse_url=self.reverse_url,
)
namespace.update(self.ui)
return namespace
def create_template_loader(self, template_path: str) -> template.BaseLoader:
"""Returns a new template loader for the given path.
May be overridden by subclasses. By default returns a
directory-based loader on the given path, using the
``autoescape`` and ``template_whitespace`` application
settings. If a ``template_loader`` application setting is
supplied, uses that instead.
"""
settings = self.application.settings
if "template_loader" in settings:
return settings["template_loader"]
kwargs = {}
if "autoescape" in settings:
# autoescape=None means "no escaping", so we have to be sure
# to only pass this kwarg if the user asked for it.
kwargs["autoescape"] = settings["autoescape"]
if "template_whitespace" in settings:
kwargs["whitespace"] = settings["template_whitespace"]
return template.Loader(template_path, **kwargs)
def flush(self, include_footers: bool = False) -> "Future[None]":
"""Flushes the current output buffer to the network.
The ``callback`` argument, if given, can be used for flow control:
it will be run when all flushed data has been written to the socket.
Note that only one flush callback can be outstanding at a time;
if another flush occurs before the previous flush's callback
has been run, the previous callback will be discarded.
.. versionchanged:: 4.0
Now returns a `.Future` if no callback is given.
.. versionchanged:: 6.0
The ``callback`` argument was removed.
"""
assert self.request.connection is not None
chunk = b"".join(self._write_buffer)
self._write_buffer = []
if not self._headers_written:
self._headers_written = True
for transform in self._transforms:
assert chunk is not None
self._status_code, self._headers, chunk = transform.transform_first_chunk(
self._status_code, self._headers, chunk, include_footers
)
# Ignore the chunk and only write the headers for HEAD requests
if self.request.method == "HEAD":
chunk = b""
# Finalize the cookie headers (which have been stored in a side
# object so an outgoing cookie could be overwritten before it
# is sent).
if hasattr(self, "_new_cookie"):
for cookie in self._new_cookie.values():
self.add_header("Set-Cookie", cookie.OutputString(None))
start_line = httputil.ResponseStartLine("", self._status_code, self._reason)
return self.request.connection.write_headers(
start_line, self._headers, chunk
)
else:
for transform in self._transforms:
chunk = transform.transform_chunk(chunk, include_footers)
# Ignore the chunk and only write the headers for HEAD requests
if self.request.method != "HEAD":
return self.request.connection.write(chunk)
else:
future = Future() # type: Future[None]
future.set_result(None)
return future
def finish(self, chunk: Union[str, bytes, dict] = None) -> "Future[None]":
"""Finishes this response, ending the HTTP request.
Passing a ``chunk`` to ``finish()`` is equivalent to passing that
chunk to ``write()`` and then calling ``finish()`` with no arguments.
Returns a `.Future` which may optionally be awaited to track the sending
of the response to the client. This `.Future` resolves when all the response
data has been sent, and raises an error if the connection is closed before all
data can be sent.
.. versionchanged:: 5.1
Now returns a `.Future` instead of ``None``.
"""
if self._finished:
raise RuntimeError("finish() called twice")
if chunk is not None:
self.write(chunk)
# Automatically support ETags and add the Content-Length header if
# we have not flushed any content yet.
if not self._headers_written:
if (
self._status_code == 200
and self.request.method in ("GET", "HEAD")
and "Etag" not in self._headers
):
self.set_etag_header()
if self.check_etag_header():
self._write_buffer = []
self.set_status(304)
if self._status_code in (204, 304) or (
self._status_code >= 100 and self._status_code < 200
):
assert not self._write_buffer, (
"Cannot send body with %s" % self._status_code
)
self._clear_headers_for_304()
elif "Content-Length" not in self._headers:
content_length = sum(len(part) for part in self._write_buffer)
self.set_header("Content-Length", content_length)
assert self.request.connection is not None
# Now that the request is finished, clear the callback we
# set on the HTTPConnection (which would otherwise prevent the
# garbage collection of the RequestHandler when there
# are keepalive connections)
self.request.connection.set_close_callback(None) # type: ignore
future = self.flush(include_footers=True)
self.request.connection.finish()
self._log()
self._finished = True
self.on_finish()
self._break_cycles()
return future
def detach(self) -> iostream.IOStream:
"""Take control of the underlying stream.
Returns the underlying `.IOStream` object and stops all
further HTTP processing. Intended for implementing protocols
like websockets that tunnel over an HTTP handshake.
This method is only supported when HTTP/1.1 is used.
.. versionadded:: 5.1
"""
self._finished = True
# TODO: add detach to HTTPConnection?
return self.request.connection.detach() # type: ignore
def _break_cycles(self) -> None:
# Break up a reference cycle between this handler and the
# _ui_module closures to allow for faster GC on CPython.
self.ui = None # type: ignore
def send_error(self, status_code: int = 500, **kwargs: Any) -> None:
"""Sends the given HTTP error code to the browser.
If `flush()` has already been called, it is not possible to send
an error, so this method will simply terminate the response.
If output has been written but not yet flushed, it will be discarded
and replaced with the error page.
Override `write_error()` to customize the error page that is returned.
Additional keyword arguments are passed through to `write_error`.
"""
if self._headers_written:
gen_log.error("Cannot send error response after headers written")
if not self._finished:
# If we get an error between writing headers and finishing,
# we are unlikely to be able to finish due to a
# Content-Length mismatch. Try anyway to release the
# socket.
try:
self.finish()
except Exception:
gen_log.error("Failed to flush partial response", exc_info=True)
return
self.clear()
reason = kwargs.get("reason")
if "exc_info" in kwargs:
exception = kwargs["exc_info"][1]
if isinstance(exception, HTTPError) and exception.reason:
reason = exception.reason
self.set_status(status_code, reason=reason)
try:
self.write_error(status_code, **kwargs)
except Exception:
app_log.error("Uncaught exception in write_error", exc_info=True)
if not self._finished:
self.finish()
def write_error(self, status_code: int, **kwargs: Any) -> None:
"""Override to implement custom error pages.
``write_error`` may call `write`, `render`, `set_header`, etc
to produce output as usual.
If this error was caused by an uncaught exception (including
HTTPError), an ``exc_info`` triple will be available as
``kwargs["exc_info"]``. Note that this exception may not be
the "current" exception for purposes of methods like
``sys.exc_info()`` or ``traceback.format_exc``.
"""
if self.settings.get("serve_traceback") and "exc_info" in kwargs:
# in debug mode, try to send a traceback
self.set_header("Content-Type", "text/plain")
for line in traceback.format_exception(*kwargs["exc_info"]):
self.write(line)
self.finish()
else:
self.finish(
"<html><title>%(code)d: %(message)s</title>"
"<body>%(code)d: %(message)s</body></html>"
% {"code": status_code, "message": self._reason}
)
@property
def locale(self) -> tornado.locale.Locale:
"""The locale for the current session.
Determined by either `get_user_locale`, which you can override to
set the locale based on, e.g., a user preference stored in a
database, or `get_browser_locale`, which uses the ``Accept-Language``
header.
.. versionchanged: 4.1
Added a property setter.
"""
if not hasattr(self, "_locale"):
loc = self.get_user_locale()
if loc is not None:
self._locale = loc
else:
self._locale = self.get_browser_locale()
assert self._locale
return self._locale
@locale.setter
def locale(self, value: tornado.locale.Locale) -> None:
self._locale = value
def get_user_locale(self) -> Optional[tornado.locale.Locale]:
"""Override to determine the locale from the authenticated user.
If None is returned, we fall back to `get_browser_locale()`.
This method should return a `tornado.locale.Locale` object,
most likely obtained via a call like ``tornado.locale.get("en")``
"""
return None
def get_browser_locale(self, default: str = "en_US") -> tornado.locale.Locale:
"""Determines the user's locale from ``Accept-Language`` header.
See http://www.w3.org/Protocols/rfc2616/rfc2616-sec14.html#sec14.4
"""
if "Accept-Language" in self.request.headers:
languages = self.request.headers["Accept-Language"].split(",")
locales = []
for language in languages:
parts = language.strip().split(";")
if len(parts) > 1 and parts[1].startswith("q="):
try:
score = float(parts[1][2:])
except (ValueError, TypeError):
score = 0.0
else:
score = 1.0
locales.append((parts[0], score))
if locales:
locales.sort(key=lambda pair: pair[1], reverse=True)
codes = [l[0] for l in locales]
return locale.get(*codes)
return locale.get(default)
@property
def current_user(self) -> Any:
"""The authenticated user for this request.
This is set in one of two ways:
* A subclass may override `get_current_user()`, which will be called
automatically the first time ``self.current_user`` is accessed.
`get_current_user()` will only be called once per request,
and is cached for future access::
def get_current_user(self):
user_cookie = self.get_secure_cookie("user")
if user_cookie:
return json.loads(user_cookie)
return None
* It may be set as a normal variable, typically from an overridden
`prepare()`::
@gen.coroutine
def prepare(self):
user_id_cookie = self.get_secure_cookie("user_id")
if user_id_cookie:
self.current_user = yield load_user(user_id_cookie)
Note that `prepare()` may be a coroutine while `get_current_user()`
may not, so the latter form is necessary if loading the user requires
asynchronous operations.
The user object may be any type of the application's choosing.
"""
if not hasattr(self, "_current_user"):
self._current_user = self.get_current_user()
return self._current_user
@current_user.setter
def current_user(self, value: Any) -> None:
self._current_user = value
def get_current_user(self) -> Any:
"""Override to determine the current user from, e.g., a cookie.
This method may not be a coroutine.
"""
return None
def get_login_url(self) -> str:
"""Override to customize the login URL based on the request.
By default, we use the ``login_url`` application setting.
"""
self.require_setting("login_url", "@tornado.web.authenticated")
return self.application.settings["login_url"]
def get_template_path(self) -> Optional[str]:
"""Override to customize template path for each handler.
By default, we use the ``template_path`` application setting.
Return None to load templates relative to the calling file.
"""
return self.application.settings.get("template_path")
@property
def xsrf_token(self) -> bytes:
"""The XSRF-prevention token for the current user/session.
To prevent cross-site request forgery, we set an '_xsrf' cookie
and include the same '_xsrf' value as an argument with all POST
requests. If the two do not match, we reject the form submission
as a potential forgery.
See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cross-site_request_forgery
This property is of type `bytes`, but it contains only ASCII
characters. If a character string is required, there is no
need to base64-encode it; just decode the byte string as
UTF-8.
.. versionchanged:: 3.2.2
The xsrf token will now be have a random mask applied in every
request, which makes it safe to include the token in pages
that are compressed. See http://breachattack.com for more
information on the issue fixed by this change. Old (version 1)
cookies will be converted to version 2 when this method is called
unless the ``xsrf_cookie_version`` `Application` setting is
set to 1.
.. versionchanged:: 4.3
The ``xsrf_cookie_kwargs`` `Application` setting may be
used to supply additional cookie options (which will be
passed directly to `set_cookie`). For example,
``xsrf_cookie_kwargs=dict(httponly=True, secure=True)``
will set the ``secure`` and ``httponly`` flags on the
``_xsrf`` cookie.
"""
if not hasattr(self, "_xsrf_token"):
version, token, timestamp = self._get_raw_xsrf_token()
output_version = self.settings.get("xsrf_cookie_version", 2)
cookie_kwargs = self.settings.get("xsrf_cookie_kwargs", {})
if output_version == 1:
self._xsrf_token = binascii.b2a_hex(token)
elif output_version == 2:
mask = os.urandom(4)
self._xsrf_token = b"|".join(
[
b"2",
binascii.b2a_hex(mask),
binascii.b2a_hex(_websocket_mask(mask, token)),
utf8(str(int(timestamp))),
]
)
else:
raise ValueError("unknown xsrf cookie version %d", output_version)
if version is None:
expires_days = 30 if self.current_user else None
self.set_cookie(
"_xsrf",
self._xsrf_token,
expires_days=expires_days,
**cookie_kwargs
)
return self._xsrf_token
def _get_raw_xsrf_token(self) -> Tuple[Optional[int], bytes, float]:
"""Read or generate the xsrf token in its raw form.
The raw_xsrf_token is a tuple containing:
* version: the version of the cookie from which this token was read,
or None if we generated a new token in this request.
* token: the raw token data; random (non-ascii) bytes.
* timestamp: the time this token was generated (will not be accurate
for version 1 cookies)
"""
if not hasattr(self, "_raw_xsrf_token"):
cookie = self.get_cookie("_xsrf")
if cookie:
version, token, timestamp = self._decode_xsrf_token(cookie)
else:
version, token, timestamp = None, None, None
if token is None:
version = None
token = os.urandom(16)
timestamp = time.time()
assert token is not None
assert timestamp is not None
self._raw_xsrf_token = (version, token, timestamp)
return self._raw_xsrf_token
def _decode_xsrf_token(
self, cookie: str
) -> Tuple[Optional[int], Optional[bytes], Optional[float]]:
"""Convert a cookie string into a the tuple form returned by
_get_raw_xsrf_token.
"""
try:
m = _signed_value_version_re.match(utf8(cookie))
if m:
version = int(m.group(1))
if version == 2:
_, mask_str, masked_token, timestamp_str = cookie.split("|")
mask = binascii.a2b_hex(utf8(mask_str))
token = _websocket_mask(mask, binascii.a2b_hex(utf8(masked_token)))
timestamp = int(timestamp_str)
return version, token, timestamp
else:
# Treat unknown versions as not present instead of failing.
raise Exception("Unknown xsrf cookie version")
else:
version = 1
try:
token = binascii.a2b_hex(utf8(cookie))
except (binascii.Error, TypeError):
token = utf8(cookie)
# We don't have a usable timestamp in older versions.
timestamp = int(time.time())
return (version, token, timestamp)
except Exception:
# Catch exceptions and return nothing instead of failing.
gen_log.debug("Uncaught exception in _decode_xsrf_token", exc_info=True)
return None, None, None
def check_xsrf_cookie(self) -> None:
"""Verifies that the ``_xsrf`` cookie matches the ``_xsrf`` argument.
To prevent cross-site request forgery, we set an ``_xsrf``
cookie and include the same value as a non-cookie
field with all ``POST`` requests. If the two do not match, we
reject the form submission as a potential forgery.
The ``_xsrf`` value may be set as either a form field named ``_xsrf``
or in a custom HTTP header named ``X-XSRFToken`` or ``X-CSRFToken``
(the latter is accepted for compatibility with Django).
See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cross-site_request_forgery
Prior to release 1.1.1, this check was ignored if the HTTP header
``X-Requested-With: XMLHTTPRequest`` was present. This exception
has been shown to be insecure and has been removed. For more
information please see
http://www.djangoproject.com/weblog/2011/feb/08/security/
http://weblog.rubyonrails.org/2011/2/8/csrf-protection-bypass-in-ruby-on-rails
.. versionchanged:: 3.2.2
Added support for cookie version 2. Both versions 1 and 2 are
supported.
"""
token = (
self.get_argument("_xsrf", None)
or self.request.headers.get("X-Xsrftoken")
or self.request.headers.get("X-Csrftoken")
)
if not token:
raise HTTPError(403, "'_xsrf' argument missing from POST")
_, token, _ = self._decode_xsrf_token(token)
_, expected_token, _ = self._get_raw_xsrf_token()
if not token:
raise HTTPError(403, "'_xsrf' argument has invalid format")
if not hmac.compare_digest(utf8(token), utf8(expected_token)):
raise HTTPError(403, "XSRF cookie does not match POST argument")
def xsrf_form_html(self) -> str:
"""An HTML ``<input/>`` element to be included with all POST forms.
It defines the ``_xsrf`` input value, which we check on all POST
requests to prevent cross-site request forgery. If you have set
the ``xsrf_cookies`` application setting, you must include this
HTML within all of your HTML forms.
In a template, this method should be called with ``{% module
xsrf_form_html() %}``
See `check_xsrf_cookie()` above for more information.
"""
return (
'<input type="hidden" name="_xsrf" value="'
+ escape.xhtml_escape(self.xsrf_token)
+ '"/>'
)
def static_url(self, path: str, include_host: bool = None, **kwargs: Any) -> str:
"""Returns a static URL for the given relative static file path.
This method requires you set the ``static_path`` setting in your
application (which specifies the root directory of your static
files).
This method returns a versioned url (by default appending
``?v=<signature>``), which allows the static files to be
cached indefinitely. This can be disabled by passing
``include_version=False`` (in the default implementation;
other static file implementations are not required to support
this, but they may support other options).
By default this method returns URLs relative to the current
host, but if ``include_host`` is true the URL returned will be
absolute. If this handler has an ``include_host`` attribute,
that value will be used as the default for all `static_url`
calls that do not pass ``include_host`` as a keyword argument.
"""
self.require_setting("static_path", "static_url")
get_url = self.settings.get(
"static_handler_class", StaticFileHandler
).make_static_url
if include_host is None:
include_host = getattr(self, "include_host", False)
if include_host:
base = self.request.protocol + "://" + self.request.host
else:
base = ""
return base + get_url(self.settings, path, **kwargs)
def require_setting(self, name: str, feature: str = "this feature") -> None:
"""Raises an exception if the given app setting is not defined."""
if not self.application.settings.get(name):
raise Exception(
"You must define the '%s' setting in your "
"application to use %s" % (name, feature)
)
def reverse_url(self, name: str, *args: Any) -> str:
"""Alias for `Application.reverse_url`."""
return self.application.reverse_url(name, *args)
def compute_etag(self) -> Optional[str]:
"""Computes the etag header to be used for this request.
By default uses a hash of the content written so far.
May be overridden to provide custom etag implementations,
or may return None to disable tornado's default etag support.
"""
hasher = hashlib.sha1()
for part in self._write_buffer:
hasher.update(part)
return '"%s"' % hasher.hexdigest()
def set_etag_header(self) -> None:
"""Sets the response's Etag header using ``self.compute_etag()``.
Note: no header will be set if ``compute_etag()`` returns ``None``.
This method is called automatically when the request is finished.
"""
etag = self.compute_etag()
if etag is not None:
self.set_header("Etag", etag)
def check_etag_header(self) -> bool:
"""Checks the ``Etag`` header against requests's ``If-None-Match``.
Returns ``True`` if the request's Etag matches and a 304 should be
returned. For example::
self.set_etag_header()
if self.check_etag_header():
self.set_status(304)
return
This method is called automatically when the request is finished,
but may be called earlier for applications that override
`compute_etag` and want to do an early check for ``If-None-Match``
before completing the request. The ``Etag`` header should be set
(perhaps with `set_etag_header`) before calling this method.
"""
computed_etag = utf8(self._headers.get("Etag", ""))
# Find all weak and strong etag values from If-None-Match header
# because RFC 7232 allows multiple etag values in a single header.
etags = re.findall(
br'\*|(?:W/)?"[^"]*"', utf8(self.request.headers.get("If-None-Match", ""))
)
if not computed_etag or not etags:
return False
match = False
if etags[0] == b"*":
match = True
else:
# Use a weak comparison when comparing entity-tags.
def val(x: bytes) -> bytes:
return x[2:] if x.startswith(b"W/") else x
for etag in etags:
if val(etag) == val(computed_etag):
match = True
break
return match
@gen.coroutine
def _execute(
self, transforms: List["OutputTransform"], *args: bytes, **kwargs: bytes
) -> Generator[Any, Any, None]:
"""Executes this request with the given output transforms."""
self._transforms = transforms
try:
if self.request.method not in self.SUPPORTED_METHODS:
raise HTTPError(405)
self.path_args = [self.decode_argument(arg) for arg in args]
self.path_kwargs = dict(
(k, self.decode_argument(v, name=k)) for (k, v) in kwargs.items()
)
# If XSRF cookies are turned on, reject form submissions without
# the proper cookie
if self.request.method not in (
"GET",
"HEAD",
"OPTIONS",
) and self.application.settings.get("xsrf_cookies"):
self.check_xsrf_cookie()
result = self.prepare()
if result is not None:
result = yield result
if self._prepared_future is not None:
# Tell the Application we've finished with prepare()
# and are ready for the body to arrive.
future_set_result_unless_cancelled(self._prepared_future, None)
if self._finished:
return
if _has_stream_request_body(self.__class__):
# In streaming mode request.body is a Future that signals
# the body has been completely received. The Future has no
# result; the data has been passed to self.data_received
# instead.
try:
yield self.request._body_future
except iostream.StreamClosedError:
return
method = getattr(self, self.request.method.lower())
result = method(*self.path_args, **self.path_kwargs)
if result is not None:
result = yield result
if self._auto_finish and not self._finished:
self.finish()
except Exception as e:
try:
self._handle_request_exception(e)
except Exception:
app_log.error("Exception in exception handler", exc_info=True)
finally:
# Unset result to avoid circular references
result = None
if self._prepared_future is not None and not self._prepared_future.done():
# In case we failed before setting _prepared_future, do it
# now (to unblock the HTTP server). Note that this is not
# in a finally block to avoid GC issues prior to Python 3.4.
self._prepared_future.set_result(None)
def data_received(self, chunk: bytes) -> Optional[Awaitable[None]]:
"""Implement this method to handle streamed request data.
Requires the `.stream_request_body` decorator.
"""
raise NotImplementedError()
def _log(self) -> None:
"""Logs the current request.
Sort of deprecated since this functionality was moved to the
Application, but left in place for the benefit of existing apps
that have overridden this method.
"""
self.application.log_request(self)
def _request_summary(self) -> str:
return "%s %s (%s)" % (
self.request.method,
self.request.uri,
self.request.remote_ip,
)
def _handle_request_exception(self, e: BaseException) -> None:
if isinstance(e, Finish):
# Not an error; just finish the request without logging.
if not self._finished:
self.finish(*e.args)
return
try:
self.log_exception(*sys.exc_info())
except Exception:
# An error here should still get a best-effort send_error()
# to avoid leaking the connection.
app_log.error("Error in exception logger", exc_info=True)
if self._finished:
# Extra errors after the request has been finished should
# be logged, but there is no reason to continue to try and
# send a response.
return
if isinstance(e, HTTPError):
self.send_error(e.status_code, exc_info=sys.exc_info())
else:
self.send_error(500, exc_info=sys.exc_info())
def log_exception(
self,
typ: Optional[Type[BaseException]],
value: Optional[BaseException],
tb: Optional[TracebackType],
) -> None:
"""Override to customize logging of uncaught exceptions.
By default logs instances of `HTTPError` as warnings without
stack traces (on the ``tornado.general`` logger), and all
other exceptions as errors with stack traces (on the
``tornado.application`` logger).
.. versionadded:: 3.1
"""
if isinstance(value, HTTPError):
if value.log_message:
format = "%d %s: " + value.log_message
args = [value.status_code, self._request_summary()] + list(value.args)
gen_log.warning(format, *args)
else:
app_log.error( # type: ignore
"Uncaught exception %s\n%r",
self._request_summary(),
self.request,
exc_info=(typ, value, tb),
)
def _ui_module(self, name: str, module: Type["UIModule"]) -> Callable[..., str]:
def render(*args, **kwargs) -> str: # type: ignore
if not hasattr(self, "_active_modules"):
self._active_modules = {} # type: Dict[str, UIModule]
if name not in self._active_modules:
self._active_modules[name] = module(self)
rendered = self._active_modules[name].render(*args, **kwargs)
return rendered
return render
def _ui_method(self, method: Callable[..., str]) -> Callable[..., str]:
return lambda *args, **kwargs: method(self, *args, **kwargs)
def _clear_headers_for_304(self) -> None:
# 304 responses should not contain entity headers (defined in
# http://www.w3.org/Protocols/rfc2616/rfc2616-sec7.html#sec7.1)
# not explicitly allowed by
# http://www.w3.org/Protocols/rfc2616/rfc2616-sec10.html#sec10.3.5
headers = [
"Allow",
"Content-Encoding",
"Content-Language",
"Content-Length",
"Content-MD5",
"Content-Range",
"Content-Type",
"Last-Modified",
]
for h in headers:
self.clear_header(h)
def stream_request_body(cls: Type[RequestHandler]) -> Type[RequestHandler]:
"""Apply to `RequestHandler` subclasses to enable streaming body support.
This decorator implies the following changes:
* `.HTTPServerRequest.body` is undefined, and body arguments will not
be included in `RequestHandler.get_argument`.
* `RequestHandler.prepare` is called when the request headers have been
read instead of after the entire body has been read.
* The subclass must define a method ``data_received(self, data):``, which
will be called zero or more times as data is available. Note that
if the request has an empty body, ``data_received`` may not be called.
* ``prepare`` and ``data_received`` may return Futures (such as via
``@gen.coroutine``, in which case the next method will not be called
until those futures have completed.
* The regular HTTP method (``post``, ``put``, etc) will be called after
the entire body has been read.
See the `file receiver demo <https://github.com/tornadoweb/tornado/tree/master/demos/file_upload/>`_
for example usage.
""" # noqa: E501
if not issubclass(cls, RequestHandler):
raise TypeError("expected subclass of RequestHandler, got %r", cls)
cls._stream_request_body = True
return cls
def _has_stream_request_body(cls: Type[RequestHandler]) -> bool:
if not issubclass(cls, RequestHandler):
raise TypeError("expected subclass of RequestHandler, got %r", cls)
return cls._stream_request_body
def removeslash(
method: Callable[..., Optional[Awaitable[None]]]
) -> Callable[..., Optional[Awaitable[None]]]:
"""Use this decorator to remove trailing slashes from the request path.
For example, a request to ``/foo/`` would redirect to ``/foo`` with this
decorator. Your request handler mapping should use a regular expression
like ``r'/foo/*'`` in conjunction with using the decorator.
"""
@functools.wraps(method)
def wrapper( # type: ignore
self: RequestHandler, *args, **kwargs
) -> Optional[Awaitable[None]]:
if self.request.path.endswith("/"):
if self.request.method in ("GET", "HEAD"):
uri = self.request.path.rstrip("/")
if uri: # don't try to redirect '/' to ''
if self.request.query:
uri += "?" + self.request.query
self.redirect(uri, permanent=True)
return None
else:
raise HTTPError(404)
return method(self, *args, **kwargs)
return wrapper
def addslash(
method: Callable[..., Optional[Awaitable[None]]]
) -> Callable[..., Optional[Awaitable[None]]]:
"""Use this decorator to add a missing trailing slash to the request path.
For example, a request to ``/foo`` would redirect to ``/foo/`` with this
decorator. Your request handler mapping should use a regular expression
like ``r'/foo/?'`` in conjunction with using the decorator.
"""
@functools.wraps(method)
def wrapper( # type: ignore
self: RequestHandler, *args, **kwargs
) -> Optional[Awaitable[None]]:
if not self.request.path.endswith("/"):
if self.request.method in ("GET", "HEAD"):
uri = self.request.path + "/"
if self.request.query:
uri += "?" + self.request.query
self.redirect(uri, permanent=True)
return None
raise HTTPError(404)
return method(self, *args, **kwargs)
return wrapper
class _ApplicationRouter(ReversibleRuleRouter):
"""Routing implementation used internally by `Application`.
Provides a binding between `Application` and `RequestHandler`.
This implementation extends `~.routing.ReversibleRuleRouter` in a couple of ways:
* it allows to use `RequestHandler` subclasses as `~.routing.Rule` target and
* it allows to use a list/tuple of rules as `~.routing.Rule` target.
``process_rule`` implementation will substitute this list with an appropriate
`_ApplicationRouter` instance.
"""
def __init__(self, application: "Application", rules: _RuleList = None) -> None:
assert isinstance(application, Application)
self.application = application
super(_ApplicationRouter, self).__init__(rules)
def process_rule(self, rule: Rule) -> Rule:
rule = super(_ApplicationRouter, self).process_rule(rule)
if isinstance(rule.target, (list, tuple)):
rule.target = _ApplicationRouter( # type: ignore
self.application, rule.target
)
return rule
def get_target_delegate(
self, target: Any, request: httputil.HTTPServerRequest, **target_params: Any
) -> Optional[httputil.HTTPMessageDelegate]:
if isclass(target) and issubclass(target, RequestHandler):
return self.application.get_handler_delegate(
request, target, **target_params
)
return super(_ApplicationRouter, self).get_target_delegate(
target, request, **target_params
)
class Application(ReversibleRouter):
"""A collection of request handlers that make up a web application.
Instances of this class are callable and can be passed directly to
HTTPServer to serve the application::
application = web.Application([
(r"/", MainPageHandler),
])
http_server = httpserver.HTTPServer(application)
http_server.listen(8080)
ioloop.IOLoop.current().start()
The constructor for this class takes in a list of `~.routing.Rule`
objects or tuples of values corresponding to the arguments of
`~.routing.Rule` constructor: ``(matcher, target, [target_kwargs], [name])``,
the values in square brackets being optional. The default matcher is
`~.routing.PathMatches`, so ``(regexp, target)`` tuples can also be used
instead of ``(PathMatches(regexp), target)``.
A common routing target is a `RequestHandler` subclass, but you can also
use lists of rules as a target, which create a nested routing configuration::
application = web.Application([
(HostMatches("example.com"), [
(r"/", MainPageHandler),
(r"/feed", FeedHandler),
]),
])
In addition to this you can use nested `~.routing.Router` instances,
`~.httputil.HTTPMessageDelegate` subclasses and callables as routing targets
(see `~.routing` module docs for more information).
When we receive requests, we iterate over the list in order and
instantiate an instance of the first request class whose regexp
matches the request path. The request class can be specified as
either a class object or a (fully-qualified) name.
A dictionary may be passed as the third element (``target_kwargs``)
of the tuple, which will be used as keyword arguments to the handler's
constructor and `~RequestHandler.initialize` method. This pattern
is used for the `StaticFileHandler` in this example (note that a
`StaticFileHandler` can be installed automatically with the
static_path setting described below)::
application = web.Application([
(r"/static/(.*)", web.StaticFileHandler, {"path": "/var/www"}),
])
We support virtual hosts with the `add_handlers` method, which takes in
a host regular expression as the first argument::
application.add_handlers(r"www\.myhost\.com", [
(r"/article/([0-9]+)", ArticleHandler),
])
If there's no match for the current request's host, then ``default_host``
parameter value is matched against host regular expressions.
.. warning::
Applications that do not use TLS may be vulnerable to :ref:`DNS
rebinding <dnsrebinding>` attacks. This attack is especially
relevant to applications that only listen on ``127.0.0.1` or
other private networks. Appropriate host patterns must be used
(instead of the default of ``r'.*'``) to prevent this risk. The
``default_host`` argument must not be used in applications that
may be vulnerable to DNS rebinding.
You can serve static files by sending the ``static_path`` setting
as a keyword argument. We will serve those files from the
``/static/`` URI (this is configurable with the
``static_url_prefix`` setting), and we will serve ``/favicon.ico``
and ``/robots.txt`` from the same directory. A custom subclass of
`StaticFileHandler` can be specified with the
``static_handler_class`` setting.
.. versionchanged:: 4.5
Integration with the new `tornado.routing` module.
"""
def __init__(
self,
handlers: _RuleList = None,
default_host: str = None,
transforms: List[Type["OutputTransform"]] = None,
**settings: Any
) -> None:
if transforms is None:
self.transforms = [] # type: List[Type[OutputTransform]]
if settings.get("compress_response") or settings.get("gzip"):
self.transforms.append(GZipContentEncoding)
else:
self.transforms = transforms
self.default_host = default_host
self.settings = settings
self.ui_modules = {
"linkify": _linkify,
"xsrf_form_html": _xsrf_form_html,
"Template": TemplateModule,
}
self.ui_methods = {} # type: Dict[str, Callable[..., str]]
self._load_ui_modules(settings.get("ui_modules", {}))
self._load_ui_methods(settings.get("ui_methods", {}))
if self.settings.get("static_path"):
path = self.settings["static_path"]
handlers = list(handlers or [])
static_url_prefix = settings.get("static_url_prefix", "/static/")
static_handler_class = settings.get(
"static_handler_class", StaticFileHandler
)
static_handler_args = settings.get("static_handler_args", {})
static_handler_args["path"] = path
for pattern in [
re.escape(static_url_prefix) + r"(.*)",
r"/(favicon\.ico)",
r"/(robots\.txt)",
]:
handlers.insert(0, (pattern, static_handler_class, static_handler_args))
if self.settings.get("debug"):
self.settings.setdefault("autoreload", True)
self.settings.setdefault("compiled_template_cache", False)
self.settings.setdefault("static_hash_cache", False)
self.settings.setdefault("serve_traceback", True)
self.wildcard_router = _ApplicationRouter(self, handlers)
self.default_router = _ApplicationRouter(
self, [Rule(AnyMatches(), self.wildcard_router)]
)
# Automatically reload modified modules
if self.settings.get("autoreload"):
from tornado import autoreload
autoreload.start()
def listen(self, port: int, address: str = "", **kwargs: Any) -> HTTPServer:
"""Starts an HTTP server for this application on the given port.
This is a convenience alias for creating an `.HTTPServer`
object and calling its listen method. Keyword arguments not
supported by `HTTPServer.listen <.TCPServer.listen>` are passed to the
`.HTTPServer` constructor. For advanced uses
(e.g. multi-process mode), do not use this method; create an
`.HTTPServer` and call its
`.TCPServer.bind`/`.TCPServer.start` methods directly.
Note that after calling this method you still need to call
``IOLoop.current().start()`` to start the server.
Returns the `.HTTPServer` object.
.. versionchanged:: 4.3
Now returns the `.HTTPServer` object.
"""
server = HTTPServer(self, **kwargs)
server.listen(port, address)
return server
def add_handlers(self, host_pattern: str, host_handlers: _RuleList) -> None:
"""Appends the given handlers to our handler list.
Host patterns are processed sequentially in the order they were
added. All matching patterns will be considered.
"""
host_matcher = HostMatches(host_pattern)
rule = Rule(host_matcher, _ApplicationRouter(self, host_handlers))
self.default_router.rules.insert(-1, rule)
if self.default_host is not None:
self.wildcard_router.add_rules(
[(DefaultHostMatches(self, host_matcher.host_pattern), host_handlers)]
)
def add_transform(self, transform_class: Type["OutputTransform"]) -> None:
self.transforms.append(transform_class)
def _load_ui_methods(self, methods: Any) -> None:
if isinstance(methods, types.ModuleType):
self._load_ui_methods(dict((n, getattr(methods, n)) for n in dir(methods)))
elif isinstance(methods, list):
for m in methods:
self._load_ui_methods(m)
else:
for name, fn in methods.items():
if (
not name.startswith("_")
and hasattr(fn, "__call__")
and name[0].lower() == name[0]
):
self.ui_methods[name] = fn
def _load_ui_modules(self, modules: Any) -> None:
if isinstance(modules, types.ModuleType):
self._load_ui_modules(dict((n, getattr(modules, n)) for n in dir(modules)))
elif isinstance(modules, list):
for m in modules:
self._load_ui_modules(m)
else:
assert isinstance(modules, dict)
for name, cls in modules.items():
try:
if issubclass(cls, UIModule):
self.ui_modules[name] = cls
except TypeError:
pass
def __call__(
self, request: httputil.HTTPServerRequest
) -> Optional[Awaitable[None]]:
# Legacy HTTPServer interface
dispatcher = self.find_handler(request)
return dispatcher.execute()
def find_handler(
self, request: httputil.HTTPServerRequest, **kwargs: Any
) -> "_HandlerDelegate":
route = self.default_router.find_handler(request)
if route is not None:
return cast("_HandlerDelegate", route)
if self.settings.get("default_handler_class"):
return self.get_handler_delegate(
request,
self.settings["default_handler_class"],
self.settings.get("default_handler_args", {}),
)
return self.get_handler_delegate(request, ErrorHandler, {"status_code": 404})
def get_handler_delegate(
self,
request: httputil.HTTPServerRequest,
target_class: Type[RequestHandler],
target_kwargs: Dict[str, Any] = None,
path_args: List[bytes] = None,
path_kwargs: Dict[str, bytes] = None,
) -> "_HandlerDelegate":
"""Returns `~.httputil.HTTPMessageDelegate` that can serve a request
for application and `RequestHandler` subclass.
:arg httputil.HTTPServerRequest request: current HTTP request.
:arg RequestHandler target_class: a `RequestHandler` class.
:arg dict target_kwargs: keyword arguments for ``target_class`` constructor.
:arg list path_args: positional arguments for ``target_class`` HTTP method that
will be executed while handling a request (``get``, ``post`` or any other).
:arg dict path_kwargs: keyword arguments for ``target_class`` HTTP method.
"""
return _HandlerDelegate(
self, request, target_class, target_kwargs, path_args, path_kwargs
)
def reverse_url(self, name: str, *args: Any) -> str:
"""Returns a URL path for handler named ``name``
The handler must be added to the application as a named `URLSpec`.
Args will be substituted for capturing groups in the `URLSpec` regex.
They will be converted to strings if necessary, encoded as utf8,
and url-escaped.
"""
reversed_url = self.default_router.reverse_url(name, *args)
if reversed_url is not None:
return reversed_url
raise KeyError("%s not found in named urls" % name)
def log_request(self, handler: RequestHandler) -> None:
"""Writes a completed HTTP request to the logs.
By default writes to the python root logger. To change
this behavior either subclass Application and override this method,
or pass a function in the application settings dictionary as
``log_function``.
"""
if "log_function" in self.settings:
self.settings["log_function"](handler)
return
if handler.get_status() < 400:
log_method = access_log.info
elif handler.get_status() < 500:
log_method = access_log.warning
else:
log_method = access_log.error
request_time = 1000.0 * handler.request.request_time()
log_method(
"%d %s %.2fms",
handler.get_status(),
handler._request_summary(),
request_time,
)
class _HandlerDelegate(httputil.HTTPMessageDelegate):
def __init__(
self,
application: Application,
request: httputil.HTTPServerRequest,
handler_class: Type[RequestHandler],
handler_kwargs: Optional[Dict[str, Any]],
path_args: Optional[List[bytes]],
path_kwargs: Optional[Dict[str, bytes]],
) -> None:
self.application = application
self.connection = request.connection
self.request = request
self.handler_class = handler_class
self.handler_kwargs = handler_kwargs or {}
self.path_args = path_args or []
self.path_kwargs = path_kwargs or {}
self.chunks = [] # type: List[bytes]
self.stream_request_body = _has_stream_request_body(self.handler_class)
def headers_received(
self,
start_line: Union[httputil.RequestStartLine, httputil.ResponseStartLine],
headers: httputil.HTTPHeaders,
) -> Optional[Awaitable[None]]:
if self.stream_request_body:
self.request._body_future = Future()
return self.execute()
return None
def data_received(self, data: bytes) -> Optional[Awaitable[None]]:
if self.stream_request_body:
return self.handler.data_received(data)
else:
self.chunks.append(data)
return None
def finish(self) -> None:
if self.stream_request_body:
future_set_result_unless_cancelled(self.request._body_future, None)
else:
self.request.body = b"".join(self.chunks)
self.request._parse_body()
self.execute()
def on_connection_close(self) -> None:
if self.stream_request_body:
self.handler.on_connection_close()
else:
self.chunks = None # type: ignore
def execute(self) -> Optional[Awaitable[None]]:
# If template cache is disabled (usually in the debug mode),
# re-compile templates and reload static files on every
# request so you don't need to restart to see changes
if not self.application.settings.get("compiled_template_cache", True):
with RequestHandler._template_loader_lock:
for loader in RequestHandler._template_loaders.values():
loader.reset()
if not self.application.settings.get("static_hash_cache", True):
StaticFileHandler.reset()
self.handler = self.handler_class(
self.application, self.request, **self.handler_kwargs
)
transforms = [t(self.request) for t in self.application.transforms]
if self.stream_request_body:
self.handler._prepared_future = Future()
# Note that if an exception escapes handler._execute it will be
# trapped in the Future it returns (which we are ignoring here,
# leaving it to be logged when the Future is GC'd).
# However, that shouldn't happen because _execute has a blanket
# except handler, and we cannot easily access the IOLoop here to
# call add_future (because of the requirement to remain compatible
# with WSGI)
self.handler._execute(transforms, *self.path_args, **self.path_kwargs)
# If we are streaming the request body, then execute() is finished
# when the handler has prepared to receive the body. If not,
# it doesn't matter when execute() finishes (so we return None)
return self.handler._prepared_future
class HTTPError(Exception):
"""An exception that will turn into an HTTP error response.
Raising an `HTTPError` is a convenient alternative to calling
`RequestHandler.send_error` since it automatically ends the
current function.
To customize the response sent with an `HTTPError`, override
`RequestHandler.write_error`.
:arg int status_code: HTTP status code. Must be listed in
`httplib.responses <http.client.responses>` unless the ``reason``
keyword argument is given.
:arg str log_message: Message to be written to the log for this error
(will not be shown to the user unless the `Application` is in debug
mode). May contain ``%s``-style placeholders, which will be filled
in with remaining positional parameters.
:arg str reason: Keyword-only argument. The HTTP "reason" phrase
to pass in the status line along with ``status_code``. Normally
determined automatically from ``status_code``, but can be used
to use a non-standard numeric code.
"""
def __init__(
self, status_code: int = 500, log_message: str = None, *args: Any, **kwargs: Any
) -> None:
self.status_code = status_code
self.log_message = log_message
self.args = args
self.reason = kwargs.get("reason", None)
if log_message and not args:
self.log_message = log_message.replace("%", "%%")
def __str__(self) -> str:
message = "HTTP %d: %s" % (
self.status_code,
self.reason or httputil.responses.get(self.status_code, "Unknown"),
)
if self.log_message:
return message + " (" + (self.log_message % self.args) + ")"
else:
return message
class Finish(Exception):
"""An exception that ends the request without producing an error response.
When `Finish` is raised in a `RequestHandler`, the request will
end (calling `RequestHandler.finish` if it hasn't already been
called), but the error-handling methods (including
`RequestHandler.write_error`) will not be called.
If `Finish()` was created with no arguments, the pending response
will be sent as-is. If `Finish()` was given an argument, that
argument will be passed to `RequestHandler.finish()`.
This can be a more convenient way to implement custom error pages
than overriding ``write_error`` (especially in library code)::
if self.current_user is None:
self.set_status(401)
self.set_header('WWW-Authenticate', 'Basic realm="something"')
raise Finish()
.. versionchanged:: 4.3
Arguments passed to ``Finish()`` will be passed on to
`RequestHandler.finish`.
"""
pass
class MissingArgumentError(HTTPError):
"""Exception raised by `RequestHandler.get_argument`.
This is a subclass of `HTTPError`, so if it is uncaught a 400 response
code will be used instead of 500 (and a stack trace will not be logged).
.. versionadded:: 3.1
"""
def __init__(self, arg_name: str) -> None:
super(MissingArgumentError, self).__init__(
400, "Missing argument %s" % arg_name
)
self.arg_name = arg_name
class ErrorHandler(RequestHandler):
"""Generates an error response with ``status_code`` for all requests."""
def initialize(self, status_code: int) -> None:
self.set_status(status_code)
def prepare(self) -> None:
raise HTTPError(self._status_code)
def check_xsrf_cookie(self) -> None:
# POSTs to an ErrorHandler don't actually have side effects,
# so we don't need to check the xsrf token. This allows POSTs
# to the wrong url to return a 404 instead of 403.
pass
class RedirectHandler(RequestHandler):
"""Redirects the client to the given URL for all GET requests.
You should provide the keyword argument ``url`` to the handler, e.g.::
application = web.Application([
(r"/oldpath", web.RedirectHandler, {"url": "/newpath"}),
])
`RedirectHandler` supports regular expression substitutions. E.g., to
swap the first and second parts of a path while preserving the remainder::
application = web.Application([
(r"/(.*?)/(.*?)/(.*)", web.RedirectHandler, {"url": "/{1}/{0}/{2}"}),
])
The final URL is formatted with `str.format` and the substrings that match
the capturing groups. In the above example, a request to "/a/b/c" would be
formatted like::
str.format("/{1}/{0}/{2}", "a", "b", "c") # -> "/b/a/c"
Use Python's :ref:`format string syntax <formatstrings>` to customize how
values are substituted.
.. versionchanged:: 4.5
Added support for substitutions into the destination URL.
.. versionchanged:: 5.0
If any query arguments are present, they will be copied to the
destination URL.
"""
def initialize(self, url: str, permanent: bool = True) -> None:
self._url = url
self._permanent = permanent
def get(self, *args: Any) -> None:
to_url = self._url.format(*args)
if self.request.query_arguments:
# TODO: figure out typing for the next line.
to_url = httputil.url_concat(
to_url,
list(httputil.qs_to_qsl(self.request.query_arguments)), # type: ignore
)
self.redirect(to_url, permanent=self._permanent)
class StaticFileHandler(RequestHandler):
"""A simple handler that can serve static content from a directory.
A `StaticFileHandler` is configured automatically if you pass the
``static_path`` keyword argument to `Application`. This handler
can be customized with the ``static_url_prefix``, ``static_handler_class``,
and ``static_handler_args`` settings.
To map an additional path to this handler for a static data directory
you would add a line to your application like::
application = web.Application([
(r"/content/(.*)", web.StaticFileHandler, {"path": "/var/www"}),
])
The handler constructor requires a ``path`` argument, which specifies the
local root directory of the content to be served.
Note that a capture group in the regex is required to parse the value for
the ``path`` argument to the get() method (different than the constructor
argument above); see `URLSpec` for details.
To serve a file like ``index.html`` automatically when a directory is
requested, set ``static_handler_args=dict(default_filename="index.html")``
in your application settings, or add ``default_filename`` as an initializer
argument for your ``StaticFileHandler``.
To maximize the effectiveness of browser caching, this class supports
versioned urls (by default using the argument ``?v=``). If a version
is given, we instruct the browser to cache this file indefinitely.
`make_static_url` (also available as `RequestHandler.static_url`) can
be used to construct a versioned url.
This handler is intended primarily for use in development and light-duty
file serving; for heavy traffic it will be more efficient to use
a dedicated static file server (such as nginx or Apache). We support
the HTTP ``Accept-Ranges`` mechanism to return partial content (because
some browsers require this functionality to be present to seek in
HTML5 audio or video).
**Subclassing notes**
This class is designed to be extensible by subclassing, but because
of the way static urls are generated with class methods rather than
instance methods, the inheritance patterns are somewhat unusual.
Be sure to use the ``@classmethod`` decorator when overriding a
class method. Instance methods may use the attributes ``self.path``
``self.absolute_path``, and ``self.modified``.
Subclasses should only override methods discussed in this section;
overriding other methods is error-prone. Overriding
``StaticFileHandler.get`` is particularly problematic due to the
tight coupling with ``compute_etag`` and other methods.
To change the way static urls are generated (e.g. to match the behavior
of another server or CDN), override `make_static_url`, `parse_url_path`,
`get_cache_time`, and/or `get_version`.
To replace all interaction with the filesystem (e.g. to serve
static content from a database), override `get_content`,
`get_content_size`, `get_modified_time`, `get_absolute_path`, and
`validate_absolute_path`.
.. versionchanged:: 3.1
Many of the methods for subclasses were added in Tornado 3.1.
"""
CACHE_MAX_AGE = 86400 * 365 * 10 # 10 years
_static_hashes = {} # type: Dict[str, Optional[str]]
_lock = threading.Lock() # protects _static_hashes
def initialize(self, path: str, default_filename: str = None) -> None:
self.root = path
self.default_filename = default_filename
@classmethod
def reset(cls) -> None:
with cls._lock:
cls._static_hashes = {}
def head(self, path: str) -> "Future[None]":
return self.get(path, include_body=False)
@gen.coroutine
def get(self, path: str, include_body: bool = True) -> Generator[Any, Any, None]:
# Set up our path instance variables.
self.path = self.parse_url_path(path)
del path # make sure we don't refer to path instead of self.path again
absolute_path = self.get_absolute_path(self.root, self.path)
self.absolute_path = self.validate_absolute_path(self.root, absolute_path)
if self.absolute_path is None:
return
self.modified = self.get_modified_time()
self.set_headers()
if self.should_return_304():
self.set_status(304)
return
request_range = None
range_header = self.request.headers.get("Range")
if range_header:
# As per RFC 2616 14.16, if an invalid Range header is specified,
# the request will be treated as if the header didn't exist.
request_range = httputil._parse_request_range(range_header)
size = self.get_content_size()
if request_range:
start, end = request_range
if (start is not None and start >= size) or end == 0:
# As per RFC 2616 14.35.1, a range is not satisfiable only: if
# the first requested byte is equal to or greater than the
# content, or when a suffix with length 0 is specified
self.set_status(416) # Range Not Satisfiable
self.set_header("Content-Type", "text/plain")
self.set_header("Content-Range", "bytes */%s" % (size,))
return
if start is not None and start < 0:
start += size
if end is not None and end > size:
# Clients sometimes blindly use a large range to limit their
# download size; cap the endpoint at the actual file size.
end = size
# Note: only return HTTP 206 if less than the entire range has been
# requested. Not only is this semantically correct, but Chrome
# refuses to play audio if it gets an HTTP 206 in response to
# ``Range: bytes=0-``.
if size != (end or size) - (start or 0):
self.set_status(206) # Partial Content
self.set_header(
"Content-Range", httputil._get_content_range(start, end, size)
)
else:
start = end = None
if start is not None and end is not None:
content_length = end - start
elif end is not None:
content_length = end
elif start is not None:
content_length = size - start
else:
content_length = size
self.set_header("Content-Length", content_length)
if include_body:
content = self.get_content(self.absolute_path, start, end)
if isinstance(content, bytes):
content = [content]
for chunk in content:
try:
self.write(chunk)
yield self.flush()
except iostream.StreamClosedError:
return
else:
assert self.request.method == "HEAD"
def compute_etag(self) -> Optional[str]:
"""Sets the ``Etag`` header based on static url version.
This allows efficient ``If-None-Match`` checks against cached
versions, and sends the correct ``Etag`` for a partial response
(i.e. the same ``Etag`` as the full file).
.. versionadded:: 3.1
"""
assert self.absolute_path is not None
version_hash = self._get_cached_version(self.absolute_path)
if not version_hash:
return None
return '"%s"' % (version_hash,)
def set_headers(self) -> None:
"""Sets the content and caching headers on the response.
.. versionadded:: 3.1
"""
self.set_header("Accept-Ranges", "bytes")
self.set_etag_header()
if self.modified is not None:
self.set_header("Last-Modified", self.modified)
content_type = self.get_content_type()
if content_type:
self.set_header("Content-Type", content_type)
cache_time = self.get_cache_time(self.path, self.modified, content_type)
if cache_time > 0:
self.set_header(
"Expires",
datetime.datetime.utcnow() + datetime.timedelta(seconds=cache_time),
)
self.set_header("Cache-Control", "max-age=" + str(cache_time))
self.set_extra_headers(self.path)
def should_return_304(self) -> bool:
"""Returns True if the headers indicate that we should return 304.
.. versionadded:: 3.1
"""
# If client sent If-None-Match, use it, ignore If-Modified-Since
if self.request.headers.get("If-None-Match"):
return self.check_etag_header()
# Check the If-Modified-Since, and don't send the result if the
# content has not been modified
ims_value = self.request.headers.get("If-Modified-Since")
if ims_value is not None:
date_tuple = email.utils.parsedate(ims_value)
if date_tuple is not None:
if_since = datetime.datetime(*date_tuple[:6])
assert self.modified is not None
if if_since >= self.modified:
return True
return False
@classmethod
def get_absolute_path(cls, root: str, path: str) -> str:
"""Returns the absolute location of ``path`` relative to ``root``.
``root`` is the path configured for this `StaticFileHandler`
(in most cases the ``static_path`` `Application` setting).
This class method may be overridden in subclasses. By default
it returns a filesystem path, but other strings may be used
as long as they are unique and understood by the subclass's
overridden `get_content`.
.. versionadded:: 3.1
"""
abspath = os.path.abspath(os.path.join(root, path))
return abspath
def validate_absolute_path(self, root: str, absolute_path: str) -> Optional[str]:
"""Validate and return the absolute path.
``root`` is the configured path for the `StaticFileHandler`,
and ``path`` is the result of `get_absolute_path`
This is an instance method called during request processing,
so it may raise `HTTPError` or use methods like
`RequestHandler.redirect` (return None after redirecting to
halt further processing). This is where 404 errors for missing files
are generated.
This method may modify the path before returning it, but note that
any such modifications will not be understood by `make_static_url`.
In instance methods, this method's result is available as
``self.absolute_path``.
.. versionadded:: 3.1
"""
# os.path.abspath strips a trailing /.
# We must add it back to `root` so that we only match files
# in a directory named `root` instead of files starting with
# that prefix.
root = os.path.abspath(root)
if not root.endswith(os.path.sep):
# abspath always removes a trailing slash, except when
# root is '/'. This is an unusual case, but several projects
# have independently discovered this technique to disable
# Tornado's path validation and (hopefully) do their own,
# so we need to support it.
root += os.path.sep
# The trailing slash also needs to be temporarily added back
# the requested path so a request to root/ will match.
if not (absolute_path + os.path.sep).startswith(root):
raise HTTPError(403, "%s is not in root static directory", self.path)
if os.path.isdir(absolute_path) and self.default_filename is not None:
# need to look at the request.path here for when path is empty
# but there is some prefix to the path that was already
# trimmed by the routing
if not self.request.path.endswith("/"):
self.redirect(self.request.path + "/", permanent=True)
return None
absolute_path = os.path.join(absolute_path, self.default_filename)
if not os.path.exists(absolute_path):
raise HTTPError(404)
if not os.path.isfile(absolute_path):
raise HTTPError(403, "%s is not a file", self.path)
return absolute_path
@classmethod
def get_content(
cls, abspath: str, start: int = None, end: int = None
) -> Generator[bytes, None, None]:
"""Retrieve the content of the requested resource which is located
at the given absolute path.
This class method may be overridden by subclasses. Note that its
signature is different from other overridable class methods
(no ``settings`` argument); this is deliberate to ensure that
``abspath`` is able to stand on its own as a cache key.
This method should either return a byte string or an iterator
of byte strings. The latter is preferred for large files
as it helps reduce memory fragmentation.
.. versionadded:: 3.1
"""
with open(abspath, "rb") as file:
if start is not None:
file.seek(start)
if end is not None:
remaining = end - (start or 0) # type: Optional[int]
else:
remaining = None
while True:
chunk_size = 64 * 1024
if remaining is not None and remaining < chunk_size:
chunk_size = remaining
chunk = file.read(chunk_size)
if chunk:
if remaining is not None:
remaining -= len(chunk)
yield chunk
else:
if remaining is not None:
assert remaining == 0
return
@classmethod
def get_content_version(cls, abspath: str) -> str:
"""Returns a version string for the resource at the given path.
This class method may be overridden by subclasses. The
default implementation is a hash of the file's contents.
.. versionadded:: 3.1
"""
data = cls.get_content(abspath)
hasher = hashlib.md5()
if isinstance(data, bytes):
hasher.update(data)
else:
for chunk in data:
hasher.update(chunk)
return hasher.hexdigest()
def _stat(self) -> os.stat_result:
assert self.absolute_path is not None
if not hasattr(self, "_stat_result"):
self._stat_result = os.stat(self.absolute_path)
return self._stat_result
def get_content_size(self) -> int:
"""Retrieve the total size of the resource at the given path.
This method may be overridden by subclasses.
.. versionadded:: 3.1
.. versionchanged:: 4.0
This method is now always called, instead of only when
partial results are requested.
"""
stat_result = self._stat()
return stat_result.st_size
def get_modified_time(self) -> Optional[datetime.datetime]:
"""Returns the time that ``self.absolute_path`` was last modified.
May be overridden in subclasses. Should return a `~datetime.datetime`
object or None.
.. versionadded:: 3.1
"""
stat_result = self._stat()
# NOTE: Historically, this used stat_result[stat.ST_MTIME],
# which truncates the fractional portion of the timestamp. It
# was changed from that form to stat_result.st_mtime to
# satisfy mypy (which disallows the bracket operator), but the
# latter form returns a float instead of an int. For
# consistency with the past (and because we have a unit test
# that relies on this), we truncate the float here, although
# I'm not sure that's the right thing to do.
modified = datetime.datetime.utcfromtimestamp(int(stat_result.st_mtime))
return modified
def get_content_type(self) -> str:
"""Returns the ``Content-Type`` header to be used for this request.
.. versionadded:: 3.1
"""
assert self.absolute_path is not None
mime_type, encoding = mimetypes.guess_type(self.absolute_path)
# per RFC 6713, use the appropriate type for a gzip compressed file
if encoding == "gzip":
return "application/gzip"
# As of 2015-07-21 there is no bzip2 encoding defined at
# http://www.iana.org/assignments/media-types/media-types.xhtml
# So for that (and any other encoding), use octet-stream.
elif encoding is not None:
return "application/octet-stream"
elif mime_type is not None:
return mime_type
# if mime_type not detected, use application/octet-stream
else:
return "application/octet-stream"
def set_extra_headers(self, path: str) -> None:
"""For subclass to add extra headers to the response"""
pass
def get_cache_time(
self, path: str, modified: Optional[datetime.datetime], mime_type: str
) -> int:
"""Override to customize cache control behavior.
Return a positive number of seconds to make the result
cacheable for that amount of time or 0 to mark resource as
cacheable for an unspecified amount of time (subject to
browser heuristics).
By default returns cache expiry of 10 years for resources requested
with ``v`` argument.
"""
return self.CACHE_MAX_AGE if "v" in self.request.arguments else 0
@classmethod
def make_static_url(
cls, settings: Dict[str, Any], path: str, include_version: bool = True
) -> str:
"""Constructs a versioned url for the given path.
This method may be overridden in subclasses (but note that it
is a class method rather than an instance method). Subclasses
are only required to implement the signature
``make_static_url(cls, settings, path)``; other keyword
arguments may be passed through `~RequestHandler.static_url`
but are not standard.
``settings`` is the `Application.settings` dictionary. ``path``
is the static path being requested. The url returned should be
relative to the current host.
``include_version`` determines whether the generated URL should
include the query string containing the version hash of the
file corresponding to the given ``path``.
"""
url = settings.get("static_url_prefix", "/static/") + path
if not include_version:
return url
version_hash = cls.get_version(settings, path)
if not version_hash:
return url
return "%s?v=%s" % (url, version_hash)
def parse_url_path(self, url_path: str) -> str:
"""Converts a static URL path into a filesystem path.
``url_path`` is the path component of the URL with
``static_url_prefix`` removed. The return value should be
filesystem path relative to ``static_path``.
This is the inverse of `make_static_url`.
"""
if os.path.sep != "/":
url_path = url_path.replace("/", os.path.sep)
return url_path
@classmethod
def get_version(cls, settings: Dict[str, Any], path: str) -> Optional[str]:
"""Generate the version string to be used in static URLs.
``settings`` is the `Application.settings` dictionary and ``path``
is the relative location of the requested asset on the filesystem.
The returned value should be a string, or ``None`` if no version
could be determined.
.. versionchanged:: 3.1
This method was previously recommended for subclasses to override;
`get_content_version` is now preferred as it allows the base
class to handle caching of the result.
"""
abs_path = cls.get_absolute_path(settings["static_path"], path)
return cls._get_cached_version(abs_path)
@classmethod
def _get_cached_version(cls, abs_path: str) -> Optional[str]:
with cls._lock:
hashes = cls._static_hashes
if abs_path not in hashes:
try:
hashes[abs_path] = cls.get_content_version(abs_path)
except Exception:
gen_log.error("Could not open static file %r", abs_path)
hashes[abs_path] = None
hsh = hashes.get(abs_path)
if hsh:
return hsh
return None
class FallbackHandler(RequestHandler):
"""A `RequestHandler` that wraps another HTTP server callback.
The fallback is a callable object that accepts an
`~.httputil.HTTPServerRequest`, such as an `Application` or
`tornado.wsgi.WSGIContainer`. This is most useful to use both
Tornado ``RequestHandlers`` and WSGI in the same server. Typical
usage::
wsgi_app = tornado.wsgi.WSGIContainer(
django.core.handlers.wsgi.WSGIHandler())
application = tornado.web.Application([
(r"/foo", FooHandler),
(r".*", FallbackHandler, dict(fallback=wsgi_app),
])
"""
def initialize(
self, fallback: Callable[[httputil.HTTPServerRequest], None]
) -> None:
self.fallback = fallback
def prepare(self) -> None:
self.fallback(self.request)
self._finished = True
self.on_finish()
class OutputTransform(object):
"""A transform modifies the result of an HTTP request (e.g., GZip encoding)
Applications are not expected to create their own OutputTransforms
or interact with them directly; the framework chooses which transforms
(if any) to apply.
"""
def __init__(self, request: httputil.HTTPServerRequest) -> None:
pass
def transform_first_chunk(
self,
status_code: int,
headers: httputil.HTTPHeaders,
chunk: bytes,
finishing: bool,
) -> Tuple[int, httputil.HTTPHeaders, bytes]:
return status_code, headers, chunk
def transform_chunk(self, chunk: bytes, finishing: bool) -> bytes:
return chunk
class GZipContentEncoding(OutputTransform):
"""Applies the gzip content encoding to the response.
See http://www.w3.org/Protocols/rfc2616/rfc2616-sec14.html#sec14.11
.. versionchanged:: 4.0
Now compresses all mime types beginning with ``text/``, instead
of just a whitelist. (the whitelist is still used for certain
non-text mime types).
"""
# Whitelist of compressible mime types (in addition to any types
# beginning with "text/").
CONTENT_TYPES = set(
[
"application/javascript",
"application/x-javascript",
"application/xml",
"application/atom+xml",
"application/json",
"application/xhtml+xml",
"image/svg+xml",
]
)
# Python's GzipFile defaults to level 9, while most other gzip
# tools (including gzip itself) default to 6, which is probably a
# better CPU/size tradeoff.
GZIP_LEVEL = 6
# Responses that are too short are unlikely to benefit from gzipping
# after considering the "Content-Encoding: gzip" header and the header
# inside the gzip encoding.
# Note that responses written in multiple chunks will be compressed
# regardless of size.
MIN_LENGTH = 1024
def __init__(self, request: httputil.HTTPServerRequest) -> None:
self._gzipping = "gzip" in request.headers.get("Accept-Encoding", "")
def _compressible_type(self, ctype: str) -> bool:
return ctype.startswith("text/") or ctype in self.CONTENT_TYPES
def transform_first_chunk(
self,
status_code: int,
headers: httputil.HTTPHeaders,
chunk: bytes,
finishing: bool,
) -> Tuple[int, httputil.HTTPHeaders, bytes]:
# TODO: can/should this type be inherited from the superclass?
if "Vary" in headers:
headers["Vary"] += ", Accept-Encoding"
else:
headers["Vary"] = "Accept-Encoding"
if self._gzipping:
ctype = _unicode(headers.get("Content-Type", "")).split(";")[0]
self._gzipping = (
self._compressible_type(ctype)
and (not finishing or len(chunk) >= self.MIN_LENGTH)
and ("Content-Encoding" not in headers)
)
if self._gzipping:
headers["Content-Encoding"] = "gzip"
self._gzip_value = BytesIO()
self._gzip_file = gzip.GzipFile(
mode="w", fileobj=self._gzip_value, compresslevel=self.GZIP_LEVEL
)
chunk = self.transform_chunk(chunk, finishing)
if "Content-Length" in headers:
# The original content length is no longer correct.
# If this is the last (and only) chunk, we can set the new
# content-length; otherwise we remove it and fall back to
# chunked encoding.
if finishing:
headers["Content-Length"] = str(len(chunk))
else:
del headers["Content-Length"]
return status_code, headers, chunk
def transform_chunk(self, chunk: bytes, finishing: bool) -> bytes:
if self._gzipping:
self._gzip_file.write(chunk)
if finishing:
self._gzip_file.close()
else:
self._gzip_file.flush()
chunk = self._gzip_value.getvalue()
self._gzip_value.truncate(0)
self._gzip_value.seek(0)
return chunk
def authenticated(
method: Callable[..., Optional[Awaitable[None]]]
) -> Callable[..., Optional[Awaitable[None]]]:
"""Decorate methods with this to require that the user be logged in.
If the user is not logged in, they will be redirected to the configured
`login url <RequestHandler.get_login_url>`.
If you configure a login url with a query parameter, Tornado will
assume you know what you're doing and use it as-is. If not, it
will add a `next` parameter so the login page knows where to send
you once you're logged in.
"""
@functools.wraps(method)
def wrapper( # type: ignore
self: RequestHandler, *args, **kwargs
) -> Optional[Awaitable[None]]:
if not self.current_user:
if self.request.method in ("GET", "HEAD"):
url = self.get_login_url()
if "?" not in url:
if urllib.parse.urlsplit(url).scheme:
# if login url is absolute, make next absolute too
next_url = self.request.full_url()
else:
assert self.request.uri is not None
next_url = self.request.uri
url += "?" + urlencode(dict(next=next_url))
self.redirect(url)
return None
raise HTTPError(403)
return method(self, *args, **kwargs)
return wrapper
class UIModule(object):
"""A re-usable, modular UI unit on a page.
UI modules often execute additional queries, and they can include
additional CSS and JavaScript that will be included in the output
page, which is automatically inserted on page render.
Subclasses of UIModule must override the `render` method.
"""
def __init__(self, handler: RequestHandler) -> None:
self.handler = handler
self.request = handler.request
self.ui = handler.ui
self.locale = handler.locale
@property
def current_user(self) -> Any:
return self.handler.current_user
def render(self, *args: Any, **kwargs: Any) -> str:
"""Override in subclasses to return this module's output."""
raise NotImplementedError()
def embedded_javascript(self) -> Optional[str]:
"""Override to return a JavaScript string
to be embedded in the page."""
return None
def javascript_files(self) -> Optional[Iterable[str]]:
"""Override to return a list of JavaScript files needed by this module.
If the return values are relative paths, they will be passed to
`RequestHandler.static_url`; otherwise they will be used as-is.
"""
return None
def embedded_css(self) -> Optional[str]:
"""Override to return a CSS string
that will be embedded in the page."""
return None
def css_files(self) -> Optional[Iterable[str]]:
"""Override to returns a list of CSS files required by this module.
If the return values are relative paths, they will be passed to
`RequestHandler.static_url`; otherwise they will be used as-is.
"""
return None
def html_head(self) -> Optional[str]:
"""Override to return an HTML string that will be put in the <head/>
element.
"""
return None
def html_body(self) -> Optional[str]:
"""Override to return an HTML string that will be put at the end of
the <body/> element.
"""
return None
def render_string(self, path: str, **kwargs: Any) -> bytes:
"""Renders a template and returns it as a string."""
return self.handler.render_string(path, **kwargs)
class _linkify(UIModule):
def render(self, text: str, **kwargs: Any) -> str: # type: ignore
return escape.linkify(text, **kwargs)
class _xsrf_form_html(UIModule):
def render(self) -> str: # type: ignore
return self.handler.xsrf_form_html()
class TemplateModule(UIModule):
"""UIModule that simply renders the given template.
{% module Template("foo.html") %} is similar to {% include "foo.html" %},
but the module version gets its own namespace (with kwargs passed to
Template()) instead of inheriting the outer template's namespace.
Templates rendered through this module also get access to UIModule's
automatic javascript/css features. Simply call set_resources
inside the template and give it keyword arguments corresponding to
the methods on UIModule: {{ set_resources(js_files=static_url("my.js")) }}
Note that these resources are output once per template file, not once
per instantiation of the template, so they must not depend on
any arguments to the template.
"""
def __init__(self, handler: RequestHandler) -> None:
super(TemplateModule, self).__init__(handler)
# keep resources in both a list and a dict to preserve order
self._resource_list = [] # type: List[Dict[str, Any]]
self._resource_dict = {} # type: Dict[str, Dict[str, Any]]
def render(self, path: str, **kwargs: Any) -> bytes: # type: ignore
def set_resources(**kwargs) -> str: # type: ignore
if path not in self._resource_dict:
self._resource_list.append(kwargs)
self._resource_dict[path] = kwargs
else:
if self._resource_dict[path] != kwargs:
raise ValueError(
"set_resources called with different "
"resources for the same template"
)
return ""
return self.render_string(path, set_resources=set_resources, **kwargs)
def _get_resources(self, key: str) -> Iterable[str]:
return (r[key] for r in self._resource_list if key in r)
def embedded_javascript(self) -> str:
return "\n".join(self._get_resources("embedded_javascript"))
def javascript_files(self) -> Iterable[str]:
result = []
for f in self._get_resources("javascript_files"):
if isinstance(f, (unicode_type, bytes)):
result.append(f)
else:
result.extend(f)
return result
def embedded_css(self) -> str:
return "\n".join(self._get_resources("embedded_css"))
def css_files(self) -> Iterable[str]:
result = []
for f in self._get_resources("css_files"):
if isinstance(f, (unicode_type, bytes)):
result.append(f)
else:
result.extend(f)
return result
def html_head(self) -> str:
return "".join(self._get_resources("html_head"))
def html_body(self) -> str:
return "".join(self._get_resources("html_body"))
class _UIModuleNamespace(object):
"""Lazy namespace which creates UIModule proxies bound to a handler."""