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#!/usr/bin/env python
# Copyright 2009 Facebook
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"); you may
# not use this file except in compliance with the License. You may obtain
# a copy of the License at
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT
# WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the
# License for the specific language governing permissions and limitations
# under the License.
"""``tornado.web`` provides a simple web framework with asynchronous
features that allow it to scale to large numbers of open connections,
making it ideal for `long polling
Here is a simple "Hello, world" example app:
.. testcode::
import tornado.ioloop
import tornado.web
class MainHandler(tornado.web.RequestHandler):
def get(self):
self.write("Hello, world")
if __name__ == "__main__":
application = tornado.web.Application([
(r"/", MainHandler),
.. testoutput::
See the :doc:`guide` for additional information.
Thread-safety notes
In general, methods on `RequestHandler` and elsewhere in Tornado are
not thread-safe. In particular, methods such as
`~RequestHandler.write()`, `~RequestHandler.finish()`, and
`~RequestHandler.flush()` must only be called from the main thread. If
you use multiple threads it is important to use `.IOLoop.add_callback`
to transfer control back to the main thread before finishing the
from __future__ import (absolute_import, division,
print_function, with_statement)
import base64
import binascii
import datetime
import email.utils
import functools
import gzip
import hashlib
import hmac
import mimetypes
import numbers
import os.path
import re
import stat
import sys
import threading
import time
import tornado
import traceback
import types
from io import BytesIO
from tornado.concurrent import Future
from tornado import escape
from tornado import gen
from tornado import httputil
from tornado import iostream
from tornado import locale
from tornado.log import access_log, app_log, gen_log
from tornado import stack_context
from tornado import template
from tornado.escape import utf8, _unicode
from tornado.util import (import_object, ObjectDict, raise_exc_info,
unicode_type, _websocket_mask)
from tornado.httputil import split_host_and_port
import Cookie # py2
except ImportError:
import http.cookies as Cookie # py3
import urlparse # py2
except ImportError:
import urllib.parse as urlparse # py3
from urllib import urlencode # py2
except ImportError:
from urllib.parse import urlencode # py3
"""The oldest signed value version supported by this version of Tornado.
Signed values older than this version cannot be decoded.
.. versionadded:: 3.2.1
"""The newest signed value version supported by this version of Tornado.
Signed values newer than this version cannot be decoded.
.. versionadded:: 3.2.1
"""The signed value version produced by `.RequestHandler.create_signed_value`.
May be overridden by passing a ``version`` keyword argument.
.. versionadded:: 3.2.1
"""The oldest signed value accepted by `.RequestHandler.get_secure_cookie`.
May be overridden by passing a ``min_version`` keyword argument.
.. versionadded:: 3.2.1
class RequestHandler(object):
"""Base class for HTTP request handlers.
Subclasses must define at least one of the methods defined in the
"Entry points" section below.
_template_loaders = {} # {path: template.BaseLoader}
_template_loader_lock = threading.Lock()
_remove_control_chars_regex = re.compile(r"[\x00-\x08\x0e-\x1f]")
def __init__(self, application, request, **kwargs):
super(RequestHandler, self).__init__()
self.application = application
self.request = request
self._headers_written = False
self._finished = False
self._auto_finish = True
self._transforms = None # will be set in _execute
self._prepared_future = None
self.path_args = None
self.path_kwargs = None
self.ui = ObjectDict((n, self._ui_method(m)) for n, m in
# UIModules are available as both `modules` and `_tt_modules` in the
# template namespace. Historically only `modules` was available
# but could be clobbered by user additions to the namespace.
# The template {% module %} directive looks in `_tt_modules` to avoid
# possible conflicts.
self.ui["_tt_modules"] = _UIModuleNamespace(self,
self.ui["modules"] = self.ui["_tt_modules"]
def initialize(self):
"""Hook for subclass initialization.
A dictionary passed as the third argument of a url spec will be
supplied as keyword arguments to initialize().
class ProfileHandler(RequestHandler):
def initialize(self, database):
self.database = database
def get(self, username):
app = Application([
(r'/user/(.*)', ProfileHandler, dict(database=database)),
def settings(self):
"""An alias for `self.application.settings <Application.settings>`."""
return self.application.settings
def head(self, *args, **kwargs):
raise HTTPError(405)
def get(self, *args, **kwargs):
raise HTTPError(405)
def post(self, *args, **kwargs):
raise HTTPError(405)
def delete(self, *args, **kwargs):
raise HTTPError(405)
def patch(self, *args, **kwargs):
raise HTTPError(405)
def put(self, *args, **kwargs):
raise HTTPError(405)
def options(self, *args, **kwargs):
raise HTTPError(405)
def prepare(self):
"""Called at the beginning of a request before `get`/`post`/etc.
Override this method to perform common initialization regardless
of the request method.
Asynchronous support: Decorate this method with `.gen.coroutine`
or `.return_future` to make it asynchronous (the
`asynchronous` decorator cannot be used on `prepare`).
If this method returns a `.Future` execution will not proceed
until the `.Future` is done.
.. versionadded:: 3.1
Asynchronous support.
def on_finish(self):
"""Called after the end of a request.
Override this method to perform cleanup, logging, etc.
This method is a counterpart to `prepare`. ``on_finish`` may
not produce any output, as it is called after the response
has been sent to the client.
def on_connection_close(self):
"""Called in async handlers if the client closed the connection.
Override this to clean up resources associated with
long-lived connections. Note that this method is called only if
the connection was closed during asynchronous processing; if you
need to do cleanup after every request override `on_finish`
Proxies may keep a connection open for a time (perhaps
indefinitely) after the client has gone away, so this method
may not be called promptly after the end user closes their
if _has_stream_request_body(self.__class__):
if not self.request.body.done():
def clear(self):
"""Resets all headers and content for this response."""
self._headers = httputil.HTTPHeaders({
"Server": "TornadoServer/%s" % tornado.version,
"Content-Type": "text/html; charset=UTF-8",
"Date": httputil.format_timestamp(time.time()),
self._write_buffer = []
self._status_code = 200
self._reason = httputil.responses[200]
def set_default_headers(self):
"""Override this to set HTTP headers at the beginning of the request.
For example, this is the place to set a custom ``Server`` header.
Note that setting such headers in the normal flow of request
processing may not do what you want, since headers may be reset
during error handling.
def set_status(self, status_code, reason=None):
"""Sets the status code for our response.
:arg int status_code: Response status code. If ``reason`` is ``None``,
it must be present in `httplib.responses <http.client.responses>`.
:arg string reason: Human-readable reason phrase describing the status
code. If ``None``, it will be filled in from
`httplib.responses <http.client.responses>`.
self._status_code = status_code
if reason is not None:
self._reason = escape.native_str(reason)
self._reason = httputil.responses[status_code]
except KeyError:
raise ValueError("unknown status code %d", status_code)
def get_status(self):
"""Returns the status code for our response."""
return self._status_code
def set_header(self, name, value):
"""Sets the given response header name and value.
If a datetime is given, we automatically format it according to the
HTTP specification. If the value is not a string, we convert it to
a string. All header values are then encoded as UTF-8.
self._headers[name] = self._convert_header_value(value)
def add_header(self, name, value):
"""Adds the given response header and value.
Unlike `set_header`, `add_header` may be called multiple times
to return multiple values for the same header.
self._headers.add(name, self._convert_header_value(value))
def clear_header(self, name):
"""Clears an outgoing header, undoing a previous `set_header` call.
Note that this method does not apply to multi-valued headers
set by `add_header`.
if name in self._headers:
del self._headers[name]
_INVALID_HEADER_CHAR_RE = re.compile(br"[\x00-\x1f]")
def _convert_header_value(self, value):
if isinstance(value, bytes):
elif isinstance(value, unicode_type):
value = value.encode('utf-8')
elif isinstance(value, numbers.Integral):
# return immediately since we know the converted value will be safe
return str(value)
elif isinstance(value, datetime.datetime):
return httputil.format_timestamp(value)
raise TypeError("Unsupported header value %r" % value)
# If \n is allowed into the header, it is possible to inject
# additional headers or split the request.
raise ValueError("Unsafe header value %r", value)
return value
def get_argument(self, name, default=_ARG_DEFAULT, strip=True):
"""Returns the value of the argument with the given name.
If default is not provided, the argument is considered to be
required, and we raise a `MissingArgumentError` if it is missing.
If the argument appears in the url more than once, we return the
last value.
The returned value is always unicode.
return self._get_argument(name, default, self.request.arguments, strip)
def get_arguments(self, name, strip=True):
"""Returns a list of the arguments with the given name.
If the argument is not present, returns an empty list.
The returned values are always unicode.
# Make sure `get_arguments` isn't accidentally being called with a
# positional argument that's assumed to be a default (like in
# `get_argument`.)
assert isinstance(strip, bool)
return self._get_arguments(name, self.request.arguments, strip)
def get_body_argument(self, name, default=_ARG_DEFAULT, strip=True):
"""Returns the value of the argument with the given name
from the request body.
If default is not provided, the argument is considered to be
required, and we raise a `MissingArgumentError` if it is missing.
If the argument appears in the url more than once, we return the
last value.
The returned value is always unicode.
.. versionadded:: 3.2
return self._get_argument(name, default, self.request.body_arguments,
def get_body_arguments(self, name, strip=True):
"""Returns a list of the body arguments with the given name.
If the argument is not present, returns an empty list.
The returned values are always unicode.
.. versionadded:: 3.2
return self._get_arguments(name, self.request.body_arguments, strip)
def get_query_argument(self, name, default=_ARG_DEFAULT, strip=True):
"""Returns the value of the argument with the given name
from the request query string.
If default is not provided, the argument is considered to be
required, and we raise a `MissingArgumentError` if it is missing.
If the argument appears in the url more than once, we return the
last value.
The returned value is always unicode.
.. versionadded:: 3.2
return self._get_argument(name, default,
self.request.query_arguments, strip)
def get_query_arguments(self, name, strip=True):
"""Returns a list of the query arguments with the given name.
If the argument is not present, returns an empty list.
The returned values are always unicode.
.. versionadded:: 3.2
return self._get_arguments(name, self.request.query_arguments, strip)
def _get_argument(self, name, default, source, strip=True):
args = self._get_arguments(name, source, strip=strip)
if not args:
if default is self._ARG_DEFAULT:
raise MissingArgumentError(name)
return default
return args[-1]
def _get_arguments(self, name, source, strip=True):
values = []
for v in source.get(name, []):
v = self.decode_argument(v, name=name)
if isinstance(v, unicode_type):
# Get rid of any weird control chars (unless decoding gave
# us bytes, in which case leave it alone)
v = RequestHandler._remove_control_chars_regex.sub(" ", v)
if strip:
v = v.strip()
return values
def decode_argument(self, value, name=None):
"""Decodes an argument from the request.
The argument has been percent-decoded and is now a byte string.
By default, this method decodes the argument as utf-8 and returns
a unicode string, but this may be overridden in subclasses.
This method is used as a filter for both `get_argument()` and for
values extracted from the url and passed to `get()`/`post()`/etc.
The name of the argument is provided if known, but may be None
(e.g. for unnamed groups in the url regex).
return _unicode(value)
except UnicodeDecodeError:
raise HTTPError(400, "Invalid unicode in %s: %r" %
(name or "url", value[:40]))
def cookies(self):
"""An alias for
`self.request.cookies <.httputil.HTTPServerRequest.cookies>`."""
return self.request.cookies
def get_cookie(self, name, default=None):
"""Gets the value of the cookie with the given name, else default."""
if self.request.cookies is not None and name in self.request.cookies:
return self.request.cookies[name].value
return default
def set_cookie(self, name, value, domain=None, expires=None, path="/",
expires_days=None, **kwargs):
"""Sets the given cookie name/value with the given options.
Additional keyword arguments are set on the Cookie.Morsel
for available attributes.
# The cookie library only accepts type str, in both python 2 and 3
name = escape.native_str(name)
value = escape.native_str(value)
if"[\x00-\x20]", name + value):
# Don't let us accidentally inject bad stuff
raise ValueError("Invalid cookie %r: %r" % (name, value))
if not hasattr(self, "_new_cookie"):
self._new_cookie = Cookie.SimpleCookie()
if name in self._new_cookie:
del self._new_cookie[name]
self._new_cookie[name] = value
morsel = self._new_cookie[name]
if domain:
morsel["domain"] = domain
if expires_days is not None and not expires:
expires = datetime.datetime.utcnow() + datetime.timedelta(
if expires:
morsel["expires"] = httputil.format_timestamp(expires)
if path:
morsel["path"] = path
for k, v in kwargs.items():
if k == 'max_age':
k = 'max-age'
# skip falsy values for httponly and secure flags because
# SimpleCookie sets them regardless
if k in ['httponly', 'secure'] and not v:
morsel[k] = v
def clear_cookie(self, name, path="/", domain=None):
"""Deletes the cookie with the given name.
Due to limitations of the cookie protocol, you must pass the same
path and domain to clear a cookie as were used when that cookie
was set (but there is no way to find out on the server side
which values were used for a given cookie).
expires = datetime.datetime.utcnow() - datetime.timedelta(days=365)
self.set_cookie(name, value="", path=path, expires=expires,
def clear_all_cookies(self, path="/", domain=None):
"""Deletes all the cookies the user sent with this request.
See `clear_cookie` for more information on the path and domain
.. versionchanged:: 3.2
Added the ``path`` and ``domain`` parameters.
for name in self.request.cookies:
self.clear_cookie(name, path=path, domain=domain)
def set_secure_cookie(self, name, value, expires_days=30, version=None,
"""Signs and timestamps a cookie so it cannot be forged.
You must specify the ``cookie_secret`` setting in your Application
to use this method. It should be a long, random sequence of bytes
to be used as the HMAC secret for the signature.
To read a cookie set with this method, use `get_secure_cookie()`.
Note that the ``expires_days`` parameter sets the lifetime of the
cookie in the browser, but is independent of the ``max_age_days``
parameter to `get_secure_cookie`.
Secure cookies may contain arbitrary byte values, not just unicode
strings (unlike regular cookies)
.. versionchanged:: 3.2.1
Added the ``version`` argument. Introduced cookie version 2
and made it the default.
self.set_cookie(name, self.create_signed_value(name, value,
expires_days=expires_days, **kwargs)
def create_signed_value(self, name, value, version=None):
"""Signs and timestamps a string so it cannot be forged.
Normally used via set_secure_cookie, but provided as a separate
method for non-cookie uses. To decode a value not stored
as a cookie use the optional value argument to get_secure_cookie.
.. versionchanged:: 3.2.1
Added the ``version`` argument. Introduced cookie version 2
and made it the default.
self.require_setting("cookie_secret", "secure cookies")
secret = self.application.settings["cookie_secret"]
key_version = None
if isinstance(secret, dict):
if self.application.settings.get("key_version") is None:
raise Exception("key_version setting must be used for secret_key dicts")
key_version = self.application.settings["key_version"]
return create_signed_value(secret, name, value, version=version,
def get_secure_cookie(self, name, value=None, max_age_days=31,
"""Returns the given signed cookie if it validates, or None.
The decoded cookie value is returned as a byte string (unlike
.. versionchanged:: 3.2.1
Added the ``min_version`` argument. Introduced cookie version 2;
both versions 1 and 2 are accepted by default.
self.require_setting("cookie_secret", "secure cookies")
if value is None:
value = self.get_cookie(name)
return decode_signed_value(self.application.settings["cookie_secret"],
name, value, max_age_days=max_age_days,
def get_secure_cookie_key_version(self, name, value=None):
"""Returns the signing key version of the secure cookie.
The version is returned as int.
self.require_setting("cookie_secret", "secure cookies")
if value is None:
value = self.get_cookie(name)
return get_signature_key_version(value)
def redirect(self, url, permanent=False, status=None):
"""Sends a redirect to the given (optionally relative) URL.
If the ``status`` argument is specified, that value is used as the
HTTP status code; otherwise either 301 (permanent) or 302
(temporary) is chosen based on the ``permanent`` argument.
The default is 302 (temporary).
if self._headers_written:
raise Exception("Cannot redirect after headers have been written")
if status is None:
status = 301 if permanent else 302
assert isinstance(status, int) and 300 <= status <= 399
self.set_header("Location", utf8(url))
def write(self, chunk):
"""Writes the given chunk to the output buffer.
To write the output to the network, use the flush() method below.
If the given chunk is a dictionary, we write it as JSON and set
the Content-Type of the response to be ``application/json``.
(if you want to send JSON as a different ``Content-Type``, call
set_header *after* calling write()).
Note that lists are not converted to JSON because of a potential
cross-site security vulnerability. All JSON output should be
wrapped in a dictionary. More details at and
if self._finished:
raise RuntimeError("Cannot write() after finish()")
if not isinstance(chunk, (bytes, unicode_type, dict)):
message = "write() only accepts bytes, unicode, and dict objects"
if isinstance(chunk, list):
message += ". Lists not accepted for security reasons; see"
raise TypeError(message)
if isinstance(chunk, dict):
chunk = escape.json_encode(chunk)
self.set_header("Content-Type", "application/json; charset=UTF-8")
chunk = utf8(chunk)
def render(self, template_name, **kwargs):
"""Renders the template with the given arguments as the response."""
html = self.render_string(template_name, **kwargs)
# Insert the additional JS and CSS added by the modules on the page
js_embed = []
js_files = []
css_embed = []
css_files = []
html_heads = []
html_bodies = []
for module in getattr(self, "_active_modules", {}).values():
embed_part = module.embedded_javascript()
if embed_part:
file_part = module.javascript_files()
if file_part:
if isinstance(file_part, (unicode_type, bytes)):
embed_part = module.embedded_css()
if embed_part:
file_part = module.css_files()
if file_part:
if isinstance(file_part, (unicode_type, bytes)):
head_part = module.html_head()
if head_part:
body_part = module.html_body()
if body_part:
def is_absolute(path):
return any(path.startswith(x) for x in ["/", "http:", "https:"])
if js_files:
# Maintain order of JavaScript files given by modules
paths = []
unique_paths = set()
for path in js_files:
if not is_absolute(path):
path = self.static_url(path)
if path not in unique_paths:
js = ''.join('<script src="' + escape.xhtml_escape(p) +
'" type="text/javascript"></script>'
for p in paths)
sloc = html.rindex(b'</body>')
html = html[:sloc] + utf8(js) + b'\n' + html[sloc:]
if js_embed:
js = b'<script type="text/javascript">\n//<![CDATA[\n' + \
b'\n'.join(js_embed) + b'\n//]]>\n</script>'
sloc = html.rindex(b'</body>')
html = html[:sloc] + js + b'\n' + html[sloc:]
if css_files:
paths = []
unique_paths = set()
for path in css_files:
if not is_absolute(path):
path = self.static_url(path)
if path not in unique_paths:
css = ''.join('<link href="' + escape.xhtml_escape(p) + '" '
'type="text/css" rel="stylesheet"/>'
for p in paths)
hloc = html.index(b'</head>')
html = html[:hloc] + utf8(css) + b'\n' + html[hloc:]
if css_embed:
css = b'<style type="text/css">\n' + b'\n'.join(css_embed) + \
hloc = html.index(b'</head>')
html = html[:hloc] + css + b'\n' + html[hloc:]
if html_heads:
hloc = html.index(b'</head>')
html = html[:hloc] + b''.join(html_heads) + b'\n' + html[hloc:]
if html_bodies:
hloc = html.index(b'</body>')
html = html[:hloc] + b''.join(html_bodies) + b'\n' + html[hloc:]
def render_string(self, template_name, **kwargs):
"""Generate the given template with the given arguments.
We return the generated byte string (in utf8). To generate and
write a template as a response, use render() above.
# If no template_path is specified, use the path of the calling file
template_path = self.get_template_path()
if not template_path:
frame = sys._getframe(0)
web_file = frame.f_code.co_filename
while frame.f_code.co_filename == web_file:
frame = frame.f_back
template_path = os.path.dirname(frame.f_code.co_filename)
with RequestHandler._template_loader_lock:
if template_path not in RequestHandler._template_loaders:
loader = self.create_template_loader(template_path)
RequestHandler._template_loaders[template_path] = loader
loader = RequestHandler._template_loaders[template_path]
t = loader.load(template_name)
namespace = self.get_template_namespace()
return t.generate(**namespace)
def get_template_namespace(self):
"""Returns a dictionary to be used as the default template namespace.
May be overridden by subclasses to add or modify values.
The results of this method will be combined with additional
defaults in the `tornado.template` module and keyword arguments
to `render` or `render_string`.
namespace = dict(
return namespace
def create_template_loader(self, template_path):
"""Returns a new template loader for the given path.
May be overridden by subclasses. By default returns a
directory-based loader on the given path, using the
``autoescape`` and ``template_whitespace`` application
settings. If a ``template_loader`` application setting is
supplied, uses that instead.
settings = self.application.settings
if "template_loader" in settings:
return settings["template_loader"]
kwargs = {}
if "autoescape" in settings:
# autoescape=None means "no escaping", so we have to be sure
# to only pass this kwarg if the user asked for it.
kwargs["autoescape"] = settings["autoescape"]
if "template_whitespace" in settings:
kwargs["whitespace"] = settings["template_whitespace"]
return template.Loader(template_path, **kwargs)
def flush(self, include_footers=False, callback=None):
"""Flushes the current output buffer to the network.
The ``callback`` argument, if given, can be used for flow control:
it will be run when all flushed data has been written to the socket.
Note that only one flush callback can be outstanding at a time;
if another flush occurs before the previous flush's callback
has been run, the previous callback will be discarded.
.. versionchanged:: 4.0
Now returns a `.Future` if no callback is given.
chunk = b"".join(self._write_buffer)
self._write_buffer = []
if not self._headers_written:
self._headers_written = True
for transform in self._transforms:
self._status_code, self._headers, chunk = \
self._status_code, self._headers,
chunk, include_footers)
# Ignore the chunk and only write the headers for HEAD requests
if self.request.method == "HEAD":
chunk = None
# Finalize the cookie headers (which have been stored in a side
# object so an outgoing cookie could be overwritten before it
# is sent).
if hasattr(self, "_new_cookie"):
for cookie in self._new_cookie.values():
self.add_header("Set-Cookie", cookie.OutputString(None))
start_line = httputil.ResponseStartLine('',
return self.request.connection.write_headers(
start_line, self._headers, chunk, callback=callback)
for transform in self._transforms:
chunk = transform.transform_chunk(chunk, include_footers)
# Ignore the chunk and only write the headers for HEAD requests
if self.request.method != "HEAD":
return self.request.connection.write(chunk, callback=callback)
future = Future()
return future
def finish(self, chunk=None):
"""Finishes this response, ending the HTTP request."""
if self._finished:
raise RuntimeError("finish() called twice")
if chunk is not None:
# Automatically support ETags and add the Content-Length header if
# we have not flushed any content yet.
if not self._headers_written:
if (self._status_code == 200 and
self.request.method in ("GET", "HEAD") and
"Etag" not in self._headers):
if self.check_etag_header():
self._write_buffer = []
if self._status_code == 304:
assert not self._write_buffer, "Cannot send body with 304"
elif "Content-Length" not in self._headers:
content_length = sum(len(part) for part in self._write_buffer)
self.set_header("Content-Length", content_length)
if hasattr(self.request, "connection"):
# Now that the request is finished, clear the callback we
# set on the HTTPConnection (which would otherwise prevent the
# garbage collection of the RequestHandler when there
# are keepalive connections)
self._finished = True
# Break up a reference cycle between this handler and the
# _ui_module closures to allow for faster GC on CPython.
self.ui = None
def send_error(self, status_code=500, **kwargs):
"""Sends the given HTTP error code to the browser.
If `flush()` has already been called, it is not possible to send
an error, so this method will simply terminate the response.
If output has been written but not yet flushed, it will be discarded
and replaced with the error page.
Override `write_error()` to customize the error page that is returned.
Additional keyword arguments are passed through to `write_error`.
if self._headers_written:
gen_log.error("Cannot send error response after headers written")
if not self._finished:
# If we get an error between writing headers and finishing,
# we are unlikely to be able to finish due to a
# Content-Length mismatch. Try anyway to release the
# socket.
except Exception:
gen_log.error("Failed to flush partial response",
reason = kwargs.get('reason')
if 'exc_info' in kwargs:
exception = kwargs['exc_info'][1]
if isinstance(exception, HTTPError) and exception.reason:
reason = exception.reason
self.set_status(status_code, reason=reason)
self.write_error(status_code, **kwargs)
except Exception:
app_log.error("Uncaught exception in write_error", exc_info=True)
if not self._finished:
def write_error(self, status_code, **kwargs):
"""Override to implement custom error pages.
``write_error`` may call `write`, `render`, `set_header`, etc
to produce output as usual.
If this error was caused by an uncaught exception (including
HTTPError), an ``exc_info`` triple will be available as
``kwargs["exc_info"]``. Note that this exception may not be
the "current" exception for purposes of methods like
``sys.exc_info()`` or ``traceback.format_exc``.
if self.settings.get("serve_traceback") and "exc_info" in kwargs:
# in debug mode, try to send a traceback
self.set_header('Content-Type', 'text/plain')
for line in traceback.format_exception(*kwargs["exc_info"]):
self.finish("<html><title>%(code)d: %(message)s</title>"
"<body>%(code)d: %(message)s</body></html>" % {
"code": status_code,
"message": self._reason,
def locale(self):
"""The locale for the current session.
Determined by either `get_user_locale`, which you can override to
set the locale based on, e.g., a user preference stored in a
database, or `get_browser_locale`, which uses the ``Accept-Language``
.. versionchanged: 4.1
Added a property setter.
if not hasattr(self, "_locale"):
self._locale = self.get_user_locale()
if not self._locale:
self._locale = self.get_browser_locale()
assert self._locale
return self._locale
def locale(self, value):
self._locale = value
def get_user_locale(self):
"""Override to determine the locale from the authenticated user.
If None is returned, we fall back to `get_browser_locale()`.
This method should return a `tornado.locale.Locale` object,
most likely obtained via a call like ``tornado.locale.get("en")``
return None
def get_browser_locale(self, default="en_US"):
"""Determines the user's locale from ``Accept-Language`` header.
if "Accept-Language" in self.request.headers:
languages = self.request.headers["Accept-Language"].split(",")
locales = []
for language in languages:
parts = language.strip().split(";")
if len(parts) > 1 and parts[1].startswith("q="):
score = float(parts[1][2:])
except (ValueError, TypeError):
score = 0.0
score = 1.0
locales.append((parts[0], score))
if locales:
locales.sort(key=lambda pair: pair[1], reverse=True)
codes = [l[0] for l in locales]
return locale.get(*codes)
return locale.get(default)
def current_user(self):
"""The authenticated user for this request.
This is set in one of two ways:
* A subclass may override `get_current_user()`, which will be called
automatically the first time ``self.current_user`` is accessed.
`get_current_user()` will only be called once per request,
and is cached for future access::
def get_current_user(self):
user_cookie = self.get_secure_cookie("user")
if user_cookie:
return json.loads(user_cookie)
return None
* It may be set as a normal variable, typically from an overridden
def prepare(self):
user_id_cookie = self.get_secure_cookie("user_id")
if user_id_cookie:
self.current_user = yield load_user(user_id_cookie)
Note that `prepare()` may be a coroutine while `get_current_user()`
may not, so the latter form is necessary if loading the user requires
asynchronous operations.
The user object may any type of the application's choosing.
if not hasattr(self, "_current_user"):
self._current_user = self.get_current_user()
return self._current_user
def current_user(self, value):
self._current_user = value
def get_current_user(self):
"""Override to determine the current user from, e.g., a cookie.
This method may not be a coroutine.
return None
def get_login_url(self):
"""Override to customize the login URL based on the request.
By default, we use the ``login_url`` application setting.
self.require_setting("login_url", "@tornado.web.authenticated")
return self.application.settings["login_url"]
def get_template_path(self):
"""Override to customize template path for each handler.
By default, we use the ``template_path`` application setting.
Return None to load templates relative to the calling file.
return self.application.settings.get("template_path")
def xsrf_token(self):
"""The XSRF-prevention token for the current user/session.
To prevent cross-site request forgery, we set an '_xsrf' cookie
and include the same '_xsrf' value as an argument with all POST
requests. If the two do not match, we reject the form submission
as a potential forgery.
.. versionchanged:: 3.2.2
The xsrf token will now be have a random mask applied in every
request, which makes it safe to include the token in pages
that are compressed. See for more
information on the issue fixed by this change. Old (version 1)
cookies will be converted to version 2 when this method is called
unless the ``xsrf_cookie_version`` `Application` setting is
set to 1.
if not hasattr(self, "_xsrf_token"):
version, token, timestamp = self._get_raw_xsrf_token()
output_version = self.settings.get("xsrf_cookie_version", 2)
if output_version == 1:
self._xsrf_token = binascii.b2a_hex(token)
elif output_version == 2:
mask = os.urandom(4)
self._xsrf_token = b"|".join([
binascii.b2a_hex(_websocket_mask(mask, token)),
raise ValueError("unknown xsrf cookie version %d",
if version is None:
expires_days = 30 if self.current_user else None
self.set_cookie("_xsrf", self._xsrf_token,
return self._xsrf_token
def _get_raw_xsrf_token(self):
"""Read or generate the xsrf token in its raw form.
The raw_xsrf_token is a tuple containing:
* version: the version of the cookie from which this token was read,
or None if we generated a new token in this request.
* token: the raw token data; random (non-ascii) bytes.
* timestamp: the time this token was generated (will not be accurate
for version 1 cookies)
if not hasattr(self, '_raw_xsrf_token'):
cookie = self.get_cookie("_xsrf")
if cookie:
version, token, timestamp = self._decode_xsrf_token(cookie)
version, token, timestamp = None, None, None
if token is None:
version = None
token = os.urandom(16)
timestamp = time.time()
self._raw_xsrf_token = (version, token, timestamp)
return self._raw_xsrf_token
def _decode_xsrf_token(self, cookie):
"""Convert a cookie string into a the tuple form returned by
m = _signed_value_version_re.match(utf8(cookie))
if m:
version = int(
if version == 2:
_, mask, masked_token, timestamp = cookie.split("|")
mask = binascii.a2b_hex(utf8(mask))
token = _websocket_mask(
mask, binascii.a2b_hex(utf8(masked_token)))
timestamp = int(timestamp)
return version, token, timestamp
# Treat unknown versions as not present instead of failing.
raise Exception("Unknown xsrf cookie version")
version = 1
token = binascii.a2b_hex(utf8(cookie))
except (binascii.Error, TypeError):
token = utf8(cookie)
# We don't have a usable timestamp in older versions.
timestamp = int(time.time())
return (version, token, timestamp)
except Exception:
# Catch exceptions and return nothing instead of failing.
gen_log.debug("Uncaught exception in _decode_xsrf_token",
return None, None, None
def check_xsrf_cookie(self):
"""Verifies that the ``_xsrf`` cookie matches the ``_xsrf`` argument.
To prevent cross-site request forgery, we set an ``_xsrf``
cookie and include the same value as a non-cookie
field with all ``POST`` requests. If the two do not match, we
reject the form submission as a potential forgery.
The ``_xsrf`` value may be set as either a form field named ``_xsrf``
or in a custom HTTP header named ``X-XSRFToken`` or ``X-CSRFToken``
(the latter is accepted for compatibility with Django).
Prior to release 1.1.1, this check was ignored if the HTTP header
``X-Requested-With: XMLHTTPRequest`` was present. This exception
has been shown to be insecure and has been removed. For more
information please see
.. versionchanged:: 3.2.2
Added support for cookie version 2. Both versions 1 and 2 are
token = (self.get_argument("_xsrf", None) or
self.request.headers.get("X-Xsrftoken") or
if not token:
raise HTTPError(403, "'_xsrf' argument missing from POST")
_, token, _ = self._decode_xsrf_token(token)
_, expected_token, _ = self._get_raw_xsrf_token()
if not _time_independent_equals(utf8(token), utf8(expected_token)):
raise HTTPError(403, "XSRF cookie does not match POST argument")
def xsrf_form_html(self):
"""An HTML ``<input/>`` element to be included with all POST forms.
It defines the ``_xsrf`` input value, which we check on all POST
requests to prevent cross-site request forgery. If you have set
the ``xsrf_cookies`` application setting, you must include this
HTML within all of your HTML forms.
In a template, this method should be called with ``{% module
xsrf_form_html() %}``
See `check_xsrf_cookie()` above for more information.
return '<input type="hidden" name="_xsrf" value="' + \
escape.xhtml_escape(self.xsrf_token) + '"/>'
def static_url(self, path, include_host=None, **kwargs):
"""Returns a static URL for the given relative static file path.
This method requires you set the ``static_path`` setting in your
application (which specifies the root directory of your static
This method returns a versioned url (by default appending
``?v=<signature>``), which allows the static files to be
cached indefinitely. This can be disabled by passing
``include_version=False`` (in the default implementation;
other static file implementations are not required to support
this, but they may support other options).
By default this method returns URLs relative to the current
host, but if ``include_host`` is true the URL returned will be
absolute. If this handler has an ``include_host`` attribute,
that value will be used as the default for all `static_url`
calls that do not pass ``include_host`` as a keyword argument.
self.require_setting("static_path", "static_url")
get_url = self.settings.get("static_handler_class",
if include_host is None:
include_host = getattr(self, "include_host", False)
if include_host:
base = self.request.protocol + "://" +
base = ""
return base + get_url(self.settings, path, **kwargs)
def require_setting(self, name, feature="this feature"):
"""Raises an exception if the given app setting is not defined."""
if not self.application.settings.get(name):
raise Exception("You must define the '%s' setting in your "
"application to use %s" % (name, feature))
def reverse_url(self, name, *args):
"""Alias for `Application.reverse_url`."""
return self.application.reverse_url(name, *args)
def compute_etag(self):
"""Computes the etag header to be used for this request.
By default uses a hash of the content written so far.
May be overridden to provide custom etag implementations,
or may return None to disable tornado's default etag support.
hasher = hashlib.sha1()
for part in self._write_buffer:
return '"%s"' % hasher.hexdigest()
def set_etag_header(self):
"""Sets the response's Etag header using ``self.compute_etag()``.
Note: no header will be set if ``compute_etag()`` returns ``None``.
This method is called automatically when the request is finished.
etag = self.compute_etag()
if etag is not None:
self.set_header("Etag", etag)
def check_etag_header(self):
"""Checks the ``Etag`` header against requests's ``If-None-Match``.
Returns ``True`` if the request's Etag matches and a 304 should be
returned. For example::
if self.check_etag_header():
This method is called automatically when the request is finished,
but may be called earlier for applications that override
`compute_etag` and want to do an early check for ``If-None-Match``
before completing the request. The ``Etag`` header should be set
(perhaps with `set_etag_header`) before calling this method.
computed_etag = utf8(self._headers.get("Etag", ""))
# Find all weak and strong etag values from If-None-Match header
# because RFC 7232 allows multiple etag values in a single header.
etags = re.findall(
utf8(self.request.headers.get("If-None-Match", ""))
if not computed_etag or not etags:
return False
match = False
if etags[0] == b'*':
match = True
# Use a weak comparison when comparing entity-tags.
val = lambda x: x[2:] if x.startswith(b'W/') else x
for etag in etags:
if val(etag) == val(computed_etag):
match = True
return match
def _stack_context_handle_exception(self, type, value, traceback):
# For historical reasons _handle_request_exception only takes
# the exception value instead of the full triple,
# so re-raise the exception to ensure that it's in
# sys.exc_info()
raise_exc_info((type, value, traceback))
except Exception:
return True
def _execute(self, transforms, *args, **kwargs):
"""Executes this request with the given output transforms."""
self._transforms = transforms
if self.request.method not in self.SUPPORTED_METHODS:
raise HTTPError(405)
self.path_args = [self.decode_argument(arg) for arg in args]
self.path_kwargs = dict((k, self.decode_argument(v, name=k))
for (k, v) in kwargs.items())
# If XSRF cookies are turned on, reject form submissions without
# the proper cookie
if self.request.method not in ("GET", "HEAD", "OPTIONS") and \
result = self.prepare()
if result is not None:
result = yield result
if self._prepared_future is not None:
# Tell the Application we've finished with prepare()
# and are ready for the body to arrive.
if self._finished:
if _has_stream_request_body(self.__class__):
# In streaming mode request.body is a Future that signals
# the body has been completely received. The Future has no
# result; the data has been passed to self.data_received
# instead.
yield self.request.body
except iostream.StreamClosedError:
method = getattr(self, self.request.method.lower())
result = method(*self.path_args, **self.path_kwargs)
if result is not None:
result = yield result
if self._auto_finish and not self._finished:
except Exception as e:
except Exception:
app_log.error("Exception in exception handler", exc_info=True)
if (self._prepared_future is not None and
not self._prepared_future.done()):
# In case we failed before setting _prepared_future, do it
# now (to unblock the HTTP server). Note that this is not
# in a finally block to avoid GC issues prior to Python 3.4.
def data_received(self, chunk):
"""Implement this method to handle streamed request data.
Requires the `.stream_request_body` decorator.
raise NotImplementedError()
def _log(self):
"""Logs the current request.
Sort of deprecated since this functionality was moved to the
Application, but left in place for the benefit of existing apps
that have overridden this method.
def _request_summary(self):
return "%s %s (%s)" % (self.request.method, self.request.uri,
def _handle_request_exception(self, e):
if isinstance(e, Finish):
# Not an error; just finish the request without logging.
if not self._finished:
except Exception:
# An error here should still get a best-effort send_error()
# to avoid leaking the connection.
app_log.error("Error in exception logger", exc_info=True)
if self._finished:
# Extra errors after the request has been finished should
# be logged, but there is no reason to continue to try and
# send a response.
if isinstance(e, HTTPError):
if e.status_code not in httputil.responses and not e.reason:
gen_log.error("Bad HTTP status code: %d", e.status_code)
self.send_error(500, exc_info=sys.exc_info())
self.send_error(e.status_code, exc_info=sys.exc_info())
self.send_error(500, exc_info=sys.exc_info())
def log_exception(self, typ, value, tb):
"""Override to customize logging of uncaught exceptions.
By default logs instances of `HTTPError` as warnings without
stack traces (on the ``tornado.general`` logger), and all
other exceptions as errors with stack traces (on the
``tornado.application`` logger).
.. versionadded:: 3.1
if isinstance(value, HTTPError):
if value.log_message:
format = "%d %s: " + value.log_message
args = ([value.status_code, self._request_summary()] +
gen_log.warning(format, *args)
app_log.error("Uncaught exception %s\n%r", self._request_summary(),
self.request, exc_info=(typ, value, tb))
def _ui_module(self, name, module):
def render(*args, **kwargs):
if not hasattr(self, "_active_modules"):
self._active_modules = {}
if name not in self._active_modules:
self._active_modules[name] = module(self)
rendered = self._active_modules[name].render(*args, **kwargs)
return rendered
return render
def _ui_method(self, method):
return lambda *args, **kwargs: method(self, *args, **kwargs)
def _clear_headers_for_304(self):
# 304 responses should not contain entity headers (defined in
# not explicitly allowed by
headers = ["Allow", "Content-Encoding", "Content-Language",
"Content-Length", "Content-MD5", "Content-Range",
"Content-Type", "Last-Modified"]
for h in headers:
def asynchronous(method):
"""Wrap request handler methods with this if they are asynchronous.
This decorator is for callback-style asynchronous methods; for
coroutines, use the ``@gen.coroutine`` decorator without
``@asynchronous``. (It is legal for legacy reasons to use the two
decorators together provided ``@asynchronous`` is first, but
``@asynchronous`` will be ignored in this case)
This decorator should only be applied to the :ref:`HTTP verb
methods <verbs>`; its behavior is undefined for any other method.
This decorator does not *make* a method asynchronous; it tells
the framework that the method *is* asynchronous. For this decorator
to be useful the method must (at least sometimes) do something
If this decorator is given, the response is not finished when the
method returns. It is up to the request handler to call
`self.finish() <RequestHandler.finish>` to finish the HTTP
request. Without this decorator, the request is automatically
finished when the ``get()`` or ``post()`` method returns. Example:
.. testcode::
class MyRequestHandler(RequestHandler):
def get(self):
http = httpclient.AsyncHTTPClient()
http.fetch("", self._on_download)
def _on_download(self, response):
.. testoutput::
.. versionchanged:: 3.1
The ability to use ``@gen.coroutine`` without ``@asynchronous``.
.. versionchanged:: 4.3 Returning anything but ``None`` or a
yieldable object from a method decorated with ``@asynchronous``
is an error. Such return values were previously ignored silently.
# Delay the IOLoop import because it's not available on app engine.
from tornado.ioloop import IOLoop
def wrapper(self, *args, **kwargs):
self._auto_finish = False
with stack_context.ExceptionStackContext(
result = method(self, *args, **kwargs)
if result is not None:
result = gen.convert_yielded(result)
# If @asynchronous is used with @gen.coroutine, (but
# not @gen.engine), we can automatically finish the
# request when the future resolves. Additionally,
# the Future will swallow any exceptions so we need
# to throw them back out to the stack context to finish
# the request.
def future_complete(f):
if not self._finished:
IOLoop.current().add_future(result, future_complete)
# Once we have done this, hide the Future from our
# caller (i.e. RequestHandler._when_complete), which
# would otherwise set up its own callback and
# exception handler (resulting in exceptions being
# logged twice).
return None
return result
return wrapper
def stream_request_body(cls):
"""Apply to `RequestHandler` subclasses to enable streaming body support.
This decorator implies the following changes:
* `.HTTPServerRequest.body` is undefined, and body arguments will not
be included in `RequestHandler.get_argument`.
* `RequestHandler.prepare` is called when the request headers have been
read instead of after the entire body has been read.
* The subclass must define a method ``data_received(self, data):``, which
will be called zero or more times as data is available. Note that
if the request has an empty body, ``data_received`` may not be called.
* ``prepare`` and ``data_received`` may return Futures (such as via
``@gen.coroutine``, in which case the next method will not be called
until those futures have completed.
* The regular HTTP method (``post``, ``put``, etc) will be called after
the entire body has been read.
There is a subtle interaction between ``data_received`` and asynchronous
``prepare``: The first call to ``data_received`` may occur at any point
after the call to ``prepare`` has returned *or yielded*.
if not issubclass(cls, RequestHandler):
raise TypeError("expected subclass of RequestHandler, got %r", cls)
cls._stream_request_body = True
return cls
def _has_stream_request_body(cls):
if not issubclass(cls, RequestHandler):
raise TypeError("expected subclass of RequestHandler, got %r", cls)
return getattr(cls, '_stream_request_body', False)
def removeslash(method):
"""Use this decorator to remove trailing slashes from the request path.
For example, a request to ``/foo/`` would redirect to ``/foo`` with this
decorator. Your request handler mapping should use a regular expression
like ``r'/foo/*'`` in conjunction with using the decorator.
def wrapper(self, *args, **kwargs):
if self.request.path.endswith("/"):
if self.request.method in ("GET", "HEAD"):
uri = self.request.path.rstrip("/")
if uri: # don't try to redirect '/' to ''
if self.request.query:
uri += "?" + self.request.query
self.redirect(uri, permanent=True)
raise HTTPError(404)
return method(self, *args, **kwargs)
return wrapper
def addslash(method):
"""Use this decorator to add a missing trailing slash to the request path.
For example, a request to ``/foo`` would redirect to ``/foo/`` with this
decorator. Your request handler mapping should use a regular expression
like ``r'/foo/?'`` in conjunction with using the decorator.
def wrapper(self, *args, **kwargs):
if not self.request.path.endswith("/"):
if self.request.method in ("GET", "HEAD"):
uri = self.request.path + "/"
if self.request.query:
uri += "?" + self.request.query
self.redirect(uri, permanent=True)
raise HTTPError(404)
return method(self, *args, **kwargs)
return wrapper
class Application(httputil.HTTPServerConnectionDelegate):
"""A collection of request handlers that make up a web application.
Instances of this class are callable and can be passed directly to
HTTPServer to serve the application::
application = web.Application([
(r"/", MainPageHandler),
http_server = httpserver.HTTPServer(application)
The constructor for this class takes in a list of `URLSpec` objects
or (regexp, request_class) tuples. When we receive requests, we
iterate over the list in order and instantiate an instance of the
first request class whose regexp matches the request path.
The request class can be specified as either a class object or a
(fully-qualified) name.
Each tuple can contain additional elements, which correspond to the
arguments to the `URLSpec` constructor. (Prior to Tornado 3.2,
only tuples of two or three elements were allowed).
A dictionary may be passed as the third element of the tuple,
which will be used as keyword arguments to the handler's
constructor and `~RequestHandler.initialize` method. This pattern
is used for the `StaticFileHandler` in this example (note that a
`StaticFileHandler` can be installed automatically with the
static_path setting described below)::
application = web.Application([
(r"/static/(.*)", web.StaticFileHandler, {"path": "/var/www"}),
We support virtual hosts with the `add_handlers` method, which takes in
a host regular expression as the first argument::
application.add_handlers(r"www\.myhost\.com", [
(r"/article/([0-9]+)", ArticleHandler),
You can serve static files by sending the ``static_path`` setting
as a keyword argument. We will serve those files from the
``/static/`` URI (this is configurable with the
``static_url_prefix`` setting), and we will serve ``/favicon.ico``
and ``/robots.txt`` from the same directory. A custom subclass of
`StaticFileHandler` can be specified with the
``static_handler_class`` setting.
def __init__(self, handlers=None, default_host="", transforms=None,
if transforms is None:
self.transforms = []
if settings.get("compress_response") or settings.get("gzip"):
self.transforms = transforms
self.handlers = []
self.named_handlers = {}
self.default_host = default_host
self.settings = settings
self.ui_modules = {'linkify': _linkify,
'xsrf_form_html': _xsrf_form_html,
'Template': TemplateModule,
self.ui_methods = {}
self._load_ui_modules(settings.get("ui_modules", {}))
self._load_ui_methods(settings.get("ui_methods", {}))
if self.settings.get("static_path"):
path = self.settings["static_path"]
handlers = list(handlers or [])
static_url_prefix = settings.get("static_url_prefix",
static_handler_class = settings.get("static_handler_class",
static_handler_args = settings.get("static_handler_args", {})
static_handler_args['path'] = path
for pattern in [re.escape(static_url_prefix) + r"(.*)",
r"/(favicon\.ico)", r"/(robots\.txt)"]:
handlers.insert(0, (pattern, static_handler_class,
if handlers:
self.add_handlers(".*$", handlers)
if self.settings.get('debug'):
self.settings.setdefault('autoreload', True)
self.settings.setdefault('compiled_template_cache', False)
self.settings.setdefault('static_hash_cache', False)
self.settings.setdefault('serve_traceback', True)
# Automatically reload modified modules
if self.settings.get('autoreload'):
from tornado import autoreload
def listen(self, port, address="", **kwargs):
"""Starts an HTTP server for this application on the given port.
This is a convenience alias for creating an `.HTTPServer`
object and calling its listen method. Keyword arguments not
supported by `HTTPServer.listen <.TCPServer.listen>` are passed to the
`.HTTPServer` constructor. For advanced uses
(e.g. multi-process mode), do not use this method; create an
`.HTTPServer` and call its
`.TCPServer.bind`/`.TCPServer.start` methods directly.
Note that after calling this method you still need to call
``IOLoop.current().start()`` to start the server.
# import is here rather than top level because HTTPServer
# is not importable on appengine
from tornado.httpserver import HTTPServer
server = HTTPServer(self, **kwargs)
server.listen(port, address)
def add_handlers(self, host_pattern, host_handlers):
"""Appends the given handlers to our handler list.
Host patterns are processed sequentially in the order they were
added. All matching patterns will be considered.
if not host_pattern.endswith("$"):
host_pattern += "$"
handlers = []
# The handlers with the wildcard host_pattern are a special
# case - they're added in the constructor but should have lower
# precedence than the more-precise handlers added later.
# If a wildcard handler group exists, it should always be last
# in the list, so insert new groups just before it.
if self.handlers and self.handlers[-1][0].pattern == '.*$':
self.handlers.insert(-1, (re.compile(host_pattern), handlers))
self.handlers.append((re.compile(host_pattern), handlers))
for spec in host_handlers:
if isinstance(spec, (tuple, list)):
assert len(spec) in (2, 3, 4)
spec = URLSpec(*spec)
if in self.named_handlers:
"Multiple handlers named %s; replacing previous value",
self.named_handlers[] = spec
def add_transform(self, transform_class):
def _get_host_handlers(self, request):
host = split_host_and_port([0]
matches = []
for pattern, handlers in self.handlers:
if pattern.match(host):
# Look for default host if not behind load balancer (for debugging)
if not matches and "X-Real-Ip" not in request.headers:
for pattern, handlers in self.handlers:
if pattern.match(self.default_host):
return matches or None
def _load_ui_methods(self, methods):
if isinstance(methods, types.ModuleType):
self._load_ui_methods(dict((n, getattr(methods, n))
for n in dir(methods)))
elif isinstance(methods, list):
for m in methods:
for name, fn in methods.items():
if not name.startswith("_") and hasattr(fn, "__call__") \
and name[0].lower() == name[0]:
self.ui_methods[name] = fn
def _load_ui_modules(self, modules):
if isinstance(modules, types.ModuleType):
self._load_ui_modules(dict((n, getattr(modules, n))
for n in dir(modules)))
elif isinstance(modules, list):
for m in modules:
assert isinstance(modules, dict)
for name, cls in modules.items():
if issubclass(cls, UIModule):
self.ui_modules[name] = cls
except TypeError:
def start_request(self, server_conn, request_conn):
# Modern HTTPServer interface
return _RequestDispatcher(self, request_conn)
def __call__(self, request):
# Legacy HTTPServer interface
dispatcher = _RequestDispatcher(self, None)
return dispatcher.execute()
def reverse_url(self, name, *args):
"""Returns a URL path for handler named ``name``
The handler must be added to the application as a named `URLSpec`.
Args will be substituted for capturing groups in the `URLSpec` regex.
They will be converted to strings if necessary, encoded as utf8,
and url-escaped.
if name in self.named_handlers:
return self.named_handlers[name].reverse(*args)
raise KeyError("%s not found in named urls" % name)
def log_request(self, handler):
"""Writes a completed HTTP request to the logs.
By default writes to the python root logger. To change
this behavior either subclass Application and override this method,
or pass a function in the application settings dictionary as
if "log_function" in self.settings:
if handler.get_status() < 400:
log_method =
elif handler.get_status() < 500:
log_method = access_log.warning
log_method = access_log.error
request_time = 1000.0 * handler.request.request_time()
log_method("%d %s %.2fms", handler.get_status(),
handler._request_summary(), request_time)
class _RequestDispatcher(httputil.HTTPMessageDelegate):
def __init__(self, application, connection):
self.application = application
self.connection = connection
self.request = None
self.chunks = []
self.handler_class = None
self.handler_kwargs = None
self.path_args = []
self.path_kwargs = {}
def headers_received(self, start_line, headers):
connection=self.connection, start_line=start_line,
if self.stream_request_body:
self.request.body = Future()
return self.execute()
def set_request(self, request):
self.request = request
self.stream_request_body = _has_stream_request_body(self.handler_class)
def _find_handler(self):
# Identify the handler to use as soon as we have the request.
# Save url path arguments for later.
app = self.application
handlers = app._get_host_handlers(self.request)
if not handlers:
self.handler_class = RedirectHandler
self.handler_kwargs = dict(url="%s://%s/"
% (self.request.protocol,
for spec in handlers:
match = spec.regex.match(self.request.path)
if match:
self.handler_class = spec.handler_class
self.handler_kwargs = spec.kwargs
if spec.regex.groups:
# Pass matched groups to the handler. Since
# match.groups() includes both named and
# unnamed groups, we want to use either groups
# or groupdict but not both.
if spec.regex.groupindex:
self.path_kwargs = dict(
(str(k), _unquote_or_none(v))
for (k, v) in match.groupdict().items())
self.path_args = [_unquote_or_none(s)
for s in match.groups()]
if app.settings.get('default_handler_class'):
self.handler_class = app.settings['default_handler_class']
self.handler_kwargs = app.settings.get(
'default_handler_args', {})
self.handler_class = ErrorHandler
self.handler_kwargs = dict(status_code=404)
def data_received(self, data):
if self.stream_request_body:
return self.handler.data_received(data)
def finish(self):
if self.stream_request_body:
self.request.body = b''.join(self.chunks)
def on_connection_close(self):
if self.stream_request_body:
self.chunks = None
def execute(self):
# If template cache is disabled (usually in the debug mode),
# re-compile templates and reload static files on every
# request so you don't need to restart to see changes
if not self.application.settings.get("compiled_template_cache", True):
with RequestHandler._template_loader_lock:
for loader in RequestHandler._template_loaders.values():
if not self.application.settings.get('static_hash_cache', True):
self.handler = self.handler_class(self.application, self.request,
transforms = [t(self.request) for t in self.application.transforms]
if self.stream_request_body:
self.handler._prepared_future = Future()
# Note that if an exception escapes handler._execute it will be
# trapped in the Future it returns (which we are ignoring here,
# leaving it to be logged when the Future is GC'd).
# However, that shouldn't happen because _execute has a blanket
# except handler, and we cannot easily access the IOLoop here to
# call add_future (because of the requirement to remain compatible
# with WSGI)
self.handler._execute(transforms, *self.path_args,
# If we are streaming the request body, then execute() is finished
# when the handler has prepared to receive the body. If not,
# it doesn't matter when execute() finishes (so we return None)
return self.handler._prepared_future
class HTTPError(Exception):
"""An exception that will turn into an HTTP error response.
Raising an `HTTPError` is a convenient alternative to calling
`RequestHandler.send_error` since it automatically ends the
current function.
To customize the response sent with an `HTTPError`, override
:arg int status_code: HTTP status code. Must be listed in
`httplib.responses <http.client.responses>` unless the ``reason``
keyword argument is given.
:arg string log_message: Message to be written to the log for this error
(will not be shown to the user unless the `Application` is in debug
mode). May contain ``%s``-style placeholders, which will be filled
in with remaining positional parameters.
:arg string reason: Keyword-only argument. The HTTP "reason" phrase
to pass in the status line along with ``status_code``. Normally
determined automatically from ``status_code``, but can be used
to use a non-standard numeric code.
def __init__(self, status_code=500, log_message=None, *args, **kwargs):
self.status_code = status_code
self.log_message = log_message
self.args = args
self.reason = kwargs.get('reason', None)
if log_message and not args:
self.log_message = log_message.replace('%', '%%')
def __str__(self):
message = "HTTP %d: %s" % (
self.reason or httputil.responses.get(self.status_code, 'Unknown'))
if self.log_message:
return message + " (" + (self.log_message % self.args) + ")"
return message
class Finish(Exception):
"""An exception that ends the request without producing an error response.
When `Finish` is raised in a `RequestHandler`, the request will
end (calling `RequestHandler.finish` if it hasn't already been
called), but the error-handling methods (including
`RequestHandler.write_error`) will not be called.
If `Finish()` was created with no arguments, the pending response
will be sent as-is. If `Finish()` was given an argument, that
argument will be passed to `RequestHandler.finish()`.
This can be a more convenient way to implement custom error pages
than overriding ``write_error`` (especially in library code)::
if self.current_user is None:
self.set_header('WWW-Authenticate', 'Basic realm="something"')
raise Finish()
.. versionchanged:: 4.3
Arguments passed to ``Finish()`` will be passed on to
class MissingArgumentError(HTTPError):
"""Exception raised by `RequestHandler.get_argument`.
This is a subclass of `HTTPError`, so if it is uncaught a 400 response
code will be used instead of 500 (and a stack trace will not be logged).
.. versionadded:: 3.1
def __init__(self, arg_name):
super(MissingArgumentError, self).__init__(
400, 'Missing argument %s' % arg_name)
self.arg_name = arg_name
class ErrorHandler(RequestHandler):
"""Generates an error response with ``status_code`` for all requests."""
def initialize(self, status_code):
def prepare(self):
raise HTTPError(self._status_code)
def check_xsrf_cookie(self):
# POSTs to an ErrorHandler don't actually have side effects,
# so we don't need to check the xsrf token. This allows POSTs
# to the wrong url to return a 404 instead of 403.
class RedirectHandler(RequestHandler):
"""Redirects the client to the given URL for all GET requests.
You should provide the keyword argument ``url`` to the handler, e.g.::
application = web.Application([
(r"/oldpath", web.RedirectHandler, {"url": "/newpath"}),
def initialize(self, url, permanent=True):
self._url = url
self._permanent = permanent
def get(self):
self.redirect(self._url, permanent=self._permanent)
class StaticFileHandler(RequestHandler):
"""A simple handler that can serve static content from a directory.
A `StaticFileHandler` is configured automatically if you pass the
``static_path`` keyword argument to `Application`. This handler
can be customized with the ``static_url_prefix``, ``static_handler_class``,
and ``static_handler_args`` settings.
To map an additional path to this handler for a static data directory
you would add a line to your application like::
application = web.Application([
(r"/content/(.*)", web.StaticFileHandler, {"path": "/var/www"}),
The handler constructor requires a ``path`` argument, which specifies the
local root directory of the content to be served.
Note that a capture group in the regex is required to parse the value for
the ``path`` argument to the get() method (different than the constructor
argument above); see `URLSpec` for details.
To serve a file like ``index.html`` automatically when a directory is
requested, set ``static_handler_args=dict(default_filename="index.html")``
in your application settings, or add ``default_filename`` as an initializer
argument for your ``StaticFileHandler``.
To maximize the effectiveness of browser caching, this class supports
versioned urls (by default using the argument ``?v=``). If a version
is given, we instruct the browser to cache this file indefinitely.
`make_static_url` (also available as `RequestHandler.static_url`) can
be used to construct a versioned url.
This handler is intended primarily for use in development and light-duty
file serving; for heavy traffic it will be more efficient to use
a dedicated static file server (such as nginx or Apache). We support
the HTTP ``Accept-Ranges`` mechanism to return partial content (because
some browsers require this functionality to be present to seek in
HTML5 audio or video).
**Subclassing notes**
This class is designed to be extensible by subclassing, but because
of the way static urls are generated with class methods rather than
instance methods, the inheritance patterns are somewhat unusual.
Be sure to use the ``@classmethod`` decorator when overriding a
class method. Instance methods may use the attributes ``self.path``
``self.absolute_path``, and ``self.modified``.
Subclasses should only override methods discussed in this section;
overriding other methods is error-prone. Overriding
``StaticFileHandler.get`` is particularly problematic due to the
tight coupling with ``compute_etag`` and other methods.
To change the way static urls are generated (e.g. to match the behavior
of another server or CDN), override `make_static_url`, `parse_url_path`,
`get_cache_time`, and/or `get_version`.
To replace all interaction with the filesystem (e.g. to serve
static content from a database), override `get_content`,
`get_content_size`, `get_modified_time`, `get_absolute_path`, and
.. versionchanged:: 3.1
Many of the methods for subclasses were added in Tornado 3.1.
CACHE_MAX_AGE = 86400 * 365 * 10 # 10 years
_static_hashes = {}
_lock = threading.Lock() # protects _static_hashes
def initialize(self, path, default_filename=None):
self.root = path
self.default_filename = default_filename
def reset(cls):
with cls._lock:
cls._static_hashes = {}
def head(self, path):
return self.get(path, include_body=False)
def get(self, path, include_body=True):
# Set up our path instance variables.
self.path = self.parse_url_path(path)
del path # make sure we don't refer to path instead of self.path again
absolute_path = self.get_absolute_path(self.root, self.path)
self.absolute_path = self.validate_absolute_path(
self.root, absolute_path)
if self.absolute_path is None:
self.modified = self.get_modified_time()
if self.should_return_304():
request_range = None
range_header = self.request.headers.get("Range")
if range_header:
# As per RFC 2616 14.16, if an invalid Range header is specified,
# the request will be treated as if the header didn't exist.
request_range = httputil._parse_request_range(range_header)
size = self.get_content_size()
if request_range:
start, end = request_range
if (start is not None and start >= size) or end == 0:
# As per RFC 2616 14.35.1, a range is not satisfiable only: if
# the first requested byte is equal to or greater than the
# content, or when a suffix with length 0 is specified
self.set_status(416) # Range Not Satisfiable
self.set_header("Content-Type", "text/plain")
self.set_header("Content-Range", "bytes */%s" % (size, ))
if start is not None and start < 0:
start += size
if end is not None and end > size:
# Clients sometimes blindly use a large range to limit their
# download size; cap the endpoint at the actual file size.
end = size
# Note: only return HTTP 206 if less than the entire range has been
# requested. Not only is this semantically correct, but Chrome
# refuses to play audio if it gets an HTTP 206 in response to
# ``Range: bytes=0-``.
if size != (end or size) - (start or 0):
self.set_status(206) # Partial Content
httputil._get_content_range(start, end, size))
start = end = None
if start is not None and end is not None:
content_length = end - start
elif end is not None:
content_length = end
elif start is not None:
content_length = size - start
content_length = size
self.set_header("Content-Length", content_length)
if include_body:
content = self.get_content(self.absolute_path, start, end)
if isinstance(content, bytes):
content = [content]
for chunk in content:
yield self.flush()
except iostream.StreamClosedError:
assert self.request.method == "HEAD"
def compute_etag(self):
"""Sets the ``Etag`` header based on static url version.
This allows efficient ``If-None-Match`` checks against cached
versions, and sends the correct ``Etag`` for a partial response
(i.e. the same ``Etag`` as the full file).
.. versionadded:: 3.1
version_hash = self._get_cached_version(self.absolute_path)
if not version_hash:
return None
return '"%s"' % (version_hash, )
def set_headers(self):
"""Sets the content and caching headers on the response.
.. versionadded:: 3.1
self.set_header("Accept-Ranges", "bytes")
if self.modified is not None:
self.set_header("Last-Modified", self.modified)
content_type = self.get_content_type()
if content_type:
self.set_header("Content-Type", content_type)
cache_time = self.get_cache_time(self.path, self.modified,
if cache_time > 0:
self.set_header("Expires", datetime.datetime.utcnow() +
self.set_header("Cache-Control", "max-age=" + str(cache_time))
def should_return_304(self):
"""Returns True if the headers indicate that we should return 304.
.. versionadded:: 3.1
if self.check_etag_header():
return True
# Check the If-Modified-Since, and don't send the result if the
# content has not been modified
ims_value = self.request.headers.get("If-Modified-Since")
if ims_value is not None:
date_tuple = email.utils.parsedate(ims_value)
if date_tuple is not None:
if_since = datetime.datetime(*date_tuple[:6])
if if_since >= self.modified:
return True
return False
def get_absolute_path(cls, root, path):
"""Returns the absolute location of ``path`` relative to ``root``.
``root`` is the path configured for this `StaticFileHandler`
(in most cases the ``static_path`` `Application` setting).
This class method may be overridden in subclasses. By default
it returns a filesystem path, but other strings may be used
as long as they are unique and understood by the subclass's
overridden `get_content`.
.. versionadded:: 3.1
abspath = os.path.abspath(os.path.join(root, path))
return abspath
def validate_absolute_path(self, root, absolute_path):
"""Validate and return the absolute path.
``root`` is the configured path for the `StaticFileHandler`,
and ``path`` is the result of `get_absolute_path`
This is an instance method called during request processing,
so it may raise `HTTPError` or use methods like
`RequestHandler.redirect` (return None after redirecting to
halt further processing). This is where 404 errors for missing files
are generated.
This method may modify the path before returning it, but note that
any such modifications will not be understood by `make_static_url`.
In instance methods, this method's result is available as
.. versionadded:: 3.1
# os.path.abspath strips a trailing /.
# We must add it back to `root` so that we only match files
# in a directory named `root` instead of files starting with
# that prefix.
root = os.path.abspath(root)
if not root.endswith(os.path.sep):
# abspath always removes a trailing slash, except when
# root is '/'. This is an unusual case, but several projects
# have independently discovered this technique to disable
# Tornado's path validation and (hopefully) do their own,
# so we need to support it.
root += os.path.sep
# The trailing slash also needs to be temporarily added back
# the requested path so a request to root/ will match.
if not (absolute_path + os.path.sep).startswith(root):
raise HTTPError(403, "%s is not in root static directory",
if (os.path.isdir(absolute_path) and
self.default_filename is not None):
# need to look at the request.path here for when path is empty
# but there is some prefix to the path that was already
# trimmed by the routing
if not self.request.path.endswith("/"):
self.redirect(self.request.path + "/", permanent=True)
absolute_path = os.path.join(absolute_path, self.default_filename)
if not os.path.exists(absolute_path):
raise HTTPError(404)
if not os.path.isfile(absolute_path):
raise HTTPError(403, "%s is not a file", self.path)
return absolute_path
def get_content(cls, abspath, start=None, end=None):
"""Retrieve the content of the requested resource which is located
at the given absolute path.
This class method may be overridden by subclasses. Note that its
signature is different from other overridable class methods
(no ``settings`` argument); this is deliberate to ensure that
``abspath`` is able to stand on its own as a cache key.
This method should either return a byte string or an iterator
of byte strings. The latter is preferred for large files
as it helps reduce memory fragmentation.
.. versionadded:: 3.1
with open(abspath, "rb") as file:
if start is not None:
if end is not None:
remaining = end - (start or 0)
remaining = None
while True:
chunk_size = 64 * 1024
if remaining is not None and remaining < chunk_size:
chunk_size = remaining
chunk =
if chunk:
if remaining is not None:
remaining -= len(chunk)
yield chunk
if remaining is not None:
assert remaining == 0
def get_content_version(cls, abspath):
"""Returns a version string for the resource at the given path.
This class method may be overridden by subclasses. The
default implementation is a hash of the file's contents.
.. versionadded:: 3.1
data = cls.get_content(abspath)
hasher = hashlib.md5()
if isinstance(data, bytes):
for chunk in data:
return hasher.hexdigest()
def _stat(self):
if not hasattr(self, '_stat_result'):
self._stat_result = os.stat(self.absolute_path)
return self._stat_result
def get_content_size(self):
"""Retrieve the total size of the resource at the given path.
This method may be overridden by subclasses.
.. versionadded:: 3.1
.. versionchanged:: 4.0
This method is now always called, instead of only when
partial results are requested.
stat_result = self._stat()
return stat_result[stat.ST_SIZE]
def get_modified_time(self):
"""Returns the time that ``self.absolute_path`` was last modified.
May be overridden in subclasses. Should return a `~datetime.datetime`
object or None.
.. versionadded:: 3.1
stat_result = self._stat()
modified = datetime.datetime.utcfromtimestamp(
return modified
def get_content_type(self):
"""Returns the ``Content-Type`` header to be used for this request.
.. versionadded:: 3.1
mime_type, encoding = mimetypes.guess_type(self.absolute_path)
# per RFC 6713, use the appropriate type for a gzip compressed file
if encoding == "gzip":
return "application/gzip"
# As of 2015-07-21 there is no bzip2 encoding defined at
# So for that (and any other encoding), use octet-stream.
elif encoding is not None:
return "application/octet-stream"
elif mime_type is not None:
return mime_type
# if mime_type not detected, use application/octet-stream
return "application/octet-stream"
def set_extra_headers(self, path):
"""For subclass to add extra headers to the response"""
def get_cache_time(self, path, modified, mime_type):
"""Override to customize cache control behavior.
Return a positive number of seconds to make the result
cacheable for that amount of time or 0 to mark resource as
cacheable for an unspecified amount of time (subject to
browser heuristics).
By default returns cache expiry of 10 years for resources requested
with ``v`` argument.
return self.CACHE_MAX_AGE if "v" in self.request.arguments else 0
def make_static_url(cls, settings, path, include_version=True):
"""Constructs a versioned url for the given path.
This method may be overridden in subclasses (but note that it
is a class method rather than an instance method). Subclasses
are only required to implement the signature
``make_static_url(cls, settings, path)``; other keyword
arguments may be passed through `~RequestHandler.static_url`
but are not standard.
``settings`` is the `Application.settings` dictionary. ``path``
is the static path being requested. The url returned should be
relative to the current host.
``include_version`` determines whether the generated URL should
include the query string containing the version hash of the
file corresponding to the given ``path``.
url = settings.get('static_url_prefix', '/static/') + path
if not include_version:
return url
version_hash = cls.get_version(settings, path)
if not version_hash:
return url
return '%s?v=%s' % (url, version_hash)
def parse_url_path(self, url_path):
"""Converts a static URL path into a filesystem path.
``url_path`` is the path component of the URL with
``static_url_prefix`` removed. The return value should be
filesystem path relative to ``static_path``.
This is the inverse of `make_static_url`.
if os.path.sep != "/":
url_path = url_path.replace("/", os.path.sep)
return url_path
def get_version(cls, settings, path):
"""Generate the version string to be used in static URLs.
``settings`` is the `Application.settings` dictionary and ``path``
is the relative location of the requested asset on the filesystem.
The returned value should be a string, or ``None`` if no version
could be determined.
.. versionchanged:: 3.1
This method was previously recommended for subclasses to override;
`get_content_version` is now preferred as it allows the base
class to handle caching of the result.
abs_path = cls.get_absolute_path(settings['static_path'], path)
return cls._get_cached_version(abs_path)
def _get_cached_version(cls, abs_path):
with cls._lock:
hashes = cls._static_hashes
if abs_path not in hashes:
hashes[abs_path] = cls.get_content_version(abs_path)
except Exception:
gen_log.error("Could not open static file %r", abs_path)
hashes[abs_path] = None
hsh = hashes.get(abs_path)
if hsh:
return hsh
return None
class FallbackHandler(RequestHandler):
"""A `RequestHandler` that wraps another HTTP server callback.
The fallback is a callable object that accepts an
`~.httputil.HTTPServerRequest`, such as an `Application` or
`tornado.wsgi.WSGIContainer`. This is most useful to use both
Tornado ``RequestHandlers`` and WSGI in the same server. Typical
wsgi_app = tornado.wsgi.WSGIContainer(
application = tornado.web.Application([
(r"/foo", FooHandler),
(r".*", FallbackHandler, dict(fallback=wsgi_app),
def initialize(self, fallback):
self.fallback = fallback
def prepare(self):
self._finished = True
class OutputTransform(object):
"""A transform modifies the result of an HTTP request (e.g., GZip encoding)
Applications are not expected to create their own OutputTransforms
or interact with them directly; the framework chooses which transforms
(if any) to apply.
def __init__(self, request):
def transform_first_chunk(self, status_code, headers, chunk, finishing):
return status_code, headers, chunk
def transform_chunk(self, chunk, finishing):
return chunk
class GZipContentEncoding(OutputTransform):
"""Applies the gzip content encoding to the response.
.. versionchanged:: 4.0
Now compresses all mime types beginning with ``text/``, instead
of just a whitelist. (the whitelist is still used for certain
non-text mime types).
# Whitelist of compressible mime types (in addition to any types
# beginning with "text/").
CONTENT_TYPES = set(["application/javascript", "application/x-javascript",
"application/xml", "application/atom+xml",
"application/json", "application/xhtml+xml"])
# Python's GzipFile defaults to level 9, while most other gzip
# tools (including gzip itself) default to 6, which is probably a
# better CPU/size tradeoff.
# Responses that are too short are unlikely to benefit from gzipping
# after considering the "Content-Encoding: gzip" header and the header
# inside the gzip encoding.
# Note that responses written in multiple chunks will be compressed
# regardless of size.
def __init__(self, request):
self._gzipping = "gzip" in request.headers.get("Accept-Encoding", "")
def _compressible_type(self, ctype):
return ctype.startswith('text/') or ctype in self.CONTENT_TYPES
def transform_first_chunk(self, status_code, headers, chunk, finishing):
if 'Vary' in headers:
headers['Vary'] += b', Accept-Encoding'
headers['Vary'] = b'Accept-Encoding'
if self._gzipping:
ctype = _unicode(headers.get("Content-Type", "")).split(";")[0]
self._gzipping = self._compressible_type(ctype) and \
(not finishing or len(chunk) >= self.MIN_LENGTH) and \
("Content-Encoding" not in headers)
if self._gzipping:
headers["Content-Encoding"] = "gzip"
self._gzip_value = BytesIO()
self._gzip_file = gzip.GzipFile(mode="w", fileobj=self._gzip_value,
chunk = self.transform_chunk(chunk, finishing)
if "Content-Length" in headers:
# The original content length is no longer correct.
# If this is the last (and only) chunk, we can set the new
# content-length; otherwise we remove it and fall back to
# chunked encoding.
if finishing:
headers["Content-Length"] = str(len(chunk))
del headers["Content-Length"]
return status_code, headers, chunk
def transform_chunk(self, chunk, finishing):
if self._gzipping:
if finishing:
chunk = self._gzip_value.getvalue()
return chunk
def authenticated(method):
"""Decorate methods with this to require that the user be logged in.
If the user is not logged in, they will be redirected to the configured
`login url <RequestHandler.get_login_url>`.
If you configure a login url with a query parameter, Tornado will
assume you know what you're doing and use it as-is. If not, it
will add a `next` parameter so the login page knows where to send
you once you're logged in.
def wrapper(self, *args, **kwargs):
if not self.current_user:
if self.request.method in ("GET", "HEAD"):
url = self.get_login_url()
if "?" not in url:
if urlparse.urlsplit(url).scheme:
# if login url is absolute, make next absolute too
next_url = self.request.full_url()
next_url = self.request.uri
url += "?" + urlencode(dict(next=next_url))
raise HTTPError(403)
return method(self, *args, **kwargs)
return wrapper
class UIModule(object):
"""A re-usable, modular UI unit on a page.
UI modules often execute additional queries, and they can include
additional CSS and JavaScript that will be included in the output
page, which is automatically inserted on page render.
Subclasses of UIModule must override the `render` method.
def __init__(self, handler):
self.handler = handler
self.request = handler.request
self.ui = handler.ui
self.locale = handler.locale
def current_user(self):
return self.handler.current_user
def render(self, *args, **kwargs):
"""Override in subclasses to return this module's output."""
raise NotImplementedError()
def embedded_javascript(self):
"""Override to return a JavaScript string
to be embedded in the page."""
return None
def javascript_files(self):
"""Override to return a list of JavaScript files needed by this module.
If the return values are relative paths, they will be passed to
`RequestHandler.static_url`; otherwise they will be used as-is.
return None
def embedded_css(self):
"""Override to return a CSS string
that will be embedded in the page."""
return None
def css_files(self):
"""Override to returns a list of CSS files required by this module.
If the return values are relative paths, they will be passed to
`RequestHandler.static_url`; otherwise they will be used as-is.
return None
def html_head(self):
"""Override to return an HTML string that will be put in the <head/>
return None
def html_body(self):
"""Override to return an HTML string that will be put at the end of
the <body/> element.
return None
def render_string(self, path, **kwargs):
"""Renders a template and returns it as a string."""
return self.handler.render_string(path, **kwargs)
class _linkify(UIModule):
def render(self, text, **kwargs):
return escape.linkify(text, **kwargs)
class _xsrf_form_html(UIModule):
def render(self):
return self.handler.xsrf_form_html()
class TemplateModule(UIModule):
"""UIModule that simply renders the given template.
{% module Template("foo.html") %} is similar to {% include "foo.html" %},
but the module version gets its own namespace (with kwargs passed to
Template()) instead of inheriting the outer template's namespace.
Templates rendered through this module also get access to UIModule's
automatic javascript/css features. Simply call set_resources
inside the template and give it keyword arguments corresponding to
the methods on UIModule: {{ set_resources(js_files=static_url("my.js")) }}
Note that these resources are output once per template file, not once
per instantiation of the template, so they must not depend on
any arguments to the template.
def __init__(self, handler):
super(TemplateModule, self).__init__(handler)
# keep resources in both a list and a dict to preserve order
self._resource_list = []
self._resource_dict = {}
def render(self, path, **kwargs):
def set_resources(**kwargs):
if path not in self._resource_dict:
self._resource_dict[path] = kwargs
if self._resource_dict[path] != kwargs:
raise ValueError("set_resources called with different "
"resources for the same template")
return ""
return self.render_string(path, set_resources=set_resources,
def _get_resources(self, key):
return (r[key] for r in self._resource_list if key in r)
def embedded_javascript(self):
return "\n".join(self._get_resources("embedded_javascript"))
def javascript_files(self):
result = []
for f in self._get_resources("javascript_files"):
if isinstance(f, (unicode_type, bytes)):
return result
def embedded_css(self):
return "\n".join(self._get_resources("embedded_css"))
def css_files(self):
result = []
for f in self._get_resources("css_files"):
if isinstance(f, (unicode_type, bytes)):
return result
def html_head(self):
return "".join(self._get_resources("html_head"))
def html_body(self):
return "".join(self._get_resources("html_body"))
class _UIModuleNamespace(object):
"""Lazy namespace which creates UIModule proxies bound to a handler."""
def __init__(self, handler, ui_modules):
self.handler = handler
self.ui_modules = ui_modules
def __getitem__(self, key):
return self.handler._ui_module(key, self.ui_modules[key])
def __getattr__(self, key):
return self[key]
except KeyError as e:
raise AttributeError(str(e))
class URLSpec(object):
"""Specifies mappings between URLs and handlers."""
def __init__(self, pattern, handler, kwargs=None, name=None):
* ``pattern``: Regular expression to be matched. Any groups
in the regex will be passed in to the handler's get/post/etc
methods as arguments.
* ``handler``: `RequestHandler` subclass to be invoked.
* ``kwargs`` (optional): A dictionary of additional arguments
to be passed to the handler's constructor.
* ``name`` (optional): A name for this handler. Used by
if not pattern.endswith('$'):
pattern += '$'
self.regex = re.compile(pattern)
assert len(self.regex.groupindex) in (0, self.regex.groups), \
("groups in url regexes must either be all named or all "
"positional: %r" % self.regex.pattern)
if isinstance(handler, str):
# import the Module and instantiate the class
# Must be a fully qualified name (module.ClassName)
handler = import_object(handler)
self.handler_class = handler
self.kwargs = kwargs or {} = name
self._path, self._group_count = self._find_groups()
def __repr__(self):
return '%s(%r, %s, kwargs=%r, name=%r)' % \
(self.__class__.__name__, self.regex.pattern,
self.handler_class, self.kwargs,
def _find_groups(self):
"""Returns a tuple (reverse string, group count) for a url.
For example: Given the url pattern /([0-9]{4})/([a-z-]+)/, this method
would return ('/%s/%s/', 2).
pattern = self.regex.pattern
if pattern.startswith('^'):
pattern = pattern[1:]
if pattern.endswith('$'):
pattern = pattern[:-1]
if self.regex.groups != pattern.count('('):
# The pattern is too complicated for our simplistic matching,
# so we can't support reversing it.
return (None, None)
pieces = []
for fragment in pattern.split('('):
if ')' in fragment:
paren_loc = fragment.index(')')
if paren_loc >= 0:
pieces.append('%s' + fragment[paren_loc + 1:])
return (''.join(pieces), self.regex.groups)
def reverse(self, *args):
assert self._path is not None, \
"Cannot reverse url regex " + self.regex.pattern
assert len(args) == self._group_count, "required number of arguments "\
"not found"
if not len(args):
return self._path
converted_args = []
for a in args:
if not isinstance(a, (unicode_type, bytes)):
a = str(a)
converted_args.append(escape.url_escape(utf8(a), plus=False))
return self._path % tuple(converted_args)
url = URLSpec
if hasattr(hmac, 'compare_digest'): # python 3.3
_time_independent_equals = hmac.compare_digest
def _time_independent_equals(a, b):
if len(a) != len(b):
return False
result = 0
if isinstance(a[0], int): # python3 byte strings
for x, y in zip(a, b):
result |= x ^ y
else: # python2
for x, y in zip(a, b):
result |= ord(x) ^ ord(y)
return result == 0
def create_signed_value(secret, name, value, version=None, clock=None,
if version is None:
if clock is None:
clock = time.time
timestamp = utf8(str(int(clock())))
value = base64.b64encode(utf8(value))
if version == 1:
signature = _create_signature_v1(secret, name, value, timestamp)
value = b"|".join([value, timestamp, signature])
return value
elif version == 2:
# The v2 format consists of a version number and a series of
# length-prefixed fields "%d:%s", the last of which is a
# signature, all separated by pipes. All numbers are in
# decimal format with no leading zeros. The signature is an
# HMAC-SHA256 of the whole string up to that point, including
# the final pipe.
# The fields are:
# - format version (i.e. 2; no length prefix)
# - key version (integer, default is 0)
# - timestamp (integer seconds since epoch)
# - name (not encoded; assumed to be ~alphanumeric)
# - value (base64-encoded)
# - signature (hex-encoded; no length prefix)
def format_field(s):
return utf8("%d:" % len(s)) + utf8(s)
to_sign = b"|".join([
format_field(str(key_version or 0)),
if isinstance(secret, dict):
assert key_version is not None, 'Key version must be set when sign key dict is used'
assert version >= 2, 'Version must be at least 2 for key version support'
secret = secret[key_version]
signature = _create_signature_v2(secret, to_sign)
return to_sign + signature
raise ValueError("Unsupported version %d" % version)
# A leading version number in decimal
# with no leading zeros, followed by a pipe.
_signed_value_version_re = re.compile(br"^([1-9][0-9]*)\|(.*)$")
def _get_version(value):
# Figures out what version value is. Version 1 did not include an
# explicit version field and started with arbitrary base64 data,
# which makes this tricky.
m = _signed_value_version_re.match(value)
if m is None:
version = 1
version = int(
if version > 999:
# Certain payloads from the version-less v1 format may
# be parsed as valid integers. Due to base64 padding
# restrictions, this can only happen for numbers whose
# length is a multiple of 4, so we can treat all
# numbers up to 999 as versions, and for the rest we
# fall back to v1 format.
version = 1
except ValueError:
version = 1
return version
def decode_signed_value(secret, name, value, max_age_days=31,
clock=None, min_version=None):
if clock is None:
clock = time.time
if min_version is None:
if min_version > 2:
raise ValueError("Unsupported min_version %d" % min_version)
if not value:
return None
value = utf8(value)
version = _get_version(value)
if version < min_version:
return None
if version == 1:
return _decode_signed_value_v1(secret, name, value,
max_age_days, clock)
elif version == 2:
return _decode_signed_value_v2(secret, name, value,
max_age_days, clock)
return None
def _decode_signed_value_v1(secret, name, value, max_age_days, clock):
parts = utf8(value).split(b"|")
if len(parts) != 3:
return None
signature = _create_signature_v1(secret, name, parts[0], parts[1])
if not _time_independent_equals(parts[2], signature):
gen_log.warning("Invalid cookie signature %r", value)
return None
timestamp = int(parts[1])
if timestamp < clock() - max_age_days * 86400:
gen_log.warning("Expired cookie %r", value)
return None
if timestamp > clock() + 31 * 86400:
# _cookie_signature does not hash a delimiter between the
# parts of the cookie, so an attacker could transfer trailing
# digits from the payload to the timestamp without altering the
# signature. For backwards compatibility, sanity-check timestamp
# here instead of modifying _cookie_signature.
gen_log.warning("Cookie timestamp in future; possible tampering %r",
return None
if parts[1].startswith(b"0"):
gen_log.warning("Tampered cookie %r", value)
return None
return base64.b64decode(parts[0])
except Exception:
return None
def _decode_fields_v2(value):
def _consume_field(s):
length, _, rest = s.partition(b':')
n = int(length)
field_value = rest[:n]
# In python 3, indexing bytes returns small integers; we must
# use a slice to get a byte string as in python 2.
if rest[n:n + 1] != b'|':
raise ValueError("malformed v2 signed value field")
rest = rest[n + 1:]
return field_value, rest
rest = value[2:] # remove version number
key_version, rest = _consume_field(rest)
timestamp, rest = _consume_field(rest)
name_field, rest = _consume_field(rest)
value_field, passed_sig = _consume_field(rest)
return int(key_version), timestamp, name_field, value_field, passed_sig
def _decode_signed_value_v2(secret, name, value, max_age_days, clock):
key_version, timestamp, name_field, value_field, passed_sig = _decode_fields_v2(value)
except ValueError:
return None
signed_string = value[:-len(passed_sig)]
if isinstance(secret, dict):
secret = secret[key_version]
except KeyError:
return None
expected_sig = _create_signature_v2(secret, signed_string)
if not _time_independent_equals(passed_sig, expected_sig):
return None
if name_field != utf8(name):
return None
timestamp = int(timestamp)
if timestamp < clock() - max_age_days * 86400:
# The signature has expired.
return None
return base64.b64decode(value_field)
except Exception:
return None
def get_signature_key_version(value):
value = utf8(value)
version = _get_version(value)
if version < 2:
return None
key_version, _, _, _, _ = _decode_fields_v2(value)
except ValueError:
return None
return key_version
def _create_signature_v1(secret, *parts):
hash =, digestmod=hashlib.sha1)
for part in parts:
return utf8(hash.hexdigest())
def _create_signature_v2(secret, s):
hash =, digestmod=hashlib.sha256)
return utf8(hash.hexdigest())
def _unquote_or_none(s):
"""None-safe wrapper around url_unescape to handle unamteched optional
groups correctly.
Note that args are passed as bytes so the handler can decide what
encoding to use.
if s is None:
return s
return escape.url_unescape(s, encoding=None, plus=False)
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