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#!/usr/bin/env python
"""Support classes for automated testing.
This module contains three parts:
* `AsyncTestCase`/`AsyncHTTPTestCase`: Subclasses of unittest.TestCase
with additional support for testing asynchronous (IOLoop-based) code.
* `LogTrapTestCase`: Subclass of unittest.TestCase that discards log output
from tests that pass and only produces output for failing tests.
* `main()`: A simple test runner (wrapper around unittest.main()) with support
for the tornado.autoreload module to rerun the tests when code changes.
These components may be used together or independently. In particular,
it is safe to combine AsyncTestCase and LogTrapTestCase via multiple
inheritance. See the docstrings for each class/function below for more
from __future__ import with_statement
from cStringIO import StringIO
from tornado.httpclient import AsyncHTTPClient
from tornado.httpserver import HTTPServer
from tornado.stack_context import StackContext, NullContext
import contextlib
import logging
import sys
import time
import unittest
from tornado.ioloop import IOLoop
_next_port = 10000
def get_unused_port():
"""Returns a (hopefully) unused port number."""
global _next_port
port = _next_port
_next_port = _next_port + 1
return port
class AsyncTestCase(unittest.TestCase):
"""TestCase subclass for testing IOLoop-based asynchronous code.
The unittest framework is synchronous, so the test must be complete
by the time the test method returns. This method provides the stop()
and wait() methods for this purpose. The test method itself must call
self.wait(), and asynchronous callbacks should call self.stop() to signal
By default, a new IOLoop is constructed for each test and is available
as self.io_loop. This IOLoop should be used in the construction of
HTTP clients/servers, etc. If the code being tested requires a
global IOLoop, subclasses should override get_new_ioloop to return it.
The IOLoop's start and stop methods should not be called directly.
Instead, use self.stop self.wait. Arguments passed to self.stop are
returned from self.wait. It is possible to have multiple
wait/stop cycles in the same test.
# This test uses an asynchronous style similar to most async
# application code.
class MyTestCase(AsyncTestCase):
def test_http_fetch(self):
client = AsyncHTTPClient(self.io_loop)
client.fetch("", self.handle_fetch)
def handle_fetch(self, response)
# Test contents of response (failures and exceptions here
# will cause self.wait() to throw an exception and end the
# test).
# This test uses the argument passing between self.stop and self.wait
# for a simpler, more synchronous style
class MyTestCase2(AsyncTestCase):
def test_http_fetch(self):
client = AsyncHTTPClient(self.io_loop)
client.fetch("", self.stop)
response = self.wait()
# Test contents of response
def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs):
super(AsyncTestCase, self).__init__(*args, **kwargs)
self.__stopped = False
self.__running = False
self.__failure = None
self.__stop_args = None
def setUp(self):
super(AsyncTestCase, self).setUp()
self.io_loop = self.get_new_ioloop()
def tearDown(self):
if (not IOLoop.initialized() or
self.io_loop is not IOLoop.instance()):
# Try to clean up any file descriptors left open in the ioloop.
# This avoids leaks, especially when tests are run repeatedly
# in the same process with autoreload (because curl does not
# set FD_CLOEXEC on its file descriptors)
super(AsyncTestCase, self).tearDown()
def get_new_ioloop(self):
'''Creates a new IOLoop for this test. May be overridden in
subclasses for tests that require a specific IOLoop (usually
the singleton).
return IOLoop()
def _stack_context(self):
except Exception:
self.__failure = sys.exc_info()
def run(self, result=None):
with StackContext(self._stack_context):
super(AsyncTestCase, self).run(result)
def stop(self, _arg=None, **kwargs):
'''Stops the ioloop, causing one pending (or future) call to wait()
to return.
Keyword arguments or a single positional argument passed to stop() are
saved and will be returned by wait().
assert _arg is None or not kwargs
self.__stop_args = kwargs or _arg
if self.__running:
self.__running = False
self.__stopped = True
def wait(self, condition=None, timeout=5):
"""Runs the IOLoop until stop is called or timeout has passed.
In the event of a timeout, an exception will be thrown.
If condition is not None, the IOLoop will be restarted after stop()
until condition() returns true.
if not self.__stopped:
if timeout:
def timeout_func():
raise self.failureException(
'Async operation timed out after %d seconds' %
except Exception:
self.__failure = sys.exc_info()
self.io_loop.add_timeout(time.time() + timeout, timeout_func)
while True:
self.__running = True
with NullContext():
# Wipe out the StackContext that was established in
# so that all callbacks executed inside the
# IOLoop will re-run it.
if (self.__failure is not None or
condition is None or condition()):
assert self.__stopped
self.__stopped = False
if self.__failure is not None:
# 2to3 isn't smart enough to convert three-argument raise
# statements correctly in some cases.
if isinstance(self.__failure[1], self.__failure[0]):
raise self.__failure[1], None, self.__failure[2]
raise self.__failure[0], self.__failure[1], self.__failure[2]
result = self.__stop_args
self.__stop_args = None
return result
class AsyncHTTPTestCase(AsyncTestCase):
'''A test case that starts up an HTTP server.
Subclasses must override get_app(), which returns the
tornado.web.Application (or other HTTPServer callback) to be tested.
Tests will typically use the provided self.http_client to fetch
URLs from this server.
class MyHTTPTest(AsyncHTTPTestCase):
def get_app(self):
return Application([('/', MyHandler)...])
def test_homepage(self):
# The following two lines are equivalent to
# response = self.fetch('/')
# but are shown in full here to demonstrate explicit use
# of self.stop and self.wait.
self.http_client.fetch(self.get_url('/'), self.stop)
response = self.wait()
# test contents of response
def setUp(self):
super(AsyncHTTPTestCase, self).setUp()
self.__port = None
self.http_client = AsyncHTTPClient(io_loop=self.io_loop)
self._app = self.get_app()
self.http_server = HTTPServer(self._app, io_loop=self.io_loop,
self.http_server.listen(self.get_http_port(), address="")
def get_app(self):
"""Should be overridden by subclasses to return a
tornado.web.Application or other HTTPServer callback.
raise NotImplementedError()
def fetch(self, path, **kwargs):
"""Convenience method to synchronously fetch a url.
The given path will be appended to the local server's host and port.
Any additional kwargs will be passed directly to
AsyncHTTPClient.fetch (and so could be used to pass method="POST",
body="...", etc).
self.http_client.fetch(self.get_url(path), self.stop, **kwargs)
return self.wait()
def get_httpserver_options(self):
"""May be overridden by subclasses to return additional
keyword arguments for HTTPServer.
return {}
def get_http_port(self):
"""Returns the port used by the HTTPServer.
A new port is chosen for each test.
if self.__port is None:
self.__port = get_unused_port()
return self.__port
def get_url(self, path):
"""Returns an absolute url for the given path on the test server."""
return 'http://localhost:%s%s' % (self.get_http_port(), path)
def tearDown(self):
super(AsyncHTTPTestCase, self).tearDown()
class LogTrapTestCase(unittest.TestCase):
"""A test case that captures and discards all logging output
if the test passes.
Some libraries can produce a lot of logging output even when
the test succeeds, so this class can be useful to minimize the noise.
Simply use it as a base class for your test case. It is safe to combine
with AsyncTestCase via multiple inheritance
("class MyTestCase(AsyncHTTPTestCase, LogTrapTestCase):")
This class assumes that only one log handler is configured and that
it is a StreamHandler. This is true for both logging.basicConfig
and the "pretty logging" configured by tornado.options.
def run(self, result=None):
logger = logging.getLogger()
if len(logger.handlers) > 1:
# Multiple handlers have been defined. It gets messy to handle
# this, especially since the handlers may have different
# formatters. Just leave the logging alone in this case.
super(LogTrapTestCase, self).run(result)
if not logger.handlers:
self.assertEqual(len(logger.handlers), 1)
handler = logger.handlers[0]
assert isinstance(handler, logging.StreamHandler)
old_stream =
try: = StringIO()"RUNNING TEST: " + str(self))
old_error_count = len(result.failures) + len(result.errors)
super(LogTrapTestCase, self).run(result)
new_error_count = len(result.failures) + len(result.errors)
if new_error_count != old_error_count:
finally: = old_stream
def main():
"""A simple test runner.
This test runner is essentially equivalent to `unittest.main` from
the standard library, but adds support for tornado-style option
parsing and log formatting.
The easiest way to run a test is via the command line::
python -m tornado.testing tornado.test.stack_context_test
See the standard library unittest module for ways in which tests can
be specified.
Projects with many tests may wish to define a test script like
tornado/test/ This script should define a method all()
which returns a test suite and then call tornado.testing.main().
Note that even when a test script is used, the all() test suite may
be overridden by naming a single test on the command line::
# Runs all tests
# Runs one test
tornado/test/ tornado.test.stack_context_test
from tornado.options import define, options, parse_command_line
define('autoreload', type=bool, default=False,
help="DEPRECATED: use tornado.autoreload.main instead")
define('httpclient', type=str, default=None)
argv = [sys.argv[0]] + parse_command_line(sys.argv)
if options.httpclient:
from tornado.httpclient import AsyncHTTPClient
if __name__ == '__main__' and len(argv) == 1:
print >> sys.stderr, "No tests specified"
# In order to be able to run tests by their fully-qualified name
# on the command line without importing all tests here,
# module must be set to None. Python 3.2's unittest.main ignores
# defaultTest if no module is given (it tries to do its own
# test discovery, which is incompatible with auto2to3), so don't
# set module if we're not asking for a specific test.
if len(argv) > 1:
unittest.main(module=None, argv=argv)
unittest.main(defaultTest="all", argv=argv)
except SystemExit, e:
if e.code == 0:'PASS')
if not options.autoreload:
if options.autoreload:
import tornado.autoreload
if __name__ == '__main__':
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