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#!/usr/bin/env python
"""Support classes for automated testing.
* `AsyncTestCase` and `AsyncHTTPTestCase`: Subclasses of unittest.TestCase
with additional support for testing asynchronous (`.IOLoop` based) code.
* `ExpectLog` and `LogTrapTestCase`: Make test logs less spammy.
* `main()`: A simple test runner (wrapper around unittest.main()) with support
for the tornado.autoreload module to rerun the tests when code changes.
from __future__ import absolute_import, division, print_function, with_statement
from tornado import gen
from tornado.httpclient import AsyncHTTPClient
from tornado.httpserver import HTTPServer
from tornado.simple_httpclient import SimpleAsyncHTTPClient
from tornado.ioloop import IOLoop
from tornado import netutil
except ImportError:
# These modules are not importable on app engine. Parts of this module
# won't work, but e.g. LogTrapTestCase and main() will.
AsyncHTTPClient = None
gen = None
HTTPServer = None
IOLoop = None
netutil = None
SimpleAsyncHTTPClient = None
from tornado.log import gen_log
from tornado.stack_context import ExceptionStackContext
from tornado.util import raise_exc_info, basestring_type
import functools
import logging
import os
import re
import signal
import socket
import sys
from io import StringIO # py3
except ImportError:
from cStringIO import StringIO # py2
# Tornado's own test suite requires the updated unittest module
# (either py27+ or unittest2) so tornado.test.util enforces
# this requirement, but for other users of tornado.testing we want
# to allow the older version if unitest2 is not available.
import unittest2 as unittest
except ImportError:
import unittest
_next_port = 10000
def get_unused_port():
"""Returns a (hopefully) unused port number.
This function does not guarantee that the port it returns is available,
only that a series of get_unused_port calls in a single process return
distinct ports.
**Deprecated**. Use bind_unused_port instead, which is guaranteed
to find an unused port.
global _next_port
port = _next_port
_next_port = _next_port + 1
return port
def bind_unused_port():
"""Binds a server socket to an available port on localhost.
Returns a tuple (socket, port).
[sock] = netutil.bind_sockets(0, 'localhost', family=socket.AF_INET)
port = sock.getsockname()[1]
return sock, port
class AsyncTestCase(unittest.TestCase):
"""`~unittest.TestCase` subclass for testing `.IOLoop`-based
asynchronous code.
The unittest framework is synchronous, so the test must be
complete by the time the test method returns. This class provides
the `stop()` and `wait()` methods for this purpose. The test
method itself must call ``self.wait()``, and asynchronous
callbacks should call ``self.stop()`` to signal completion.
Alternately, the `gen_test` decorator can be used to use yield points
from the `tornado.gen` module.
By default, a new `.IOLoop` is constructed for each test and is available
as ``self.io_loop``. This `.IOLoop` should be used in the construction of
HTTP clients/servers, etc. If the code being tested requires a
global `.IOLoop`, subclasses should override `get_new_ioloop` to return it.
The `.IOLoop`'s ``start`` and ``stop`` methods should not be
called directly. Instead, use `self.stop <stop>` and `self.wait
<wait>`. Arguments passed to ``self.stop`` are returned from
``self.wait``. It is possible to have multiple ``wait``/``stop``
cycles in the same test.
# This test uses argument passing between self.stop and self.wait.
class MyTestCase(AsyncTestCase):
def test_http_fetch(self):
client = AsyncHTTPClient(self.io_loop)
client.fetch("", self.stop)
response = self.wait()
# Test contents of response
self.assertIn("FriendFeed", response.body)
# This test uses an explicit callback-based style.
class MyTestCase2(AsyncTestCase):
def test_http_fetch(self):
client = AsyncHTTPClient(self.io_loop)
client.fetch("", self.handle_fetch)
def handle_fetch(self, response):
# Test contents of response (failures and exceptions here
# will cause self.wait() to throw an exception and end the
# test).
# Exceptions thrown here are magically propagated to
# self.wait() in test_http_fetch() via stack_context.
self.assertIn("FriendFeed", response.body)
def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs):
super(AsyncTestCase, self).__init__(*args, **kwargs)
self.__stopped = False
self.__running = False
self.__failure = None
self.__stop_args = None
self.__timeout = None
def setUp(self):
super(AsyncTestCase, self).setUp()
self.io_loop = self.get_new_ioloop()
def tearDown(self):
if (not IOLoop.initialized() or
self.io_loop is not IOLoop.instance()):
# Try to clean up any file descriptors left open in the ioloop.
# This avoids leaks, especially when tests are run repeatedly
# in the same process with autoreload (because curl does not
# set FD_CLOEXEC on its file descriptors)
super(AsyncTestCase, self).tearDown()
# In case an exception escaped or the StackContext caught an exception
# when there wasn't a wait() to re-raise it, do so here.
# This is our last chance to raise an exception in a way that the
# unittest machinery understands.
def get_new_ioloop(self):
"""Creates a new `.IOLoop` for this test. May be overridden in
subclasses for tests that require a specific `.IOLoop` (usually
the singleton `.IOLoop.instance()`).
return IOLoop()
def _handle_exception(self, typ, value, tb):
self.__failure = sys.exc_info()
return True
def __rethrow(self):
if self.__failure is not None:
failure = self.__failure
self.__failure = None
def run(self, result=None):
with ExceptionStackContext(self._handle_exception):
super(AsyncTestCase, self).run(result)
# As a last resort, if an exception escaped and wasn't
# re-raised in tearDown, raise it here. This will cause the
# unittest run to fail messily, but that's better than silently
# ignoring an error.
def stop(self, _arg=None, **kwargs):
"""Stops the `.IOLoop`, causing one pending (or future) call to `wait()`
to return.
Keyword arguments or a single positional argument passed to `stop()` are
saved and will be returned by `wait()`.
assert _arg is None or not kwargs
self.__stop_args = kwargs or _arg
if self.__running:
self.__running = False
self.__stopped = True
def wait(self, condition=None, timeout=5):
"""Runs the `.IOLoop` until stop is called or timeout has passed.
In the event of a timeout, an exception will be thrown.
If ``condition`` is not None, the `.IOLoop` will be restarted
after `stop()` until ``condition()`` returns true.
if not self.__stopped:
if timeout:
def timeout_func():
raise self.failureException(
'Async operation timed out after %s seconds' %
except Exception:
self.__failure = sys.exc_info()
self.__timeout = self.io_loop.add_timeout(self.io_loop.time() + timeout, timeout_func)
while True:
self.__running = True
if (self.__failure is not None or
condition is None or condition()):
if self.__timeout is not None:
self.__timeout = None
assert self.__stopped
self.__stopped = False
result = self.__stop_args
self.__stop_args = None
return result
class AsyncHTTPTestCase(AsyncTestCase):
"""A test case that starts up an HTTP server.
Subclasses must override `get_app()`, which returns the
`tornado.web.Application` (or other `.HTTPServer` callback) to be tested.
Tests will typically use the provided ``self.http_client`` to fetch
URLs from this server.
class MyHTTPTest(AsyncHTTPTestCase):
def get_app(self):
return Application([('/', MyHandler)...])
def test_homepage(self):
# The following two lines are equivalent to
# response = self.fetch('/')
# but are shown in full here to demonstrate explicit use
# of self.stop and self.wait.
self.http_client.fetch(self.get_url('/'), self.stop)
response = self.wait()
# test contents of response
def setUp(self):
super(AsyncHTTPTestCase, self).setUp()
sock, port = bind_unused_port()
self.__port = port
self.http_client = self.get_http_client()
self._app = self.get_app()
self.http_server = self.get_http_server()
def get_http_client(self):
return AsyncHTTPClient(io_loop=self.io_loop)
def get_http_server(self):
return HTTPServer(self._app, io_loop=self.io_loop,
def get_app(self):
"""Should be overridden by subclasses to return a
`tornado.web.Application` or other `.HTTPServer` callback.
raise NotImplementedError()
def fetch(self, path, **kwargs):
"""Convenience method to synchronously fetch a url.
The given path will be appended to the local server's host and
port. Any additional kwargs will be passed directly to
`.AsyncHTTPClient.fetch` (and so could be used to pass
``method="POST"``, ``body="..."``, etc).
self.http_client.fetch(self.get_url(path), self.stop, **kwargs)
return self.wait()
def get_httpserver_options(self):
"""May be overridden by subclasses to return additional
keyword arguments for the server.
return {}
def get_http_port(self):
"""Returns the port used by the server.
A new port is chosen for each test.
return self.__port
def get_protocol(self):
return 'http'
def get_url(self, path):
"""Returns an absolute url for the given path on the test server."""
return '%s://localhost:%s%s' % (self.get_protocol(),
self.get_http_port(), path)
def tearDown(self):
if (not IOLoop.initialized() or
self.http_client.io_loop is not IOLoop.instance()):
super(AsyncHTTPTestCase, self).tearDown()
class AsyncHTTPSTestCase(AsyncHTTPTestCase):
"""A test case that starts an HTTPS server.
Interface is generally the same as `AsyncHTTPTestCase`.
def get_http_client(self):
# Some versions of libcurl have deadlock bugs with ssl,
# so always run these tests with SimpleAsyncHTTPClient.
return SimpleAsyncHTTPClient(io_loop=self.io_loop, force_instance=True,
def get_httpserver_options(self):
return dict(ssl_options=self.get_ssl_options())
def get_ssl_options(self):
"""May be overridden by subclasses to select SSL options.
By default includes a self-signed testing certificate.
# Testing keys were generated with:
# openssl req -new -keyout tornado/test/test.key -out tornado/test/test.crt -nodes -days 3650 -x509
module_dir = os.path.dirname(__file__)
return dict(
certfile=os.path.join(module_dir, 'test', 'test.crt'),
keyfile=os.path.join(module_dir, 'test', 'test.key'))
def get_protocol(self):
return 'https'
def gen_test(f):
"""Testing equivalent of ``@gen.coroutine``, to be applied to test methods.
``@gen.coroutine`` cannot be used on tests because the `.IOLoop` is not
already running. ``@gen_test`` should be applied to test methods
on subclasses of `AsyncTestCase`.
class MyTest(AsyncHTTPTestCase):
def test_something(self):
response = yield gen.Task(self.fetch('/'))
f = gen.coroutine(f)
def wrapper(self):
return self.io_loop.run_sync(functools.partial(f, self), timeout=5)
return wrapper
class LogTrapTestCase(unittest.TestCase):
"""A test case that captures and discards all logging output
if the test passes.
Some libraries can produce a lot of logging output even when
the test succeeds, so this class can be useful to minimize the noise.
Simply use it as a base class for your test case. It is safe to combine
with AsyncTestCase via multiple inheritance
(``class MyTestCase(AsyncHTTPTestCase, LogTrapTestCase):``)
This class assumes that only one log handler is configured and
that it is a `~logging.StreamHandler`. This is true for both
`logging.basicConfig` and the "pretty logging" configured by
`tornado.options`. It is not compatible with other log buffering
mechanisms, such as those provided by some test runners.
def run(self, result=None):
logger = logging.getLogger()
if not logger.handlers:
handler = logger.handlers[0]
if (len(logger.handlers) > 1 or
not isinstance(handler, logging.StreamHandler)):
# Logging has been configured in a way we don't recognize,
# so just leave it alone.
super(LogTrapTestCase, self).run(result)
old_stream =
try: = StringIO()"RUNNING TEST: " + str(self))
old_error_count = len(result.failures) + len(result.errors)
super(LogTrapTestCase, self).run(result)
new_error_count = len(result.failures) + len(result.errors)
if new_error_count != old_error_count:
finally: = old_stream
class ExpectLog(logging.Filter):
"""Context manager to capture and suppress expected log output.
Useful to make tests of error conditions less noisy, while still
leaving unexpected log entries visible. *Not thread safe.*
with ExpectLog('tornado.application', "Uncaught exception"):
error_response = self.fetch("/some_page")
def __init__(self, logger, regex, required=True):
"""Constructs an ExpectLog context manager.
:param logger: Logger object (or name of logger) to watch. Pass
an empty string to watch the root logger.
:param regex: Regular expression to match. Any log entries on
the specified logger that match this regex will be suppressed.
:param required: If true, an exeption will be raised if the end of
the ``with`` statement is reached without matching any log entries.
if isinstance(logger, basestring_type):
logger = logging.getLogger(logger)
self.logger = logger
self.regex = re.compile(regex)
self.required = required
self.matched = False
def filter(self, record):
message = record.getMessage()
if self.regex.match(message):
self.matched = True
return False
return True
def __enter__(self):
def __exit__(self, typ, value, tb):
if not typ and self.required and not self.matched:
raise Exception("did not get expected log message")
def main(**kwargs):
"""A simple test runner.
This test runner is essentially equivalent to `unittest.main` from
the standard library, but adds support for tornado-style option
parsing and log formatting.
The easiest way to run a test is via the command line::
python -m tornado.testing tornado.test.stack_context_test
See the standard library unittest module for ways in which tests can
be specified.
Projects with many tests may wish to define a test script like
``tornado/test/``. This script should define a method
``all()`` which returns a test suite and then call
`tornado.testing.main()`. Note that even when a test script is
used, the ``all()`` test suite may be overridden by naming a
single test on the command line::
# Runs all tests
python -m tornado.test.runtests
# Runs one test
python -m tornado.test.runtests tornado.test.stack_context_test
Additional keyword arguments passed through to ``unittest.main()``.
For example, use ``tornado.testing.main(verbosity=2)``
to show many test details as they are run.
for full argument list.
from tornado.options import define, options, parse_command_line
define('exception_on_interrupt', type=bool, default=True,
help=("If true (default), ctrl-c raises a KeyboardInterrupt "
"exception. This prints a stack trace but cannot interrupt "
"certain operations. If false, the process is more reliably "
"killed, but does not print a stack trace."))
# support the same options as unittest's command-line interface
define('verbose', type=bool)
define('quiet', type=bool)
define('failfast', type=bool)
define('catch', type=bool)
define('buffer', type=bool)
argv = [sys.argv[0]] + parse_command_line(sys.argv)
if not options.exception_on_interrupt:
signal.signal(signal.SIGINT, signal.SIG_DFL)
if options.verbose is not None:
kwargs['verbosity'] = 2
if options.quiet is not None:
kwargs['verbosity'] = 0
if options.failfast is not None:
kwargs['failfast'] = True
if options.catch is not None:
kwargs['catchbreak'] = True
if options.buffer is not None:
kwargs['buffer'] = True
if __name__ == '__main__' and len(argv) == 1:
print("No tests specified", file=sys.stderr)
# In order to be able to run tests by their fully-qualified name
# on the command line without importing all tests here,
# module must be set to None. Python 3.2's unittest.main ignores
# defaultTest if no module is given (it tries to do its own
# test discovery, which is incompatible with auto2to3), so don't
# set module if we're not asking for a specific test.
if len(argv) > 1:
unittest.main(module=None, argv=argv, **kwargs)
unittest.main(defaultTest="all", argv=argv, **kwargs)
except SystemExit as e:
if e.code == 0:'PASS')
if __name__ == '__main__':
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