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#!/usr/bin/env python
# Copyright 2009 Facebook
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"); you may
# not use this file except in compliance with the License. You may obtain
# a copy of the License at
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT
# WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the
# License for the specific language governing permissions and limitations
# under the License.
"""An I/O event loop for non-blocking sockets.
Typical applications will use a single `IOLoop` object, in the
`IOLoop.instance` singleton. The `IOLoop.start` method should usually
be called at the end of the ``main()`` function. Atypical applications may
use more than one `IOLoop`, such as one `IOLoop` per thread, or per `unittest`
In addition to I/O events, the `IOLoop` can also schedule time-based events.
`IOLoop.add_timeout` is a non-blocking alternative to `time.sleep`.
from __future__ import absolute_import, division, print_function, with_statement
import datetime
import errno
import functools
import heapq
import logging
import numbers
import os
import select
import sys
import threading
import time
import traceback
from tornado.concurrent import Future, TracebackFuture
from tornado.log import app_log, gen_log
from tornado import stack_context
from tornado.util import Configurable
import signal
except ImportError:
signal = None
import thread # py2
except ImportError:
import _thread as thread # py3
from import set_close_exec, Waker
_POLL_TIMEOUT = 3600.0
class TimeoutError(Exception):
class IOLoop(Configurable):
"""A level-triggered I/O loop.
We use ``epoll`` (Linux) or ``kqueue`` (BSD and Mac OS X) if they
are available, or else we fall back on select(). If you are
implementing a system that needs to handle thousands of
simultaneous connections, you should use a system that supports
either ``epoll`` or ``kqueue``.
Example usage for a simple TCP server::
import errno
import functools
import ioloop
import socket
def connection_ready(sock, fd, events):
while True:
connection, address = sock.accept()
except socket.error, e:
if e.args[0] not in (errno.EWOULDBLOCK, errno.EAGAIN):
handle_connection(connection, address)
sock = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_STREAM, 0)
sock.setsockopt(socket.SOL_SOCKET, socket.SO_REUSEADDR, 1)
sock.bind(("", port))
io_loop = ioloop.IOLoop.instance()
callback = functools.partial(connection_ready, sock)
io_loop.add_handler(sock.fileno(), callback, io_loop.READ)
# Constants from the epoll module
_EPOLLIN = 0x001
_EPOLLPRI = 0x002
_EPOLLOUT = 0x004
_EPOLLERR = 0x008
_EPOLLHUP = 0x010
_EPOLLRDHUP = 0x2000
_EPOLLONESHOT = (1 << 30)
_EPOLLET = (1 << 31)
# Our events map exactly to the epoll events
NONE = 0
# Global lock for creating global IOLoop instance
_instance_lock = threading.Lock()
_current = threading.local()
def instance():
"""Returns a global `IOLoop` instance.
Most applications have a single, global `IOLoop` running on the
main thread. Use this method to get this instance from
another thread. To get the current thread's `IOLoop`, use `current()`.
if not hasattr(IOLoop, "_instance"):
with IOLoop._instance_lock:
if not hasattr(IOLoop, "_instance"):
# New instance after double check
IOLoop._instance = IOLoop()
return IOLoop._instance
def initialized():
"""Returns true if the singleton instance has been created."""
return hasattr(IOLoop, "_instance")
def install(self):
"""Installs this `IOLoop` object as the singleton instance.
This is normally not necessary as `instance()` will create
an `IOLoop` on demand, but you may want to call `install` to use
a custom subclass of `IOLoop`.
assert not IOLoop.initialized()
IOLoop._instance = self
def current():
"""Returns the current thread's `IOLoop`.
If an `IOLoop` is currently running or has been marked as current
by `make_current`, returns that instance. Otherwise returns
`IOLoop.instance()`, i.e. the main thread's `IOLoop`.
A common pattern for classes that depend on ``IOLoops`` is to use
a default argument to enable programs with multiple ``IOLoops``
but not require the argument for simpler applications::
class MyClass(object):
def __init__(self, io_loop=None):
self.io_loop = io_loop or IOLoop.current()
In general you should use `IOLoop.current` as the default when
constructing an asynchronous object, and use `IOLoop.instance`
when you mean to communicate to the main thread from a different
current = getattr(IOLoop._current, "instance", None)
if current is None:
return IOLoop.instance()
return current
def make_current(self):
"""Makes this the `IOLoop` for the current thread.
An `IOLoop` automatically becomes current for its thread
when it is started, but it is sometimes useful to call
`make_current` explictly before starting the `IOLoop`,
so that code run at startup time can find the right
IOLoop._current.instance = self
def clear_current():
IOLoop._current.instance = None
def configurable_base(cls):
return IOLoop
def configurable_default(cls):
if hasattr(select, "epoll"):
from tornado.platform.epoll import EPollIOLoop
return EPollIOLoop
if hasattr(select, "kqueue"):
# Python 2.6+ on BSD or Mac
from tornado.platform.kqueue import KQueueIOLoop
return KQueueIOLoop
from import SelectIOLoop
return SelectIOLoop
def initialize(self):
def close(self, all_fds=False):
"""Closes the `IOLoop`, freeing any resources used.
If ``all_fds`` is true, all file descriptors registered on the
IOLoop will be closed (not just the ones created by the
`IOLoop` itself).
Many applications will only use a single `IOLoop` that runs for the
entire lifetime of the process. In that case closing the `IOLoop`
is not necessary since everything will be cleaned up when the
process exits. `IOLoop.close` is provided mainly for scenarios
such as unit tests, which create and destroy a large number of
An `IOLoop` must be completely stopped before it can be closed. This
means that `IOLoop.stop()` must be called *and* `IOLoop.start()` must
be allowed to return before attempting to call `IOLoop.close()`.
Therefore the call to `close` will usually appear just after
the call to `start` rather than near the call to `stop`.
.. versionchanged:: 3.1
If the `IOLoop` implementation supports non-integer objects
for "file descriptors", those objects will have their
``close`` method when ``all_fds`` is true.
raise NotImplementedError()
def add_handler(self, fd, handler, events):
"""Registers the given handler to receive the given events for fd.
The ``events`` argument is a bitwise or of the constants
``IOLoop.READ``, ``IOLoop.WRITE``, and ``IOLoop.ERROR``.
When an event occurs, ``handler(fd, events)`` will be run.
raise NotImplementedError()
def update_handler(self, fd, events):
"""Changes the events we listen for fd."""
raise NotImplementedError()
def remove_handler(self, fd):
"""Stop listening for events on fd."""
raise NotImplementedError()
def set_blocking_signal_threshold(self, seconds, action):
"""Sends a signal if the `IOLoop` is blocked for more than
``s`` seconds.
Pass ``seconds=None`` to disable. Requires Python 2.6 on a unixy
The action parameter is a Python signal handler. Read the
documentation for the `signal` module for more information.
If ``action`` is None, the process will be killed if it is
blocked for too long.
raise NotImplementedError()
def set_blocking_log_threshold(self, seconds):
"""Logs a stack trace if the `IOLoop` is blocked for more than
``s`` seconds.
Equivalent to ``set_blocking_signal_threshold(seconds,
self.set_blocking_signal_threshold(seconds, self.log_stack)
def log_stack(self, signal, frame):
"""Signal handler to log the stack trace of the current thread.
For use with `set_blocking_signal_threshold`.
gen_log.warning('IOLoop blocked for %f seconds in\n%s',
def start(self):
"""Starts the I/O loop.
The loop will run until one of the callbacks calls `stop()`, which
will make the loop stop after the current event iteration completes.
raise NotImplementedError()
def _setup_logging(self):
"""The IOLoop catches and logs exceptions, so it's
important that log output be visible. However, python's
default behavior for non-root loggers (prior to python
3.2) is to print an unhelpful "no handlers could be
found" message rather than the actual log entry, so we
must explicitly configure logging if we've made it this
far without anything.
This method should be called from start() in subclasses.
if not any([logging.getLogger().handlers,
def stop(self):
"""Stop the I/O loop.
If the event loop is not currently running, the next call to `start()`
will return immediately.
To use asynchronous methods from otherwise-synchronous code (such as
unit tests), you can start and stop the event loop like this::
ioloop = IOLoop()
async_method(ioloop=ioloop, callback=ioloop.stop)
``ioloop.start()`` will return after ``async_method`` has run
its callback, whether that callback was invoked before or
after ``ioloop.start``.
Note that even after `stop` has been called, the `IOLoop` is not
completely stopped until `IOLoop.start` has also returned.
Some work that was scheduled before the call to `stop` may still
be run before the `IOLoop` shuts down.
raise NotImplementedError()
def run_sync(self, func, timeout=None):
"""Starts the `IOLoop`, runs the given function, and stops the loop.
If the function returns a `.Future`, the `IOLoop` will run
until the future is resolved. If it raises an exception, the
`IOLoop` will stop and the exception will be re-raised to the
The keyword-only argument ``timeout`` may be used to set
a maximum duration for the function. If the timeout expires,
a `TimeoutError` is raised.
This method is useful in conjunction with `tornado.gen.coroutine`
to allow asynchronous calls in a ``main()`` function::
def main():
# do stuff...
if __name__ == '__main__':
future_cell = [None]
def run():
result = func()
except Exception:
future_cell[0] = TracebackFuture()
if isinstance(result, Future):
future_cell[0] = result
future_cell[0] = TracebackFuture()
self.add_future(future_cell[0], lambda future: self.stop())
if timeout is not None:
timeout_handle = self.add_timeout(self.time() + timeout, self.stop)
if timeout is not None:
if not future_cell[0].done():
raise TimeoutError('Operation timed out after %s seconds' % timeout)
return future_cell[0].result()
def time(self):
"""Returns the current time according to the `IOLoop`'s clock.
The return value is a floating-point number relative to an
unspecified time in the past.
By default, the `IOLoop`'s time function is `time.time`. However,
it may be configured to use e.g. `time.monotonic` instead.
Calls to `add_timeout` that pass a number instead of a
`datetime.timedelta` should use this function to compute the
appropriate time, so they can work no matter what time function
is chosen.
return time.time()
def add_timeout(self, deadline, callback):
"""Runs the ``callback`` at the time ``deadline`` from the I/O loop.
Returns an opaque handle that may be passed to
`remove_timeout` to cancel.
``deadline`` may be a number denoting a time (on the same
scale as `IOLoop.time`, normally `time.time`), or a
`datetime.timedelta` object for a deadline relative to the
current time.
Note that it is not safe to call `add_timeout` from other threads.
Instead, you must use `add_callback` to transfer control to the
`IOLoop`'s thread, and then call `add_timeout` from there.
raise NotImplementedError()
def remove_timeout(self, timeout):
"""Cancels a pending timeout.
The argument is a handle as returned by `add_timeout`. It is
safe to call `remove_timeout` even if the callback has already
been run.
raise NotImplementedError()
def add_callback(self, callback, *args, **kwargs):
"""Calls the given callback on the next I/O loop iteration.
It is safe to call this method from any thread at any time,
except from a signal handler. Note that this is the **only**
method in `IOLoop` that makes this thread-safety guarantee; all
other interaction with the `IOLoop` must be done from that
`IOLoop`'s thread. `add_callback()` may be used to transfer
control from other threads to the `IOLoop`'s thread.
To add a callback from a signal handler, see
raise NotImplementedError()
def add_callback_from_signal(self, callback, *args, **kwargs):
"""Calls the given callback on the next I/O loop iteration.
Safe for use from a Python signal handler; should not be used
Callbacks added with this method will be run without any
`.stack_context`, to avoid picking up the context of the function
that was interrupted by the signal.
raise NotImplementedError()
def add_future(self, future, callback):
"""Schedules a callback on the ``IOLoop`` when the given
`.Future` is finished.
The callback is invoked with one argument, the
assert isinstance(future, Future)
callback = stack_context.wrap(callback)
lambda future: self.add_callback(callback, future))
def _run_callback(self, callback):
"""Runs a callback with error handling.
For use in subclasses.
except Exception:
def handle_callback_exception(self, callback):
"""This method is called whenever a callback run by the `IOLoop`
throws an exception.
By default simply logs the exception as an error. Subclasses
may override this method to customize reporting of exceptions.
The exception itself is not passed explicitly, but is available
in `sys.exc_info`.
app_log.error("Exception in callback %r", callback, exc_info=True)
class PollIOLoop(IOLoop):
"""Base class for IOLoops built around a select-like function.
For concrete implementations, see `tornado.platform.epoll.EPollIOLoop`
(Linux), `tornado.platform.kqueue.KQueueIOLoop` (BSD and Mac), or
`` (all platforms).
def initialize(self, impl, time_func=None):
super(PollIOLoop, self).initialize()
self._impl = impl
if hasattr(self._impl, 'fileno'):
self.time_func = time_func or time.time
self._handlers = {}
self._events = {}
self._callbacks = []
self._callback_lock = threading.Lock()
self._timeouts = []
self._cancellations = 0
self._running = False
self._stopped = False
self._closing = False
self._thread_ident = None
self._blocking_signal_threshold = None
# Create a pipe that we send bogus data to when we want to wake
# the I/O loop when it is idle
self._waker = Waker()
lambda fd, events: self._waker.consume(),
def close(self, all_fds=False):
with self._callback_lock:
self._closing = True
if all_fds:
for fd in self._handlers.keys():
close_method = getattr(fd, 'close', None)
if close_method is not None:
except Exception:
gen_log.debug("error closing fd %s", fd, exc_info=True)
def add_handler(self, fd, handler, events):
self._handlers[fd] = stack_context.wrap(handler)
self._impl.register(fd, events | self.ERROR)
def update_handler(self, fd, events):
self._impl.modify(fd, events | self.ERROR)
def remove_handler(self, fd):
self._handlers.pop(fd, None)
self._events.pop(fd, None)
except Exception:
gen_log.debug("Error deleting fd from IOLoop", exc_info=True)
def set_blocking_signal_threshold(self, seconds, action):
if not hasattr(signal, "setitimer"):
gen_log.error("set_blocking_signal_threshold requires a signal module "
"with the setitimer method")
self._blocking_signal_threshold = seconds
if seconds is not None:
action if action is not None else signal.SIG_DFL)
def start(self):
if self._stopped:
self._stopped = False
old_current = getattr(IOLoop._current, "instance", None)
IOLoop._current.instance = self
self._thread_ident = thread.get_ident()
self._running = True
# signal.set_wakeup_fd closes a race condition in event loops:
# a signal may arrive at the beginning of select/poll/etc
# before it goes into its interruptible sleep, so the signal
# will be consumed without waking the select. The solution is
# for the (C, synchronous) signal handler to write to a pipe,
# which will then be seen by select.
# In python's signal handling semantics, this only matters on the
# main thread (fortunately, set_wakeup_fd only works on the main
# thread and will raise a ValueError otherwise).
# If someone has already set a wakeup fd, we don't want to
# disturb it. This is an issue for twisted, which does its
# SIGCHILD processing in response to its own wakeup fd being
# written to. As long as the wakeup fd is registered on the IOLoop,
# the loop will still wake up and everything should work.
old_wakeup_fd = None
if hasattr(signal, 'set_wakeup_fd') and == 'posix':
# requires python 2.6+, unix. set_wakeup_fd exists but crashes
# the python process on windows.
old_wakeup_fd = signal.set_wakeup_fd(self._waker.write_fileno())
if old_wakeup_fd != -1:
# Already set, restore previous value. This is a little racy,
# but there's no clean get_wakeup_fd and in real use the
# IOLoop is just started once at the beginning.
old_wakeup_fd = None
except ValueError: # non-main thread
while True:
poll_timeout = _POLL_TIMEOUT
# Prevent IO event starvation by delaying new callbacks
# to the next iteration of the event loop.
with self._callback_lock:
callbacks = self._callbacks
self._callbacks = []
for callback in callbacks:
# Closures may be holding on to a lot of memory, so allow
# them to be freed before we go into our poll wait.
callbacks = callback = None
if self._timeouts:
now = self.time()
while self._timeouts:
if self._timeouts[0].callback is None:
# the timeout was cancelled
self._cancellations -= 1
elif self._timeouts[0].deadline <= now:
timeout = heapq.heappop(self._timeouts)
del timeout
seconds = self._timeouts[0].deadline - now
poll_timeout = min(seconds, poll_timeout)
if (self._cancellations > 512
and self._cancellations > (len(self._timeouts) >> 1)):
# Clean up the timeout queue when it gets large and it's
# more than half cancellations.
self._cancellations = 0
self._timeouts = [x for x in self._timeouts
if x.callback is not None]
if self._callbacks:
# If any callbacks or timeouts called add_callback,
# we don't want to wait in poll() before we run them.
poll_timeout = 0.0
if not self._running:
if self._blocking_signal_threshold is not None:
# clear alarm so it doesn't fire while poll is waiting for
# events.
signal.setitimer(signal.ITIMER_REAL, 0, 0)
event_pairs = self._impl.poll(poll_timeout)
except Exception as e:
# Depending on python version and IOLoop implementation,
# different exception types may be thrown and there are
# two ways EINTR might be signaled:
# * e.errno == errno.EINTR
# * e.args is like (errno.EINTR, 'Interrupted system call')
if (getattr(e, 'errno', None) == errno.EINTR or
(isinstance(getattr(e, 'args', None), tuple) and
len(e.args) == 2 and e.args[0] == errno.EINTR)):
if self._blocking_signal_threshold is not None:
self._blocking_signal_threshold, 0)
# Pop one fd at a time from the set of pending fds and run
# its handler. Since that handler may perform actions on
# other file descriptors, there may be reentrant calls to
# this IOLoop that update self._events
while self._events:
fd, events = self._events.popitem()
self._handlers[fd](fd, events)
except (OSError, IOError) as e:
if e.args[0] == errno.EPIPE:
# Happens when the client closes the connection
except Exception:
# reset the stopped flag so another start/stop pair can be issued
self._stopped = False
if self._blocking_signal_threshold is not None:
signal.setitimer(signal.ITIMER_REAL, 0, 0)
IOLoop._current.instance = old_current
if old_wakeup_fd is not None:
def stop(self):
self._running = False
self._stopped = True
def time(self):
return self.time_func()
def add_timeout(self, deadline, callback):
timeout = _Timeout(deadline, stack_context.wrap(callback), self)
heapq.heappush(self._timeouts, timeout)
return timeout
def remove_timeout(self, timeout):
# Removing from a heap is complicated, so just leave the defunct
# timeout object in the queue (see discussion in
# If this turns out to be a problem, we could add a garbage
# collection pass whenever there are too many dead timeouts.
timeout.callback = None
self._cancellations += 1
def add_callback(self, callback, *args, **kwargs):
with self._callback_lock:
if self._closing:
raise RuntimeError("IOLoop is closing")
list_empty = not self._callbacks
stack_context.wrap(callback), *args, **kwargs))
if list_empty and thread.get_ident() != self._thread_ident:
# If we're in the IOLoop's thread, we know it's not currently
# polling. If we're not, and we added the first callback to an
# empty list, we may need to wake it up (it may wake up on its
# own, but an occasional extra wake is harmless). Waking
# up a polling IOLoop is relatively expensive, so we try to
# avoid it when we can.
def add_callback_from_signal(self, callback, *args, **kwargs):
with stack_context.NullContext():
if thread.get_ident() != self._thread_ident:
# if the signal is handled on another thread, we can add
# it normally (modulo the NullContext)
self.add_callback(callback, *args, **kwargs)
# If we're on the IOLoop's thread, we cannot use
# the regular add_callback because it may deadlock on
# _callback_lock. Blindly insert into self._callbacks.
# This is safe because the GIL makes list.append atomic.
# One subtlety is that if the signal interrupted the
# _callback_lock block in IOLoop.start, we may modify
# either the old or new version of self._callbacks,
# but either way will work.
stack_context.wrap(callback), *args, **kwargs))
class _Timeout(object):
"""An IOLoop timeout, a UNIX timestamp and a callback"""
# Reduce memory overhead when there are lots of pending callbacks
__slots__ = ['deadline', 'callback']
def __init__(self, deadline, callback, io_loop):
if isinstance(deadline, numbers.Real):
self.deadline = deadline
elif isinstance(deadline, datetime.timedelta):
self.deadline = io_loop.time() + _Timeout.timedelta_to_seconds(deadline)
raise TypeError("Unsupported deadline %r" % deadline)
self.callback = callback
def timedelta_to_seconds(td):
"""Equivalent to td.total_seconds() (introduced in python 2.7)."""
return (td.microseconds + (td.seconds + td.days * 24 * 3600) * 10 ** 6) / float(10 ** 6)
# Comparison methods to sort by deadline, with object id as a tiebreaker
# to guarantee a consistent ordering. The heapq module uses __le__
# in python2.5, and __lt__ in 2.6+ (sort() and most other comparisons
# use __lt__).
def __lt__(self, other):
return ((self.deadline, id(self)) <
(other.deadline, id(other)))
def __le__(self, other):
return ((self.deadline, id(self)) <=
(other.deadline, id(other)))
class PeriodicCallback(object):
"""Schedules the given callback to be called periodically.
The callback is called every ``callback_time`` milliseconds.
`start` must be called after the `PeriodicCallback` is created.
def __init__(self, callback, callback_time, io_loop=None):
self.callback = callback
if callback_time <= 0:
raise ValueError("Periodic callback must have a positive callback_time")
self.callback_time = callback_time
self.io_loop = io_loop or IOLoop.current()
self._running = False
self._timeout = None
def start(self):
"""Starts the timer."""
self._running = True
self._next_timeout = self.io_loop.time()
def stop(self):
"""Stops the timer."""
self._running = False
if self._timeout is not None:
self._timeout = None
def _run(self):
if not self._running:
except Exception:
def _schedule_next(self):
if self._running:
current_time = self.io_loop.time()
while self._next_timeout <= current_time:
self._next_timeout += self.callback_time / 1000.0
self._timeout = self.io_loop.add_timeout(self._next_timeout, self._run)
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