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/*
* linux/kernel/panic.c
*
* Copyright (C) 1991, 1992 Linus Torvalds
*/
/*
* This function is used through-out the kernel (including mm and fs)
* to indicate a major problem.
*/
#include <linux/debug_locks.h>
#include <linux/interrupt.h>
#include <linux/kmsg_dump.h>
#include <linux/kallsyms.h>
#include <linux/notifier.h>
#include <linux/module.h>
#include <linux/random.h>
#include <linux/reboot.h>
#include <linux/delay.h>
#include <linux/kexec.h>
#include <linux/sched.h>
#include <linux/sysrq.h>
#include <linux/init.h>
#include <linux/nmi.h>
#include <linux/dmi.h>
#define PANIC_TIMER_STEP 100
#define PANIC_BLINK_SPD 18
int panic_on_oops = CONFIG_PANIC_ON_OOPS_VALUE;
static unsigned long tainted_mask;
static int pause_on_oops;
static int pause_on_oops_flag;
static DEFINE_SPINLOCK(pause_on_oops_lock);
int panic_timeout;
EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(panic_timeout);
ATOMIC_NOTIFIER_HEAD(panic_notifier_list);
EXPORT_SYMBOL(panic_notifier_list);
static long no_blink(int state)
{
return 0;
}
/* Returns how long it waited in ms */
long (*panic_blink)(int state);
EXPORT_SYMBOL(panic_blink);
/*
* Stop ourself in panic -- architecture code may override this
*/
void __weak panic_smp_self_stop(void)
{
while (1)
cpu_relax();
}
/**
* panic - halt the system
* @fmt: The text string to print
*
* Display a message, then perform cleanups.
*
* This function never returns.
*/
void panic(const char *fmt, ...)
{
static DEFINE_SPINLOCK(panic_lock);
static char buf[1024];
va_list args;
long i, i_next = 0;
int state = 0;
/*
* Disable local interrupts. This will prevent panic_smp_self_stop
* from deadlocking the first cpu that invokes the panic, since
* there is nothing to prevent an interrupt handler (that runs
* after the panic_lock is acquired) from invoking panic again.
*/
local_irq_disable();
/*
* It's possible to come here directly from a panic-assertion and
* not have preempt disabled. Some functions called from here want
* preempt to be disabled. No point enabling it later though...
*
* Only one CPU is allowed to execute the panic code from here. For
* multiple parallel invocations of panic, all other CPUs either
* stop themself or will wait until they are stopped by the 1st CPU
* with smp_send_stop().
*/
if (!spin_trylock(&panic_lock))
panic_smp_self_stop();
console_verbose();
bust_spinlocks(1);
va_start(args, fmt);
vsnprintf(buf, sizeof(buf), fmt, args);
va_end(args);
printk(KERN_EMERG "Kernel panic - not syncing: %s\n",buf);
#ifdef CONFIG_DEBUG_BUGVERBOSE
/*
* Avoid nested stack-dumping if a panic occurs during oops processing
*/
if (!test_taint(TAINT_DIE) && oops_in_progress <= 1)
dump_stack();
#endif
/*
* If we have crashed and we have a crash kernel loaded let it handle
* everything else.
* Do we want to call this before we try to display a message?
*/
crash_kexec(NULL);
/*
* Note smp_send_stop is the usual smp shutdown function, which
* unfortunately means it may not be hardened to work in a panic
* situation.
*/
smp_send_stop();
kmsg_dump(KMSG_DUMP_PANIC);
atomic_notifier_call_chain(&panic_notifier_list, 0, buf);
bust_spinlocks(0);
if (!panic_blink)
panic_blink = no_blink;
if (panic_timeout > 0) {
/*
* Delay timeout seconds before rebooting the machine.
* We can't use the "normal" timers since we just panicked.
*/
printk(KERN_EMERG "Rebooting in %d seconds..", panic_timeout);
for (i = 0; i < panic_timeout * 1000; i += PANIC_TIMER_STEP) {
touch_nmi_watchdog();
if (i >= i_next) {
i += panic_blink(state ^= 1);
i_next = i + 3600 / PANIC_BLINK_SPD;
}
mdelay(PANIC_TIMER_STEP);
}
}
if (panic_timeout != 0) {
/*
* This will not be a clean reboot, with everything
* shutting down. But if there is a chance of
* rebooting the system it will be rebooted.
*/
emergency_restart();
}
#ifdef __sparc__
{
extern int stop_a_enabled;
/* Make sure the user can actually press Stop-A (L1-A) */
stop_a_enabled = 1;
printk(KERN_EMERG "Press Stop-A (L1-A) to return to the boot prom\n");
}
#endif
#if defined(CONFIG_S390)
{
unsigned long caller;
caller = (unsigned long)__builtin_return_address(0);
disabled_wait(caller);
}
#endif
local_irq_enable();
for (i = 0; ; i += PANIC_TIMER_STEP) {
touch_softlockup_watchdog();
if (i >= i_next) {
i += panic_blink(state ^= 1);
i_next = i + 3600 / PANIC_BLINK_SPD;
}
mdelay(PANIC_TIMER_STEP);
}
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(panic);
struct tnt {
u8 bit;
char true;
char false;
};
static const struct tnt tnts[] = {
{ TAINT_PROPRIETARY_MODULE, 'P', 'G' },
{ TAINT_FORCED_MODULE, 'F', ' ' },
{ TAINT_UNSAFE_SMP, 'S', ' ' },
{ TAINT_FORCED_RMMOD, 'R', ' ' },
{ TAINT_MACHINE_CHECK, 'M', ' ' },
{ TAINT_BAD_PAGE, 'B', ' ' },
{ TAINT_USER, 'U', ' ' },
{ TAINT_DIE, 'D', ' ' },
{ TAINT_OVERRIDDEN_ACPI_TABLE, 'A', ' ' },
{ TAINT_WARN, 'W', ' ' },
{ TAINT_CRAP, 'C', ' ' },
{ TAINT_FIRMWARE_WORKAROUND, 'I', ' ' },
{ TAINT_OOT_MODULE, 'O', ' ' },
};
/**
* print_tainted - return a string to represent the kernel taint state.
*
* 'P' - Proprietary module has been loaded.
* 'F' - Module has been forcibly loaded.
* 'S' - SMP with CPUs not designed for SMP.
* 'R' - User forced a module unload.
* 'M' - System experienced a machine check exception.
* 'B' - System has hit bad_page.
* 'U' - Userspace-defined naughtiness.
* 'D' - Kernel has oopsed before
* 'A' - ACPI table overridden.
* 'W' - Taint on warning.
* 'C' - modules from drivers/staging are loaded.
* 'I' - Working around severe firmware bug.
* 'O' - Out-of-tree module has been loaded.
*
* The string is overwritten by the next call to print_tainted().
*/
const char *print_tainted(void)
{
static char buf[ARRAY_SIZE(tnts) + sizeof("Tainted: ") + 1];
if (tainted_mask) {
char *s;
int i;
s = buf + sprintf(buf, "Tainted: ");
for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(tnts); i++) {
const struct tnt *t = &tnts[i];
*s++ = test_bit(t->bit, &tainted_mask) ?
t->true : t->false;
}
*s = 0;
} else
snprintf(buf, sizeof(buf), "Not tainted");
return buf;
}
int test_taint(unsigned flag)
{
return test_bit(flag, &tainted_mask);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(test_taint);
unsigned long get_taint(void)
{
return tainted_mask;
}
void add_taint(unsigned flag)
{
/*
* Can't trust the integrity of the kernel anymore.
* We don't call directly debug_locks_off() because the issue
* is not necessarily serious enough to set oops_in_progress to 1
* Also we want to keep up lockdep for staging/out-of-tree
* development and post-warning case.
*/
switch (flag) {
case TAINT_CRAP:
case TAINT_OOT_MODULE:
case TAINT_WARN:
case TAINT_FIRMWARE_WORKAROUND:
break;
default:
if (__debug_locks_off())
printk(KERN_WARNING "Disabling lock debugging due to kernel taint\n");
}
set_bit(flag, &tainted_mask);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(add_taint);
static void spin_msec(int msecs)
{
int i;
for (i = 0; i < msecs; i++) {
touch_nmi_watchdog();
mdelay(1);
}
}
/*
* It just happens that oops_enter() and oops_exit() are identically
* implemented...
*/
static void do_oops_enter_exit(void)
{
unsigned long flags;
static int spin_counter;
if (!pause_on_oops)
return;
spin_lock_irqsave(&pause_on_oops_lock, flags);
if (pause_on_oops_flag == 0) {
/* This CPU may now print the oops message */
pause_on_oops_flag = 1;
} else {
/* We need to stall this CPU */
if (!spin_counter) {
/* This CPU gets to do the counting */
spin_counter = pause_on_oops;
do {
spin_unlock(&pause_on_oops_lock);
spin_msec(MSEC_PER_SEC);
spin_lock(&pause_on_oops_lock);
} while (--spin_counter);
pause_on_oops_flag = 0;
} else {
/* This CPU waits for a different one */
while (spin_counter) {
spin_unlock(&pause_on_oops_lock);
spin_msec(1);
spin_lock(&pause_on_oops_lock);
}
}
}
spin_unlock_irqrestore(&pause_on_oops_lock, flags);
}
/*
* Return true if the calling CPU is allowed to print oops-related info.
* This is a bit racy..
*/
int oops_may_print(void)
{
return pause_on_oops_flag == 0;
}
/*
* Called when the architecture enters its oops handler, before it prints
* anything. If this is the first CPU to oops, and it's oopsing the first
* time then let it proceed.
*
* This is all enabled by the pause_on_oops kernel boot option. We do all
* this to ensure that oopses don't scroll off the screen. It has the
* side-effect of preventing later-oopsing CPUs from mucking up the display,
* too.
*
* It turns out that the CPU which is allowed to print ends up pausing for
* the right duration, whereas all the other CPUs pause for twice as long:
* once in oops_enter(), once in oops_exit().
*/
void oops_enter(void)
{
tracing_off();
/* can't trust the integrity of the kernel anymore: */
debug_locks_off();
do_oops_enter_exit();
}
/*
* 64-bit random ID for oopses:
*/
static u64 oops_id;
static int init_oops_id(void)
{
if (!oops_id)
get_random_bytes(&oops_id, sizeof(oops_id));
else
oops_id++;
return 0;
}
late_initcall(init_oops_id);
void print_oops_end_marker(void)
{
init_oops_id();
printk(KERN_WARNING "---[ end trace %016llx ]---\n",
(unsigned long long)oops_id);
}
/*
* Called when the architecture exits its oops handler, after printing
* everything.
*/
void oops_exit(void)
{
do_oops_enter_exit();
print_oops_end_marker();
kmsg_dump(KMSG_DUMP_OOPS);
}
#ifdef WANT_WARN_ON_SLOWPATH
struct slowpath_args {
const char *fmt;
va_list args;
};
static void warn_slowpath_common(const char *file, int line, void *caller,
unsigned taint, struct slowpath_args *args)
{
const char *board;
printk(KERN_WARNING "------------[ cut here ]------------\n");
printk(KERN_WARNING "WARNING: at %s:%d %pS()\n", file, line, caller);
board = dmi_get_system_info(DMI_PRODUCT_NAME);
if (board)
printk(KERN_WARNING "Hardware name: %s\n", board);
if (args)
vprintk(args->fmt, args->args);
print_modules();
dump_stack();
print_oops_end_marker();
add_taint(taint);
}
void warn_slowpath_fmt(const char *file, int line, const char *fmt, ...)
{
struct slowpath_args args;
args.fmt = fmt;
va_start(args.args, fmt);
warn_slowpath_common(file, line, __builtin_return_address(0),
TAINT_WARN, &args);
va_end(args.args);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(warn_slowpath_fmt);
void warn_slowpath_fmt_taint(const char *file, int line,
unsigned taint, const char *fmt, ...)
{
struct slowpath_args args;
args.fmt = fmt;
va_start(args.args, fmt);
warn_slowpath_common(file, line, __builtin_return_address(0),
taint, &args);
va_end(args.args);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(warn_slowpath_fmt_taint);
void warn_slowpath_null(const char *file, int line)
{
warn_slowpath_common(file, line, __builtin_return_address(0),
TAINT_WARN, NULL);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(warn_slowpath_null);
#endif
#ifdef CONFIG_CC_STACKPROTECTOR
/*
* Called when gcc's -fstack-protector feature is used, and
* gcc detects corruption of the on-stack canary value
*/
void __stack_chk_fail(void)
{
panic("stack-protector: Kernel stack is corrupted in: %p\n",
__builtin_return_address(0));
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(__stack_chk_fail);
#endif
core_param(panic, panic_timeout, int, 0644);
core_param(pause_on_oops, pause_on_oops, int, 0644);
static int __init oops_setup(char *s)
{
if (!s)
return -EINVAL;
if (!strcmp(s, "panic"))
panic_on_oops = 1;
return 0;
}
early_param("oops", oops_setup);
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