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rpmsg: add virtio-based remote processor messaging bus

Add a virtio-based inter-processor communication bus, which enables
kernel drivers to communicate with entities, running on remote
processors, over shared memory using a simple messaging protocol.

Every pair of AMP processors share two vrings, which are used to send
and receive the messages over shared memory.

The header of every message sent on the rpmsg bus contains src and dst
addresses, which make it possible to multiplex several rpmsg channels on
the same vring.

Every rpmsg channel is a device on this bus. When a channel is added,
and an appropriate rpmsg driver is found and probed, it is also assigned
a local rpmsg address, which is then bound to the driver's callback.

When inbound messages carry the local address of a bound driver,
its callback is invoked by the bus.

This patch provides a kernel interface only; user space interfaces
will be later exposed by kernel users of this rpmsg bus.

Designed with Brian Swetland <swetland@google.com>.

Signed-off-by: Ohad Ben-Cohen <ohad@wizery.com>
Acked-by: Rusty Russell <rusty@rustcorp.com.au> (virtio_ids.h)
Cc: Brian Swetland <swetland@google.com>
Cc: Arnd Bergmann <arnd@arndb.de>
Cc: Grant Likely <grant.likely@secretlab.ca>
Cc: Tony Lindgren <tony@atomide.com>
Cc: Russell King <linux@arm.linux.org.uk>
Cc: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Greg KH <greg@kroah.com>
Cc: Stephen Boyd <sboyd@codeaurora.org>
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1 parent 34ed5a3 commit bcabbccabffe7326f046f25737ba1084f463c65c @ohadbc ohadbc committed Oct 20, 2011
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+What: /sys/bus/rpmsg/devices/.../name
+Date: June 2011
+KernelVersion: 3.3
+Contact: Ohad Ben-Cohen <ohad@wizery.com>
+Description:
+ Every rpmsg device is a communication channel with a remote
+ processor. Channels are identified with a (textual) name,
+ which is maximum 32 bytes long (defined as RPMSG_NAME_SIZE in
+ rpmsg.h).
+
+ This sysfs entry contains the name of this channel.
+
+What: /sys/bus/rpmsg/devices/.../src
+Date: June 2011
+KernelVersion: 3.3
+Contact: Ohad Ben-Cohen <ohad@wizery.com>
+Description:
+ Every rpmsg device is a communication channel with a remote
+ processor. Channels have a local ("source") rpmsg address,
+ and remote ("destination") rpmsg address. When an entity
+ starts listening on one end of a channel, it assigns it with
+ a unique rpmsg address (a 32 bits integer). This way when
+ inbound messages arrive to this address, the rpmsg core
+ dispatches them to the listening entity (a kernel driver).
+
+ This sysfs entry contains the src (local) rpmsg address
+ of this channel. If it contains 0xffffffff, then an address
+ wasn't assigned (can happen if no driver exists for this
+ channel).
+
+What: /sys/bus/rpmsg/devices/.../dst
+Date: June 2011
+KernelVersion: 3.3
+Contact: Ohad Ben-Cohen <ohad@wizery.com>
+Description:
+ Every rpmsg device is a communication channel with a remote
+ processor. Channels have a local ("source") rpmsg address,
+ and remote ("destination") rpmsg address. When an entity
+ starts listening on one end of a channel, it assigns it with
+ a unique rpmsg address (a 32 bits integer). This way when
+ inbound messages arrive to this address, the rpmsg core
+ dispatches them to the listening entity.
+
+ This sysfs entry contains the dst (remote) rpmsg address
+ of this channel. If it contains 0xffffffff, then an address
+ wasn't assigned (can happen if the kernel driver that
+ is attached to this channel is exposing a service to the
+ remote processor. This make it a local rpmsg server,
+ and it is listening for inbound messages that may be sent
+ from any remote rpmsg client; it is not bound to a single
+ remote entity).
+
+What: /sys/bus/rpmsg/devices/.../announce
+Date: June 2011
+KernelVersion: 3.3
+Contact: Ohad Ben-Cohen <ohad@wizery.com>
+Description:
+ Every rpmsg device is a communication channel with a remote
+ processor. Channels are identified by a textual name (see
+ /sys/bus/rpmsg/devices/.../name above) and have a local
+ ("source") rpmsg address, and remote ("destination") rpmsg
+ address.
+
+ A channel is first created when an entity, whether local
+ or remote, starts listening on it for messages (and is thus
+ called an rpmsg server).
+
+ When that happens, a "name service" announcement is sent
+ to the other processor, in order to let it know about the
+ creation of the channel (this way remote clients know they
+ can start sending messages).
+
+ This sysfs entry tells us whether the channel is a local
+ server channel that is announced (values are either
+ true or false).
View
@@ -0,0 +1,293 @@
+Remote Processor Messaging (rpmsg) Framework
+
+Note: this document describes the rpmsg bus and how to write rpmsg drivers.
+To learn how to add rpmsg support for new platforms, check out remoteproc.txt
+(also a resident of Documentation/).
+
+1. Introduction
+
+Modern SoCs typically employ heterogeneous remote processor devices in
+asymmetric multiprocessing (AMP) configurations, which may be running
+different instances of operating system, whether it's Linux or any other
+flavor of real-time OS.
+
+OMAP4, for example, has dual Cortex-A9, dual Cortex-M3 and a C64x+ DSP.
+Typically, the dual cortex-A9 is running Linux in a SMP configuration,
+and each of the other three cores (two M3 cores and a DSP) is running
+its own instance of RTOS in an AMP configuration.
+
+Typically AMP remote processors employ dedicated DSP codecs and multimedia
+hardware accelerators, and therefore are often used to offload CPU-intensive
+multimedia tasks from the main application processor.
+
+These remote processors could also be used to control latency-sensitive
+sensors, drive random hardware blocks, or just perform background tasks
+while the main CPU is idling.
+
+Users of those remote processors can either be userland apps (e.g. multimedia
+frameworks talking with remote OMX components) or kernel drivers (controlling
+hardware accessible only by the remote processor, reserving kernel-controlled
+resources on behalf of the remote processor, etc..).
+
+Rpmsg is a virtio-based messaging bus that allows kernel drivers to communicate
+with remote processors available on the system. In turn, drivers could then
+expose appropriate user space interfaces, if needed.
+
+When writing a driver that exposes rpmsg communication to userland, please
+keep in mind that remote processors might have direct access to the
+system's physical memory and other sensitive hardware resources (e.g. on
+OMAP4, remote cores and hardware accelerators may have direct access to the
+physical memory, gpio banks, dma controllers, i2c bus, gptimers, mailbox
+devices, hwspinlocks, etc..). Moreover, those remote processors might be
+running RTOS where every task can access the entire memory/devices exposed
+to the processor. To minimize the risks of rogue (or buggy) userland code
+exploiting remote bugs, and by that taking over the system, it is often
+desired to limit userland to specific rpmsg channels (see definition below)
+it can send messages on, and if possible, minimize how much control
+it has over the content of the messages.
+
+Every rpmsg device is a communication channel with a remote processor (thus
+rpmsg devices are called channels). Channels are identified by a textual name
+and have a local ("source") rpmsg address, and remote ("destination") rpmsg
+address.
+
+When a driver starts listening on a channel, its rx callback is bound with
+a unique rpmsg local address (a 32-bit integer). This way when inbound messages
+arrive, the rpmsg core dispatches them to the appropriate driver according
+to their destination address (this is done by invoking the driver's rx handler
+with the payload of the inbound message).
+
+
+2. User API
+
+ int rpmsg_send(struct rpmsg_channel *rpdev, void *data, int len);
+ - sends a message across to the remote processor on a given channel.
+ The caller should specify the channel, the data it wants to send,
+ and its length (in bytes). The message will be sent on the specified
+ channel, i.e. its source and destination address fields will be
+ set to the channel's src and dst addresses.
+
+ In case there are no TX buffers available, the function will block until
+ one becomes available (i.e. until the remote processor consumes
+ a tx buffer and puts it back on virtio's used descriptor ring),
+ or a timeout of 15 seconds elapses. When the latter happens,
+ -ERESTARTSYS is returned.
+ The function can only be called from a process context (for now).
+ Returns 0 on success and an appropriate error value on failure.
+
+ int rpmsg_sendto(struct rpmsg_channel *rpdev, void *data, int len, u32 dst);
+ - sends a message across to the remote processor on a given channel,
+ to a destination address provided by the caller.
+ The caller should specify the channel, the data it wants to send,
+ its length (in bytes), and an explicit destination address.
+ The message will then be sent to the remote processor to which the
+ channel belongs, using the channel's src address, and the user-provided
+ dst address (thus the channel's dst address will be ignored).
+
+ In case there are no TX buffers available, the function will block until
+ one becomes available (i.e. until the remote processor consumes
+ a tx buffer and puts it back on virtio's used descriptor ring),
+ or a timeout of 15 seconds elapses. When the latter happens,
+ -ERESTARTSYS is returned.
+ The function can only be called from a process context (for now).
+ Returns 0 on success and an appropriate error value on failure.
+
+ int rpmsg_send_offchannel(struct rpmsg_channel *rpdev, u32 src, u32 dst,
+ void *data, int len);
+ - sends a message across to the remote processor, using the src and dst
+ addresses provided by the user.
+ The caller should specify the channel, the data it wants to send,
+ its length (in bytes), and explicit source and destination addresses.
+ The message will then be sent to the remote processor to which the
+ channel belongs, but the channel's src and dst addresses will be
+ ignored (and the user-provided addresses will be used instead).
+
+ In case there are no TX buffers available, the function will block until
+ one becomes available (i.e. until the remote processor consumes
+ a tx buffer and puts it back on virtio's used descriptor ring),
+ or a timeout of 15 seconds elapses. When the latter happens,
+ -ERESTARTSYS is returned.
+ The function can only be called from a process context (for now).
+ Returns 0 on success and an appropriate error value on failure.
+
+ int rpmsg_trysend(struct rpmsg_channel *rpdev, void *data, int len);
+ - sends a message across to the remote processor on a given channel.
+ The caller should specify the channel, the data it wants to send,
+ and its length (in bytes). The message will be sent on the specified
+ channel, i.e. its source and destination address fields will be
+ set to the channel's src and dst addresses.
+
+ In case there are no TX buffers available, the function will immediately
+ return -ENOMEM without waiting until one becomes available.
+ The function can only be called from a process context (for now).
+ Returns 0 on success and an appropriate error value on failure.
+
+ int rpmsg_trysendto(struct rpmsg_channel *rpdev, void *data, int len, u32 dst)
+ - sends a message across to the remote processor on a given channel,
+ to a destination address provided by the user.
+ The user should specify the channel, the data it wants to send,
+ its length (in bytes), and an explicit destination address.
+ The message will then be sent to the remote processor to which the
+ channel belongs, using the channel's src address, and the user-provided
+ dst address (thus the channel's dst address will be ignored).
+
+ In case there are no TX buffers available, the function will immediately
+ return -ENOMEM without waiting until one becomes available.
+ The function can only be called from a process context (for now).
+ Returns 0 on success and an appropriate error value on failure.
+
+ int rpmsg_trysend_offchannel(struct rpmsg_channel *rpdev, u32 src, u32 dst,
+ void *data, int len);
+ - sends a message across to the remote processor, using source and
+ destination addresses provided by the user.
+ The user should specify the channel, the data it wants to send,
+ its length (in bytes), and explicit source and destination addresses.
+ The message will then be sent to the remote processor to which the
+ channel belongs, but the channel's src and dst addresses will be
+ ignored (and the user-provided addresses will be used instead).
+
+ In case there are no TX buffers available, the function will immediately
+ return -ENOMEM without waiting until one becomes available.
+ The function can only be called from a process context (for now).
+ Returns 0 on success and an appropriate error value on failure.
+
+ struct rpmsg_endpoint *rpmsg_create_ept(struct rpmsg_channel *rpdev,
+ void (*cb)(struct rpmsg_channel *, void *, int, void *, u32),
+ void *priv, u32 addr);
+ - every rpmsg address in the system is bound to an rx callback (so when
+ inbound messages arrive, they are dispatched by the rpmsg bus using the
+ appropriate callback handler) by means of an rpmsg_endpoint struct.
+
+ This function allows drivers to create such an endpoint, and by that,
+ bind a callback, and possibly some private data too, to an rpmsg address
+ (either one that is known in advance, or one that will be dynamically
+ assigned for them).
+
+ Simple rpmsg drivers need not call rpmsg_create_ept, because an endpoint
+ is already created for them when they are probed by the rpmsg bus
+ (using the rx callback they provide when they registered to the rpmsg bus).
+
+ So things should just work for simple drivers: they already have an
+ endpoint, their rx callback is bound to their rpmsg address, and when
+ relevant inbound messages arrive (i.e. messages which their dst address
+ equals to the src address of their rpmsg channel), the driver's handler
+ is invoked to process it.
+
+ That said, more complicated drivers might do need to allocate
+ additional rpmsg addresses, and bind them to different rx callbacks.
+ To accomplish that, those drivers need to call this function.
+ Drivers should provide their channel (so the new endpoint would bind
+ to the same remote processor their channel belongs to), an rx callback
+ function, an optional private data (which is provided back when the
+ rx callback is invoked), and an address they want to bind with the
+ callback. If addr is RPMSG_ADDR_ANY, then rpmsg_create_ept will
+ dynamically assign them an available rpmsg address (drivers should have
+ a very good reason why not to always use RPMSG_ADDR_ANY here).
+
+ Returns a pointer to the endpoint on success, or NULL on error.
+
+ void rpmsg_destroy_ept(struct rpmsg_endpoint *ept);
+ - destroys an existing rpmsg endpoint. user should provide a pointer
+ to an rpmsg endpoint that was previously created with rpmsg_create_ept().
+
+ int register_rpmsg_driver(struct rpmsg_driver *rpdrv);
+ - registers an rpmsg driver with the rpmsg bus. user should provide
+ a pointer to an rpmsg_driver struct, which contains the driver's
+ ->probe() and ->remove() functions, an rx callback, and an id_table
+ specifying the names of the channels this driver is interested to
+ be probed with.
+
+ void unregister_rpmsg_driver(struct rpmsg_driver *rpdrv);
+ - unregisters an rpmsg driver from the rpmsg bus. user should provide
+ a pointer to a previously-registered rpmsg_driver struct.
+ Returns 0 on success, and an appropriate error value on failure.
+
+
+3. Typical usage
+
+The following is a simple rpmsg driver, that sends an "hello!" message
+on probe(), and whenever it receives an incoming message, it dumps its
+content to the console.
+
+#include <linux/kernel.h>
+#include <linux/module.h>
+#include <linux/rpmsg.h>
+
+static void rpmsg_sample_cb(struct rpmsg_channel *rpdev, void *data, int len,
+ void *priv, u32 src)
+{
+ print_hex_dump(KERN_INFO, "incoming message:", DUMP_PREFIX_NONE,
+ 16, 1, data, len, true);
+}
+
+static int rpmsg_sample_probe(struct rpmsg_channel *rpdev)
+{
+ int err;
+
+ dev_info(&rpdev->dev, "chnl: 0x%x -> 0x%x\n", rpdev->src, rpdev->dst);
+
+ /* send a message on our channel */
+ err = rpmsg_send(rpdev, "hello!", 6);
+ if (err) {
+ pr_err("rpmsg_send failed: %d\n", err);
+ return err;
+ }
+
+ return 0;
+}
+
+static void __devexit rpmsg_sample_remove(struct rpmsg_channel *rpdev)
+{
+ dev_info(&rpdev->dev, "rpmsg sample client driver is removed\n");
+}
+
+static struct rpmsg_device_id rpmsg_driver_sample_id_table[] = {
+ { .name = "rpmsg-client-sample" },
+ { },
+};
+MODULE_DEVICE_TABLE(rpmsg, rpmsg_driver_sample_id_table);
+
+static struct rpmsg_driver rpmsg_sample_client = {
+ .drv.name = KBUILD_MODNAME,
+ .drv.owner = THIS_MODULE,
+ .id_table = rpmsg_driver_sample_id_table,
+ .probe = rpmsg_sample_probe,
+ .callback = rpmsg_sample_cb,
+ .remove = __devexit_p(rpmsg_sample_remove),
+};
+
+static int __init init(void)
+{
+ return register_rpmsg_driver(&rpmsg_sample_client);
+}
+module_init(init);
+
+static void __exit fini(void)
+{
+ unregister_rpmsg_driver(&rpmsg_sample_client);
+}
+module_exit(fini);
+
+Note: a similar sample which can be built and loaded can be found
+in samples/rpmsg/.
+
+4. Allocations of rpmsg channels:
+
+At this point we only support dynamic allocations of rpmsg channels.
+
+This is possible only with remote processors that have the VIRTIO_RPMSG_F_NS
+virtio device feature set. This feature bit means that the remote
+processor supports dynamic name service announcement messages.
+
+When this feature is enabled, creation of rpmsg devices (i.e. channels)
+is completely dynamic: the remote processor announces the existence of a
+remote rpmsg service by sending a name service message (which contains
+the name and rpmsg addr of the remote service, see struct rpmsg_ns_msg).
+
+This message is then handled by the rpmsg bus, which in turn dynamically
+creates and registers an rpmsg channel (which represents the remote service).
+If/when a relevant rpmsg driver is registered, it will be immediately probed
+by the bus, and can then start sending messages to the remote service.
+
+The plan is also to add static creation of rpmsg channels via the virtio
+config space, but it's not implemented yet.
View
@@ -134,6 +134,8 @@ source "drivers/iommu/Kconfig"
source "drivers/remoteproc/Kconfig"
+source "drivers/rpmsg/Kconfig"
+
source "drivers/virt/Kconfig"
source "drivers/devfreq/Kconfig"
View
@@ -127,6 +127,7 @@ obj-$(CONFIG_HWSPINLOCK) += hwspinlock/
obj-$(CONFIG_NFC) += nfc/
obj-$(CONFIG_IOMMU_SUPPORT) += iommu/
obj-$(CONFIG_REMOTEPROC) += remoteproc/
+obj-$(CONFIG_RPMSG) += rpmsg/
# Virtualization drivers
obj-$(CONFIG_VIRT_DRIVERS) += virt/
View
@@ -0,0 +1,5 @@
+# RPMSG always gets selected by whoever wants it
+config RPMSG
+ tristate
+ select VIRTIO
+ select VIRTIO_RING
View
@@ -0,0 +1 @@
+obj-$(CONFIG_RPMSG) += virtio_rpmsg_bus.o
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