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Fastspin BASIC

WARNING:

BASIC support in fastspin is incomplete, and may not usable for production yet. Missing features include:

  • Documentation; the manual below is just a start, much is incomplete.

  • Input and output aren't fully implemented yet.

  • RESTORE is not implemented yet.

Introduction

Fastspin BASIC is the BASIC language support of the fastspin compiler for the Parallax Propeller and Prop2. It is a BASIC dialect similar to FreeBASIC or Microsoft BASIC, but with a few differences. On the Propeller chip it compiles to LMM code (machine language) which runs quite quickly.

fastspin recognizes the language in a file by the extension. If a file has a ".bas" extension it is assumed to be BASIC. Otherwise it is assumed to be Spin.

Preprocessor

fastspin has a pre-processor that understands basic directives like #include, #define, and#ifdef / #ifndef / #else / #endif.

Directives

DEFINE

#define FOO hello

Defines a new macro FOO with the value hello. Whenever the symbol FOO appears in the text, the preprocessor will substitute hello.

Note that unlike the C preprocessor, this one cannot accept arguments. Only simple defines are permitted.

If no value is given, e.g.

#define BAR

then the symbol is defined as the string 1.

IFDEF

Introduces a conditional compilation section, which is only compiled if the symbol after the #ifdef is in fact defined. For example:

#ifdef __P2__
'' propeller 2 code goes here
#else
'' propeller 1 code goes here
#endif

IFNDEF

Introduces a conditional compilation section, which is only compiled if the symbol after the #ifndef is not defined.

ELSE

Switches the meaning of conditional compilation.

ELSEIFDEF

A combination of #else and #ifdef.

ELSEIFNDEF

A combination of #else and #ifndef.

ERROR

Prints an error message. Mainly used in conditional compilation to report an unhandled condition. Everything after the #error directive is printed. Example:

#ifndef __P2__
#error This code only works on Propeller 2
#endif

INCLUDE

Includes a file. The contents of the file are placed in the compilation just as if everything in that file was typed into the original file instead. This is often used

#include "foo.h"

WARN

Prints a warning message; otherwise similar to #error.

UNDEF

Removes the definition of a symbol, e.g. to undefine FOO do:

#undef FOO

Predefined Symbols

There are several predefined symbols:

Symbol When Defined
__propeller__ always defined to 1 (for P1) or 2 (for P2)
__P2__ only defined if compiling for Propeller 2
__FLEXBASIC__ always defined to the fastspin version number
__FASTSPIN__ if the fastspin front end is used
__SPINCVT__ always defined to the fastspin version number
__SPIN2PASM__ if --asm is given (PASM output) (always defined by fastspin)
__SPIN2CPP__ if C++ or C is being output (never in fastspin)
__cplusplus if C++ is being output (never in fastspin)

Language Syntax

Comments

Comments start with rem or a single quote character, and go to the end of line. Note that you need a space or non-alphabetical character after the rem; the word remark does not start a comment. The rem or single quote character may appear anywhere on the line; it does not have to be the first thing on the line.

There are also multi-line comments, which start with /' and end with '/.

Examples:

rem this is a comment
' so is this
print "hello" ' this part is a comment too
/' here is a multi
   line comment '/

Integers

Decimal integers are a sequence of digits, 0-9.

Hexadecimal (base 16) integers start with the sequence "&h", "0h", or "0x" followed by digits and/or the letters A-F or a-f.

Binary (base 2) integers start with the sequence "&b" or "0b" followed by the digits 0 and 1.

Numbers may contain underscores anywhere to separate digits; those underscores are ignored.

For example, the following are all ways to represent the decimal number 10:

   10
   1_0
   0xA
   &h_a
   &B1010

Keywords

Keywords are always treated specially by the compiler, and no identifier may be named the same as a keyword.

abs
and
any
as
asm
__builtin_alloca
byte
case
catch
class
close
const
continue
cpu
data
declare
defint
defsng
delete
dim
direction
do
double
else
end
endif
enum
exit
for
function
gosub
goto
if
input
integer
let
long
loop
mod
next
new
nil
not
open
option
or
output
pointer
print
program
ptr
put
read
rem
restore
return
select
self
shared
short
single
sqrt
step
sub
then
throw
to
try
type
ubyte
uinteger
ulong
until
ushort
using
var
wend
while
with
word
xor

Variable, Subroutine, and Function names

Names of variables, subroutines, or functions ("identifiers") consist of a letter or underscore, followed by any sequence of letters, underscores, or digits. Names beginning with an underscore are reserved for system use. Case is ignored; thus the names avar, aVar, AVar, AVAR, etc. all refer to the same variable.

Identifiers may have a type specifier appended to them. $ indicates a string variable or function, % an integer variable or function, and # a floating point variable or function. The type specifier is part of the name, so a$ and a# are different identifiers (the first is a string variable and the second is a floating point variable). If no type specifier is appended, the identifier is assumed to be an integer. This may be overridden with the defsng directive, which specifies that variables starting with certain letters are to be assumed to be single precision floating point.

Variable or function types may also be explicitly given, and in this case the type overrides any implicit type defined by the name. However, we strongly recommend that you not use type specifiers like $ for variables (or functions) that you give an explicit type to.

Examples:

   dim a%            ' defines an integer variable
   dim a#            ' defines a different floating point variable
   dim a as string   ' defines another variable, this time a string
   dim a$ as integer ' NOT RECOMMENDED: overrides the $ suffix to make an integer variable

   '' this function returns a string and takes a float and string as parameters
   function f$(a#, b$)
     ...
   end function

   '' this function also returns a string from a float and string
   function g(a as single, b as string) as string
     ...
   end function

Arrays

Arrays must be declared with the dim keyword. Fastspin BASIC supports only one and two dimensional arrays, but they may be of any type. Examples of array declarations:

  rem an array of 10 integers
  rem note that dim gives the last index
  dim a(9)
  rem same thing but more verbose
  dim c(0 to 9) as integer
  rem an array of 10 strings
  dim a$(9)
  rem another array of strings
  dim d(9) as string
  rem a two dimensional array of strings
  dim g$(9, 9)

Arrays are by default indexed starting at 0. That is, if a is an array, then a(0) is the first thing in the array, a(1) the second, and so on. This is similar to other languages (such as Spin and C), where array indexes start at 0.

For example, a subroutine to initialize an array to 0 could look like:

   dim a(9) as integer
   sub zero_a
     for i = 0 to 9
       a(i) = 0
     next i
   end sub

It is possible to change the array base by using

   option base 1  ' make arrays start at 1 by default

The array definition may have an explicit lower bound given, for example:

   dim a(1 to 10)  ' array of 10 items
   dim b(0 to 10)  ' array of 11 items

This only works for one dimensional arrays. For two dimensional arrays both dimensions must have the same lower bound, and both must start from the default set by the last option base.

Note that pointer dereferences (using array notation) always use the last value set for option base in the file, since we cannot know at run time what the actual base of the pointed to object was. So it is best to set this just once.

Global, Member, and Local variables.

There are three kinds of variables: global variables, member variables, and local variables.

Global (shared) variables may be accessed from anywhere in the program, and exist for the duration of the program. They are created with the dim shared declaration, and may be given an initial value. For example,

   dim shared x = 2

creates a global variable with a value of 2.

A global variable is shared by all instances of the object that creates it. For example, if "foo.bas" contains

   dim shared ctr as integer

   function set_ctr(x)
     ctr = x
   end function
   function get_ctr()
     return ctr
   end function
   function inc_ctr()
     ctr = ctr + 1
   end function

then a program like:

   dim x as class using "foo.bas"
   dim y as class using "foo.bas"

   x.set_ctr(0)
   y.set_ctr(1)
   print y.get_ctr()
   y.inc_ctr()
   print x.get_ctr()

will print 1 and then 2, because x.ctr and y.ctr are the same (shared) global variable.

Member variables, on the other hand, are unique to each instance of a class. They are created with regular dim outside of any function or subroutine. If we modified the sample above to remove the shared from the declaration of ctr, then the program would print 1 and then 0, because the y.inc_ctr() invocation would not affect the value of x.ctr.

Member variables are automatically initialized to 0, and may not be initialized to any other value.

Local variables are only available inside the function or subroutine where they are declared, and only exist for as long as that function or subroutine is running. When the routine returns, the variables lose any values they had at the time. They are re-created afresh the next time the function is called. Local variables may be initialized to values, but this initialization is done at run time so it has some overhead.

Extending lines

It is possible to extend a long expression or array initializer over several lines. To do this, add a single _ immediately before the end of the line. This causes the compiler to treat the end of line like a space rather than an end of line. For example:

  x = y + _
      z

is parsed like x = y + z. This is especially useful for array initializers, which can often be quite long:

dim shared as integer a(5) = { _
  1, 2, 3, _
  4, 5 _
  }

Note that only shared arrays may be initialized like this.

Multiple statements per line

Generally speaking, you may place multiple statements on one line if you separate them with a colon (:). For example, these two bits of code are the same:

   x = 1
   y = 2

and

   x = 1 : y = 2

Language features

Types

There are a number of data types built in to the Fastspin BASIC language.

Unsigned integer types

ubyte, ushort, and uinteger are the names for 8 bit, 16 bit, and 32 bit unsigned integers, respectively. The Propeller load instructions do not sign extend by default, so ubyte and ushort are the preferred names for 8 and 16 bit integers on the Propeller.

Signed integer types

byte, short, and integer are 8 bit, 16 bit, and 32 bit signed integers.

Floating point types

single is, by default, a 32 bit IEEE floating point number. There is an option to use a 16.16 fixed point number instead; this results in much faster calculations, but at the cost of much less precision and range.

Pointer types

Pointers to any other type may be declared.

String type

The string type is a special pointer. Functionally it is almost the same as a const ubyte pointer, but there is one big difference; comparisons involving a string compare the pointed to data, rather than the pointer itself. For example:

sub cmpstrings(a as string, b as string)
  if (a = b) then
    print "strings equal"
  else
    print "strings differ"
  end if
end sub

sub cmpptrs(a as const ubyte pointer, b as const ubyte pointer)
  if (a = b) then
    print "pointers equal"
  else
    print "pointers differ"
  end if
end sub

dim x as string
dim y as string

x = "hello"
y = "he" + "llo"
cmpstrings(x, y)
cmpptrs(x, y)

will always print "strings equal" followed by "pointers differ". That is because the cmpstrings function does a comparison with strings (so the contents are tested) but cmppointers does a pointer comparison (and while the pointers point at memory containing the same values, they are located in two distinct regions of memory and hence have different addresses.

Function declarations

Function names follow the same rules as variable names. Like variable names, function names may have a type specifier appended, and the type specifier gives the type that the function returns.

function Add(a, b)
  return a+b
end function

This could be written more verbosely as

function Add(a as integer, b as integer) as integer
  return a+b
end function

Memory allocation

Fastspin BASIC supports allocation of memory and garbage collection. Memory allocation is done from a small built-in heap. This heap defaults to 256 bytes in size on Propeller 1, and 4096 bytes on Propeller 2. This may be changed by defining a constant HEAPSIZE in the top level file of the program.

Garbage collection works by scanning memory for pointers that were returned from the memory allocation function. As long as references to the original pointers returned by functions like left$ or right$ exist, the memory will not be re-used for anything else.

Note that a CPU ("COG" in Spin terms) cannot scan the internal memory of other CPUs, so memory allocated by one CPU will only be garbage collected by that same CPU. This can lead to an out of memory situation even if in fact there is memory available to be claimed. For this reason we suggest that all allocation of temporary memory be done in one CPU only.

new and delete

The new operator may be used to allocate memory. new returns a pointer to enough memory to hold objects, or nil if not enough space is available for the allocation. For example, to allocate 40 bytes one can do:

  var ptr = new ubyte(40)
  if ptr then
    '' do stuff with the allocated memory
    ...
    '' now free it (this is optional)
    delete ptr
  else
    print "not enough memory"
  endif

The memory allocated by new is managed by the garbage collector, so it will be reclaimed when all references to it have been removed. One may also explicitly free it with delete.

String functions

String functions and operators like left$, right$, and + (string concatenation) also work with allocated memory. If there is not enough memory to allocate for a string, these functions/operators will return nil.

Function pointers

Pointers to functions require 8 bytes of memory to be allocated at run time (to hold information about the object to be called). So for example in:

  '' create a Spin FullDuplexSerial object
  dim ser as class using "FullDuplexSerial.spin"
  '' get a pointer to its transmit function
  var tx = @ser.tx

the variable tx holds a pointer both to the ser object and to the particular method tx within it. Since this is dynamically allocated, it is possible for the @ operator to fail and return nil.

__builtin_alloca

Instead of new, which allocates persistent memory on the heap, it is possible to allocate temporary memory with the __builtin_alloca operator. Memory allocated in this way may only be used during the lifetime of the function which allocated it, and may not be returned from that function or assigned to a global variable. Almost always it is better to use new than __builtin_alloca, but the latter is more efficient (but dangerous, because the pointer becomes invalid after the function that uses __builtin_alloca exits).

Propeller Specific Features

Input, Output, and Direction

For the Propeller we have some special pseudo-variables direction, input, and output. These may be used to directly control pins of the processor. For example, to set pin 1 as output and then set it high do:

  direction(1) = output
  output(1) = 1

Similarly, to set pin 2 as input and read it:

  direction(2) = input
  x = input(2)

Pin Ranges

Ranges of pins may be specified with hi,lo or lo,hi. The first form is preferred; if you do

  output(2, 0) = x

then the bottom 3 bits of x are copied directly to the first 3 output pins. If you use the other form

  output(0, 2) = x     ' note: x is reversed!
  output(0, 2) = &b110 ' sets bits 0 and 1 to 1, and bit 2 to 0

then the lower 3 bits are reversed; this is useful if you're directly coding a binary constant, but otherwise is probably not what you want.

Hardware registers

The builtin Propeller hardware registers are available with their usual names, unless they are redeclared. For example, the OUTA register is available as "outa" (or "OUTA", or "Outa"; case does not matter).

The hardware registers are not keywords, so they are not reserved to the system. Thus, it is possible to use dim to declare variables with the same name. Of course, if that is done then the original hardware register will not be accessible in the scope of the variable name.

Alphabetical List of Keywords

ABS

  y = abs x

Returns the absolute value of x. If x is a floating point number then so will be the result; if x is an unsigned number then it will be unchanged; otherwise the result will be an Integer.

AND

  a = x and y

Returns the bit-wise AND of x and y. If x or y is a floating point number then it will be converted to integer before the operation is performed.

Also useful in boolean operations. The comparison operators return 0 for false conditions and all bits set for true conditions, so you can do things like:

  if (x < y AND x = z) then
    ' code that runs if both conditions are true
  end if

ANY

  dim x as any

Declares x as a generic 32 bit variable compatible with any other type. Basically this is a way to treat a variable as a raw 32 bit value. Note that no type checking at all is performed on variables declared with type any, nor are any conversions applied to them. This means that the compiler will not be able to catch many common errors.

any should be used only in exceptional circumstances.

Example: a subroutine to print the raw bit pattern of a floating point number:

  sub printbits(x as single)
    dim a as any
    dim u as uinteger
    '' just plain u=x would convert x from single to unsigned
    '' instead go through an ANY type, which will do no conversion
    a = x
    u = a
    print u
  end sub

AS

as is a keyword that introduces a type for a function, function parameter, or dimensioned variable.

  ' declare a function with an integer parameter that returns a string
  function f(x as integer) as string
  ...

ASC

  i = ASC(s$)

returns the integer (ASCII) value of the first character of a string. If the argument is not a string it is an error.

ASM

Introduces inline assembly. The block between ASM and END ASM is parsed slightly differently than usual; in particular, instruction names are treated as reserved identifiers.

Inside inline assembly any instructions may be used, but the only legal operands are integer constants, registers, and local variables (or parameters) to the function which contains the inline assembly. Labels may be defined, and may be used as the target for goto elsewhere in the function. Any attempt to leave the function, either by jumping out of it or returning, will cause undefined behavior. In other words, don't do that!

If you need temporary variables inside some inline assembly, dim them as locals in the enclosing function.

Example: to implement a wait (like the built-in waitcnt:

sub wait_until_cycle(x as uinteger)
  asm
    waitcnt x, #0
  end asm
end sub

__BUILTIN_ALLOCA

Allocates memory on the stack. The argument is an integer specifying how much memory to allocate. For example:

   dim as integer ptr x = alloca(256)

creates an array of 64 integers (which needs 256 bytes) and makes x into a pointer to it.

The pointer returned from __builtin_alloca will become invalid as soon as the current function returns (or throws an exception), so it should never be assigned to a global variable or be returned from the function.

__builtin_alloca is awkward to work with, and dangerous. Almost always you should use new instead. The only advantages of __builtin_alloca is that it is slightly more efficient than new, and does not use up heap space (but uses stack space instead).

BYTE

A signed 8 bit integer, occupying one byte of computer memory. The unsigned version of this is ubyte. The difference arises with the treatment of the upper bit. Both byte and ubyte treat 0-127 the same, but for byte 128 to 255 are considered equivalent to -128 to -1 respectively (that is, when a byte is copied to a larger sized integer the upper bit is repeated into all the other bits; for ubyte the new bytes are filled with 0 instead).

CASE

Used in a select statement to indicate a possible case to match. Only a subset of FreeBasic's case options are available. After the case can either be else (which always matches), a single expression (which matches if the original expression equals the case one), or an inclusive range a to b which will match if the original expression is between between a and b (inclusive).

Example:

select case x
case 1
  print "it was 1"
case 2 to 4
  print "it was between 2 and 4"
  print "sorry for being vague!"
case 8
  print "it was 8"
case else
  print "it was something else"
end select

All of the statements between the case and the next case (or end select) are executed if the case is the first one to match the expression in the select case.

CATCH

Used in a try statement to indicate the start of an error handling block.

CHR$

Not actually a reserved word, but a built-in function. Converts an ascii value to a string (so the reverse of ASC). For example:

print chr$(65)

prints A (the character whose ASCII value is 65)

CLASS

A class is an abstract collection of variables and functions. If you've used the Spin language, a class is like a Spin object. In fact, Spin objects may be directly imported as classes:

#ifdef __P2__
   dim ser as class using "spin/SmartSerial"
#else
   dim ser as class using "spin/FullDuplexSerial"
#endif   

creates an object ser based on the Spin file "SmartSerial.spin" (for P2) or "FullDuplexSerial"; this may then be used directly, e.g.:

   ser.str("hello, world!")
   ser.tx(13)  ' send a carriage return
   ser.dec(100) ' print 100 as a decimal number

BASIC files may also be used as classes. When they are, all the functions and subroutines in the BASIC file are exposed as methods (there are no private methods in BASIC yet). Any BASIC code that is not in a function or subroutine is not accessible.

Abstract classes

Another way to define an object is to first declare an abstract class with a name, and then use that name in the dim statement:

  ' create abstract class fds representing Spin FullDuplexSerial
  ' NOTE: use SmartSerial.spin instead if trying on P2
  class fds using "FullDuplexSerial.spin"
  ' create a variable of that type
  dim ser as fds

This is more convenient if there are many references to the class, or if you want to pass pointers to the class to functions.

Class Example in BASIC

Counter.bas (the class) contains:

dim x as integer

sub reset
  x = 0
end sub

sub inc(n = 1)
  x = x + n
end sub

function get()
  return x
end function

Main.bas (the main program) contains:

  dim cnt as class using "Counter.bas"

  cnt.reset
  cnt.inc
  cnt.inc
  print cnt.get() ' prints 2

This is compiled with:

  fastspin main.bas

Interoperation with Spin

Using Spin objects with class using is straightforward, but there are some things to watch out for:

  • Spin does not have any notion of types, so most Spin functions will return type any and take parameters of type any. This can cause problems if you expect them to return something special like a pointer or float and want to use them in the middle of an expression. It's probably best to just directly assign the results of Spin methods to a typed variable, and then use that variable in the expression instead
  • Spin treats strings differently than BASIC does. For example, in the Spin expression ser.tx("A"), "A" is an integer (a single element list). That would be written in BASIC as ser.tx(asc("A")). Conversely, in Spin you have to write ser.str(string("hello")) where in BASIC you would write just ser.str("hello").

CLKSET

  clkset(mode, freq, xsel)

Propeller built in function. On the P1, this acts the same as the Spin clkset function. On P2, this does two hubset instructions, the first to set the oscillator and the second (after a short delay) to actually enable it. The mode parameter gives the setup value for the oscillator, and the second hubset to enable the oscillator uses mode + xsel as its parameter. If xsel is omitted, it defaults to 3.

For example:

  clkset(0x010c3f04, 160_000_000)  ' set P2 Eval board to 160 MHz

After a clkset it is usually necessary to call _setbaud to reset the serial baud rate correctly.

Also note that no sanity check is performed on the parameters; it is up to the programmer to ensure that the frequency actually matches the mode on the board being used.

CLOSE

Closes a file previously opened by open. This causes the closef function specified in the device driver (if any) to be called, and then invalidates the handle so that it may not be used for further I/O operations. Any attempt to use a closed handle produces no result.

  close #2  ' close handle #2

Note that handles 0 and 1 are reserved by the system; closing them may produce undefined results.

CONST

At the beginning of a line, const declares a constant value. For example:

  const x = 1, y = 2.0

declares x to be the integer 1 and y to be the floating point value 2.0. Only numeric values (integers and floats) may be declared with const.

Inside a type name, const signifies that variables of this type may not be modified. This is mainly useful for indicating that pointers should be treated as read-only.

   sub trychange(s as const ubyte ptr)
     s(1) = 0  '' illegal, s points to const ubytes
     if (s(1) = 2) then '' OK, s may be read
       print "it was 2"
     end if
   end sub

CONTINUE

Used to resume loop execution early. The type of loop (FOR, DO, or WHILE) may optionally be given after CONTINUE. However, note that only the innermost containing loop may be continued. This is different from FreeBasic, where for example continue for may be placed in a while loop that is itself inside a for loop. In FlexBasic this will producean error.

Example:

for i = 1 to 5
  if (i = 3) then
    continue for
  end if
  print i
next i

will print 1, 2, 4, and 5, but will skip the 3 because the continue for will cause the next iteration of the for loop to start as soon as it is seen.

The example above could be written more succinctly as:

for i = 1 to 5
  if i = 3 continue
  print i
next

CPU

Used to start a subroutine running on another CPU. The parameters are the subroutine call to execute, and a stack for the other CPU to use. For example:

' blink a pin at a given frequency
sub blink(pin, freq)
  direction(pin) = output
  do
    output(pin) = not output(pin)
    waitcnt(getcnt() + freq)
  loop
end sub
...
dim stack(8) ' small stack, blink does not call many other functions

' start the blinking up on another CPU
var a = cpu(blink(LED, 80_000_000), @stack(1))

Note that cpu is not a function call, it is a special form which does not evaluate its arguments in the usual way. The first parameter is actually preserved and called in the context of the new CPU.

cpu returns the CPU id ("cog id") of the CPU that the new function is running on. If no free CPU is available, cpu returns -1.

DATA

Introduces raw data to be read via the read keyword. This is usually used for initializing arrays or other data structures. The calculations for converting values from strings to integers or floats are done at run time, so consider using array initializers instead (which are more efficient).

Unlike in some other BASICs, no parsing at all is done of the information following the data keyword; it is simply dumped into memory as a raw string. Subsequent read commands will read the bytes from memory and convert them to the appropriate type, as if they were input by the user.

Unlike most other statements, the data statement always extends to the end of the line; any colons (for example) within the data are treated as data.

dim x as integer
dim y as string
dim z as single
read x, y, z
print x, y, z
data 1.1, hello
data 2.2

will print 1 (x is an integer, so the fractional part is ignored), hello, and 2.2000.

The order of data statements matters, but they may be intermixed with other statements. data statements should only appear at the top level, not within functions or subroutines.

DECLARE

Keyword reserved for future use.

DEFINT

Dictates the default type for variable names starting with certain letters.

defint i-j

says that variables starting with the letters i through j are assumed to be integers.

The default setting is defint a-z (i.e. all variables are assumed to be integer unless given an explicit suffix or type in their declaration). A combination of defsng and defint may be used to modify this.

DEFSNG

Dictates the default type for variable names starting with certain letters.

defsng a-f

says that variables starting with the letters a through f are assumed to be floating point.

The default setting is defint a-z (i.e. all variables are assumed to be integer unless given an explicit suffix or type in their declaration). A combination of defsng and defint may be used to modify this.

Putting defsng a-z at the start of a file may be useful for porting legacy BASIC code.

DELETE

Free memory allocated by new or by one of the string functions (+, left$, right$, etc.).

Use of delete is a nice hint and makes sure the memory is free, but it is not strictly necessary since the memory is garbage collected automatically.

DIM

Dimension variables. This defines variables and allocate memory for them. dim is the most common way to declare that variables exist. The simplest form just lists the variable names and (optionally) array sizes. The variable types are inferred from the names. For example, you can declare an array a of 10 integers, a single integer b, and a string c$ with:

dim a(10), b, c$

It's also possible to give explicit types with as:

dim a(10) as integer
dim b as ubyte
dim s as string

Only one explicit type may be given per line (this is different from FreeBASIC). If you give an explicit type, it will apply to all the variables on the line:

' this makes all the variables singles, despite their names
' (probably NOT a good idea!)
dim a(10), b%, c$, d as single

If you want to be compatible with FreeBASIC, put the as first:

dim as single a(10), b%, c$, d

Variables declared inside a function or subroutine are "local" to that function or subroutine, and are not available outside or to other functions or subroutines. Variables dimensioned at the top level may be used by all functions and subroutines in the file.

See also VAR.

DIRECTION

Pseudo-array of bits describing the direction (input or output) of pins. In Propeller 1 this array is 32 bits long, in Propeller 2 it is 64 bits.

  direction(2) = input ' set pin 2 as input
  direction(6,4) = output ' set pins 6, 5, 4 as outputs

Note that pin ranges may not cross a 32 bit boundary; that is,

  direction(33, 30) = input

is illegal and produces undefined behavior.

DO

Main loop construct. A do loop may have the loop test either at the beginning or end, and it may run the loop while a condition is true or until a condition is true. For example:

  do
    x = input(9)
  loop until x = 0

will wait until pin 9 is 0.

See also WHILE.

DOUBLE

The type for a double precision floating point number. double is not actually implemented in the compiler, and is treated the same as single.

ELSE

See IF

END

Used to mark the end of most blocks. For example, end function marks the end of a function declaration, and end if the end of a multi-line if statement. In most cases the name after the end is optional.

ENDIF

Marks the end of a multi-line if statement. Same as end if.

ENUM

Reserved for future use.

EXIT

Exit early from a loop, function, or subroutine.

Just plain exit on its own will exit early from the innermost enclosing loop, and will produce an error if given outside a loop.

The exit may also have an explicit do, for, or while after it to say what kind of loop it is exiting. In this case the innermost loop must be of the appropriate type. This is different from FreeBasic, where for example exit while may be used in a for loop that is inside a while loop; we do not allow that.

Finally exit function and exit sub are synonyms for return.

EXIT DO

Exit from the innermost enclosing loop if it is a do loop. If it is not a do loop then the compiler will print an error.

EXIT FOR

Exit from the innermost enclosing loop if it is a for loop. If it is not a for loop then the compiler will print an error.

EXIT FUNCTION

Returns from the current function (just like a plain return). The value of the function will be the last default value established by assigning a value to the function's name, or 0 if no such value has been established. For example:

function sumif(a, x, y)
  sumif = x + y
  if (a <> 0)
    exit function
  sumif = 0
end function

returns x+y if a is nonzero, and 0 otherwise.

EXIT SUB

Returns from the current subroutine. Same as the return statement.

EXIT WHILE

Exit from the innermost enclosing loop if it is a while loop. If it is not a while loop then the compiler will print an error.

FOR

Repeat a loop while incrementing (or decrementing) a variable. The default step value is 1, but if an explicit step is given this is used instead:

' print 1 to 10
for i = 1 to 10
  print i
next i
' print 1, 3, 5, ..., 9
for i = 1 to 10 step 2
  print i
next i

If the variable given in the loop is not already defined, it is created as a local variable (local to the current sub or function, or to the implicit program function for loops outside of any sub or function).

FUNCTION

Defines a new function. The type of the function may be given explicitly with an as type clause; if no such clause exists the function's type is deduced from its name. For example, a function whose name ends in $ is assumed to return a string unless an as is given.

Functions have a fixed number and type of arguments, but the last arguments may be given default values with an initializer. For example,

  function inc(n as integer, delta = 1 as integer) as integer
    return n + delta
  end function

defines a function which adds two integers and returns an integer result. Since the default type of variables is integer, this could also be written as:

  function inc(n, delta = 1)
    return n+delta
  end function

In this case because the final argument delta is given a default value of 1, callers may omit this argument. That is, a call inc(x) is exactly equivalent to inc(x, 1).

Anonymous functions

function may also be used in expressions to specify a temporary, unnamed function. There are three forms for this. The long form is very similar to ordinary function declarations. For example, suppose we want to define a function "plusn" which itself returns a function which adds one to its argument. This would look like:

  ' define an alias for the type of a function which takes an integer
  ' and returns another; this isn't strictly necessary, but saves typing
  type intfunc as function(x as integer) as integer

  ' plusn(n) returns a function which adds n to its argument
  function plusn(n as integer) as intfunc
    return function(x as integer) as integer
              return x + n
	   end function
  end function

  dim as intfunc f, g
  f = plusn(1) ' function which returns 1 + its argument
  g = plusn(7) ' function which returns 7 + its argument

  ' this will print 1 2 8
  print 1, f(1), g(1)

The long anonymous form is basically the same as an ordinary function definition, but without the function name. The major difference is that an explicit definition of the return type (e.g. as integer) is required, since the compiler cannot use a name to determine a default type for the function.

For simple functions which just return a single expression, an abbreviated anonymous form is available. This omits the return type, which is determined by the expression itself, and puts the expression on the same line. This means we could write the plusn function above as:

  function plusn(n as integer) as intfunc
    return (function(x as integer) x+n)
  end function

The long and abbreviated forms are compatible with QBasic and some other PC BASICs. FlexBasic also supports a much more convenient short form. This short form starts with [, followed by the function parameter list, followed by ':', the statements in the anonymous function, and finally => and a result expression. This sounds more complicated than it is. The above plusn function in short notation is:

  function plusn(n as integer) as intfunc
    return [x:=>x+n]
  end function

This short form is much easier to write for many inline uses, and is very flexible, but is not compatible with other BASICs.

Closures

You'll note in the examples of anonymous functions that the anonymous function inside plusn is accessing the parameter n of its parent. This is allowed, and the value of n is in fact saved in a special object called a "closure". This closure is persistent, and functions are allowed to modify the variables in a closure. For example, we can implement a simple counter object as follows:

type intfunc as function() as integer

' makecounter returns a counter with a given initial value and step
function makecounter(value = 1, stepval = 1) as intfunc
  return (function () as integer
            var r = value
	    value = value + stepval
	    return r
	  end function)
end function

var c = makecounter(7, 3)

' prints 7, 10, 13, 16
for i = 1 to 4
  print c()
next

GETCNT

Propeller specific builtin function.

  function getcnt() as uinteger
  x = getcnt()

Returns the current cycle counter. This is an unsigned 32 bit value that counts the number of system clocks elapsed since the device was turned on. It wraps after approximately 54 seconds.

GOSUB

Reserved for future use.

GOTO

goto x jumps to a label x, which must be defined in the same function. Labels are defined by giving an identifier followed by a :. For example:

  if x=y goto xyequal
  print "x differs from y"
  goto done
xyequal:
  print "x and y are equal"
done:

Note that in most cases code written with a goto could better be written with if or do (for instance the example above would be easier to read if written with if ... then ... else). goto should be used sparingly.

Also note that a label must be the only thing on the line; that is:

   foo: bar

is interpreted as two statements

   foo
   bar

whereas

   foo:
   bar

is a label foo followed by a statement bar.

HEAPSIZE

  const HEAPSIZE = 256

Declares the amount of space to be used for internal memory allocation by things like string functions. The default is 256 bytes, but if your program does a lot of string manipulation and/or needs to hold on to the allocations for a long time, you may need to increase this by explicitly declaring const HEAPSIZE with a larger value.

IF

An IF statement introduces some code that should be executed only if a condition is true:

if x = y then
  print "x and y are the same"
else
  print "x and y are different"
end if

There are several forms of if.

A "simple if" executes just one statement if the condition is true, and has no else clause. Simple ifs do not have a then:

' simple if example
if x = y print "they are equal"

A one line if executes the rest of the statements on the current line if the condition is true. This form of if has a then that is followed by one or more statements, seperated by :. For example:

if x = y then print "they are equal" : print "they are still equal"

which will print "they are equal" followed by "they are still equal" if x equals y, but which will print nothing if they are not equal. This form of if is provided for compatibility with old code, but is not recommended for use in new code.

Compound if statements have a then which ends the line. These statements continue on until the next matching else or end if. If you want to have an else condition then you will have to use this form of if:

if x = y then
  print "they are equal"
else
  print "they differ"
end if

You may also put an if statement after an else:

if x = y then
  print "x and y are the same"
  print "I don't know about z"
else if x = z
  print "x and z are the same, and different from y"
else
  print "x does not equal either of the others"
end if

INPUT (serial I/O)

The input keyword when used as a command acts to read data from a handle. It is followed by a list of variables. The data are separated by commas.

  print "enter a string and a number: ";
  input s$, n
  print "you entered: ", s, "and", n

The input may optionally be preceded by a prompt string, so the above could be re-written as:

   input "enter a string and a number: ", s$, n
   print "you entered: ", s, "and", n

If the prompt string is separated from the variables by a semicolon ; rather than a comma, then "? " is automatically appended to the prompt.

INPUT (pins)

A pseudo-array of bits representing the state of input pins. On the Propeller 1 this is the 32 bit INA register, but on Propeller 2 it is 64 bits.

Bits in input may be read with an array-like syntax:

   x = input(0)    ' read pin 0
   y = input(4,2)  ' read pins 4,3,2

Note that usually you will want to read the pins with the larger pin number first, as the bits are labelled with bit 31 at the high bit and bit 0 as the low bit.

Also note that before using a pin as input its direction should be set as input somewhere in the program:

   direction(4,0) = input  ' set pins 4-0 as inputs

INPUT$

A predefined string function. There are two ways to use this.

The first, and simpler way, is just as input$(n), which reads n characters from the default serial port and returns a string made of those characters. input$(1) is thus a kind of getchar to read a single character.

The second form, input$(n, h) reads up to n characters from handle h, as created by an open device as #h statement. If there are not enough characters to fulfil the request then a shorter string is returned; for example, at end of file an empty string "" will be returned.

Example:

file$ = ""           ' initialize read data
do
  s$ = input$(80, h) ' read up to 80 characters at a time
  file$ = file$ + s$ ' append to the data
until s$ = ""        ' stop at end of file
' now the whole file is in file$

INT

Convert float to int. Any fractional parts are truncated.

  i = int(3.1415) ' now i will be set to 3

INTEGER

A 32 bit signed integer type. The unsigned 32 bit integer type is uinteger.

LEFT$

A predefined string function. left$(s, n) returns the left-most n characters of s. If n is longer than the length of s, returns s. If n =< 0, returns an empty string. If a memory allocation error occurs, returns nil.

LEN

A predefined function which returns the length of a string.

  var s$ = "hello"
  var n = len(s$) ' now n = 5

LET

Variable assignment:

  let a = b

sets a to be equal to b. This can usually be written as:

  a = b

the only difference is that in the let form if a does not already exist it is created as a member variable (one accessible in all functions of this file). The let keyword is deprecated in some versions of BASIC (such as FreeBASIC) so it's probably better to use var or dim to explicitly declare your variables.

LONG

A signed 32 bit integer. An alias for integer. The unsigned version of this is ulong.

LOOP

Marks the end of a loop introduced by do. See DO for details.

MOD

x mod y finds the integer remainder when x is divided by y.

Note that if both the quotient and remainder are desired, it is best to put the calculations close together; that way the compiler may be able to combine the two operations into one (since the software division code produces both quotient and remainder). For example:

  q = x / y
  r = x mod y

NEW

Allocates memory from the heap for a new object, and returns a pointer to it. May also be used to allocate arrays of objects. The name of the type of the new object appears after the new, optionally followed by an array size:

  var x = new ubyte(10)  ' allocate 10 bytes and return a pointer to it
  x(1) = 1               ' set a variable in it
  
  class FDS using "FullDuplexSerial.spin" ' Use "SmartSerial.spin" on P2
  var ser = new FDS      ' allocate space for a new full duplex serial object
  ser.start(31, 30, 0, 115_200) ' start up the new object

See the discussion of memory allocation for tips on using new. Note that the default heap is rather small, so you will probably need to declare a larger HEAPSIZE if you use new a lot.

Memory allocated by new may be explicitly freed with delete; or, it may left to be garbage collected automatically.

NEXT

Indicates the end of a for loop. The variable used in the loop may be placed after the next keyword, but this is not mandatory. If a variable is present though then it must match the loop.

See FOR.

NIL

A special pointer value that indicates an invalid pointer. nil may be returned from any string function or other function that allocates memory if there is not enough space to fulfil the request. nil is of type any and may be assigned to any variable. When assigned to a numeric variable it will cause the variable to become 0.

NOT

  a = NOT b

Inverts all bits in the destination. This is basically the same as b xor -1.

In logical (boolean) conditions, since the TRUE condition is all 1 bits set, this operation has its usual effect of reversing TRUE and FALSE.

ON X GOTO

For compatibility only, fastspin accepts statements like:

on x goto 100, 110, 120

This is equivalent to

select case x
case 1
  goto 100
case 2
  goto 110
case 3
  goto 120
end select

OPEN

Open a handle for input and/or output. The general form is:

  open device as #n

where device is a device driver structure returned by a system function such as SendRecvDevice, and n evaluates to an integer between 2 and 7. (Handles 0 and 1 also exist, but are reserved for system use.)

Example:

  open SendRecvDevice(@ser.tx, @ser.rx, @ser.stop) as #2

Here the SendRecvDevice is given pointers to functions to call to send a single character, to receive a single character, and to be called when the handle is closed. Any of these may be nil, in which case the corresponding function (output, input, or close) does nothing.

OPTION

Gives a compiler option. The following options are supported:

OPTION BASE

option base N, where N is an integer constant, causes the default base of arrays to be set to N. After this directive, arrays declared without an explicit base will start at N. Typically N is either 0 or 1. The default is 0.

dim a(9) as integer  ' declares an array with indices 0-9
option base 0        ' note: changing option base after declarations is not recommended, but works
dim b(5) as integer  ' declares an array with indices 1-5 (5 elements)

It is possible to use option base more than once in a file, but we do not recommend it. Indeed if you do use option base it is probably best to use it at the very beginning of the file, before any array declarations

OPTION EXPLICIT

Requires that all variables be explicitly declared before use. The default is to allow variables in LET and FOR statements to be implicitly declared.

OPTION IMPLICIT

Allows variables to be automatically declared in any assignment statement, read, or input. The type of the variable will be inferred from its name if it has not already been declared.

OR

  a = x or y

Returns the bit-wise inclusive OR of x and y. If x or y is a floating point number then it will be converted to integer before the operation is performed.

Also useful in boolean operations. The comparison operators return 0 for false conditions and all bits set for true conditions, so you can do things like:

  if (x < y OR x = z) then
    ' code that runs if either condition is true
  end if

OUTPUT

A pseudo-array of bits representing the state of output bits. On the Propeller 1 this is the 32 bit OUTA register, but on Propeller 2 it is 64 bits.

Bits in output may be read and written an array-like syntax:

   output(0) = not output(0)   ' toggle pin 0
   output(4,2) = 1  ' set pins 4 and 3 to 0 and pin 2 to 1

Note that usually you will want to access the pins with the larger pin number first, as the bits are labelled with bit 31 at the high bit and bit 0 as the low bit.

Also note that before using a pin as output its direction should be set as output somewhere in the program:

   direction(4,0) = output  ' set pins 4-0 as outputs

PAUSEMS

A built-in subroutine to pause for a number of milliseconds. For example, to pause for 2 seconds, do

  pausems 2000

PINLO

Force a pin to be output as 0.

  pinlo(p)

PINHI

Force a pin to be output as 1.

  pinhi(p)

PINSET

Force a pin to be an output, and set its value (new value must be either 0 or 1).

  pinset(p, v)

PINTOGGLE

Force a pin to be an output, and invert its current value.

  pintoggle(p)

PRINT

print is a special subroutine that prints data to a serial port or other stream. The default destination for print is the pin 30 (pin 62 on P2) serial port, running at 115_200 baud.

More than one item may appear in a print statement. If items are separated by commas, a tab character is printed between them. If they are separated by semicolons, nothing is printed between them, not even a space; this differs from some other BASICs.

If the print statement ends in a comma, a tab is printed at the end. If it ends in a semicolon, nothing is printed at the end. Otherwise, a newline (carriage return plus line feed) is printed.

As a special case, if a backslash character \ appears in front of an expression, the value of that expression is printed as a single byte character.

Examples

   ' basic one item print
   print "hello, world!"
   ' two items separated by a tab
   print "hello", "world!"
   ' two items with no separator
   print "hello"; "world"
   ' an integer, with no newline
   print 1;
   ' a string and then an integer, nothing between them
   print "then "; 2

prints

hello, world!
hello  world
helloworld
1then 2

print may be redirected. For example,

print #2, "hello, world"

prints its message to the device previously opened as device #2.

PRINT USING

Formats output using a string. The general form of this is:

  print using STRING; expr [,expr...] [;]

where STRING is a string literal and expr is one or more expressions.

Within the string literal output fields are specified by special forms, which are replaced by the various expressions.

& indicates a variable width field, within which the numbers or strings are printed with the minimum number of characters.

# starts a numeric field with space padding; the number of # characters indicates the width of the field. The numeric value is printed right-justified within the field. If it cannot fit, the first digit which will fit is replaced with '#' and the rest are printed normally. If the field is preceded by a - or + the sign is printed there; otherwise, if the value is negative then the - sign is included in the digits to print.

% starts a numeric field with 0 padding; the number of % characters indicates the width of the field. Leading zeros are explicitly printed. If the number cannot fit in the indicated number of digits, the first digit which will fit is replaced with '#' and the rest are printed normally.

+ indicates that a place should be reserved for a sign character (+ for non-negative, - for negative). + must immediately be followed by a numeric field. If the argument is an unsigned integer, instead of + a space is always printed.

- indicates that a place should be reserved for a sign character (space for non-negative, - for negative). - must immediately be followed by a numeric field. If the argument is an unsigned integer, a space is always printed.

! indicates to print a single character (the first character of the string argument).

\ indicates a string field, which continues until the next \. The width of the field is the total number of characters, including the beginning and ending \. The string will be printed left justified within the field. Centering or right justification may be achieved for fields of length 3 or more by using = or '>' characters, respectively, as fillers between \. If the string is too long to fit within the field, only the first N characters of the string are printed.

print using "%%%%"; x

PROGRAM

This keyword is reserved for future use.

The statements in the top level of the file (not inside any subroutine or function) are placed in a method called program. This is only really useful for calling them from another language (for example a Spin program using a BASIC program as an object).

READ

read reads data items declared by data. All of the strings following data keywords are lumped together, and then parsed by read in the same way as input parses data typed by the user.

REM

Introduces a comment, which continues until the end of the line. A single quote character ' may also be used for this.

RESTORE

Resets the internal pointer for read so that it starts again at the first data statement.

RETURN

Return from a subroutine or function. If this statement occurs inside a function, then the return keyword may be followed by an expression giving the value to return; this expression should have a type compatible with the function's return value.

A return with a value sets the function's result value and exits. If the return does not have a value (or indeed if there is no return), then the function's result value is the last value assigned to the pseudo-variable that has the same name as the function. That is, two equivalent ways of writing a sum function are:

function sum(x, y)
  sum = x+y
end function

or

function sum(x, y)
  return x+y
end function

RIGHT$

A predefined string function. right$(s, n) returns the right-most n characters of s. If n is longer than the length of s, returns s. If n =< 0, returns an empty string. If a memory allocation error occurs, returns nil.

RND

A predefined function which returns a random floating point number x such that 0.0 <= x and x < 1.0. A single argument n is given. If n is negative, then it is used as the seed for the random number sequence. If n is 0, a new sequence is started with a random seed. If n is positive, the next value in the sequence is returned.

  f = rnd(0) ' start a new sequence
  i = int(rnd(1)*6) + 1 ' generate random between 1 and 6

SELECT CASE

Selects between alternatives. The expression after the initial select case is evaluated once, then matched against each of the case statements (in order) until one matches or end select is reached. case else will match anything (and hence should be placed last, since no case after it can ever match).

In case of a match, all of the statements between the matching case and the next case (or end select) will be executed.

var keepgoing = -1
do
   print "continue? ";
   a$ = input$(1)
   print
   a$ = input$(1)
   select case a$
   case "y"
     keepgoing = 1
     print "great!"
   case "n"
     keepgoing = 0
     print "ok, not continuing "
   case else
     print "i did not understand your answer of "; a$
   end select   
loop while keepgoing = -1

SELF

Indicates the current object. Not implemented yet.

SENDRECVDEVICE

A built-in function rather than a keyword. SendRecvDevice(sendf, recvf, closef) constructs a simple device driver based on three functions: sendf to send a single byte, recvf to receive a byte (or return -1 if no byte is available), and closef to be called when the device is closed. The value(s) returned by SendRecvDevice is only useful for passing directly to the open statement, and should not be used in any other context (at least not at this time).

_SETBAUD

Set up the serial port baud rate, based on the current clock frequency.

  _setbaud(115_200) ' set baud rate to 115_200

The default serial rate is 115_200 baud, and assuming a clock frequency of 80_000_000. If these are changed, it is necessary to call _setbaud again in order for serial I/O to work.

SHORT

A signed 16 bit integer, occupying two bytes of computer memory. The unsigned version of this is ushort. The difference arises with the treatment of the upper bit. Both short and ushort treat 0-32767 the same, but for short 32768 to 65535 are considered equivalent to -32768 to -1 respectively (that is, when a short is copied to a larger sized integer the upper bit is repeated into all the other bits; for ushort the new bits are filled with 0 instead).

SINGLE

Single precision floating point data type. By default this is an IEEE 32 bit single precision float, but compiler options may change this (for example to a 16.16 fixed point number).

SQR

An alias for sqrt, for compatibility with older BASICs.

SQRT

Calculate the square root of a number.

x = sqrt(y)

This is not a true function, but a pseudo-function whose result type depends on the input type. If the parameter to sqrt is an integer then the result will be an integer as well. If the parameter is a single then the result is a single.

STEP

Gives the increment to apply in a FOR loop.

for i = 2 to 8 step 2
  print i
next

will print 2, 4, 6, and 8 on separate lines.

THEN

Introduces a multi-line series of statements for an if statement. See IF for details.

THROW

Throws an error which may be caught by a caller's try/catch block. If none of our callers has established a try / catch block, the program is ended.

The argument to throw may be of any type. Programmers should beware of mixing different types, as the try / catch block may need to know what type of value it should expect to receive.

Example:

  if n < 0 then
    throw "illegal negative value"
  endif

TO

A syntactical element typically used for giving ranges of items.

TRY

Example:

  dim errmsg as string
  try
    ' run sub1, sub2, then sub3. If any one of them
    ' throws an error, we will immediately stop execution
    ' and jump to the catch block
    sub1
    sub2
    sub3
  catch errmsg
    print "a subroutine reports error: " errmsg
  end try

TYPE

Creates an alias for a type. For example,

  type uptr as ubyte ptr

creates a new type name uptr which is a pointer to a ubyte. You may use the new type name anywhere a type is required.

UBYTE

An unsigned 8 bit integer, occupying one byte of computer memory. The signed version of this is byte. The difference arises with the treatment of the upper bit. Both byte and ubyte treat 0-127 the same, but for byte 128 to 255 are considered equivalent to -128 to -1 respectively (that is, when a byte is copied to a larger sized integer the upper bit is repeated into all the other bits; for ubyte the new bytes are filled with 0 instead).

UINTEGER

An unsigned 32 bit integer.

ULONG

An unsigned 32 bit integer, occupying four bytes of computer memory. The signed version of this is long.

USHORT

An unsigned 16 bit integer, occupying two bytes of computer memory. The signed version of this is short. The difference arises with the treatment of the upper bit. Both short and ushort treat 0-32767 the same, but for short 32768 to 65535 are considered equivalent to -32768 to -1 respectively (that is, when a short is copied to a larger sized integer the upper bit is repeated into all the other bits; for ushort the new bits are filled with 0 instead).

USING

Keyword intended for use in PRINT statements, and also to indicate the file to be used for a CLASS.

VAR

Declare a local variable:

VAR i = 2
VAR msg$ = "hello"

var creates and initializes a new local variable (only available inside the function in which it is declared). The type of the new variable is inferred from the type of the expression used to initialize it; if for some reason that cannot be determined, the type is set according to the variable suffix (if any is present).

var is somewhat similar to dim, except that the type isn't given explicitly (it is determined by the initializer expression) and the variables created are always local, even if the var is in the main program (in the main program dim creates member variables that may be used by functions or subroutines in this file).

WAITCNT

Propeller specific builtin function. Waits until the cycle counter is a specific value

  waitcnt(getcnt() + clkfreq) ' wait one second

WAITPEQ

Propeller specific builtin function. Waits for pins to have a specific value (given by a bit mask). Same as the Spin waitpeq routine. Note that the arguments are bit masks, not pin numbers, so take care when porting code from PropBasic.

WAITPNE

Propeller specific builtin function. Waits for pins to not have a specific value (given by a bit mask). Same as the Spin waitpne routine. Note that the arguments are bit masks, not pin numbers, so take care when porting code from PropBasic.

WHILE

Begins a loop which continues as long as a specified condition is true.

  ' wait for pin to go low
  loopcount = 0
  while input(1) <> 0
    loopcount = loopcount + 1
  wend
  print "waited "; loopcount; " times until pin went high"

The end of the repeated code may be terminated either with wend or with end while.

The while loop may also be written as do while:

  do while input(1) <> 0
    loopcount = loopcount + 1
  loop

or

  do until input(1) = 0
    loopcount = loopcount + 1
  loop

WORD

Reserved for use in inline assembler.

XOR

  a = x xor y

Returns the bit-wise exclusive or of x and y. If x or y is a floating point number then it will be converted to integer before the operation is performed. xor is often used for flipping bits.

Propeller Specific Variables

clkfreq

  dim clkfreq as uinteger

Clkfreq gives the frequency of the system clock in cycles per second.

Sample Programs

Toggle a pin

This program toggles a pin once per second.

rem simple program to toggle a pin

const pin = 16

direction(pin) = output

do
  output(pin) = not output(pin)
  pausems 1000
loop
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