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#
# Copyright 2009 Facebook
#
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"); you may
# not use this file except in compliance with the License. You may obtain
# a copy of the License at
#
# http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT
# WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the
# License for the specific language governing permissions and limitations
# under the License.
"""Escaping/unescaping methods for HTML, JSON, URLs, and others.
Also includes a few other miscellaneous string manipulation functions that
have crept in over time.
"""
from __future__ import absolute_import, division, print_function
import json
import re
from tornado.util import PY3, unicode_type, basestring_type
if PY3:
from urllib.parse import parse_qs as _parse_qs
import html.entities as htmlentitydefs
import urllib.parse as urllib_parse
unichr = chr
else:
from urlparse import parse_qs as _parse_qs
import htmlentitydefs
import urllib as urllib_parse
try:
import typing # noqa
except ImportError:
pass
_XHTML_ESCAPE_RE = re.compile('[&<>"\']')
_XHTML_ESCAPE_DICT = {'&': '&amp;', '<': '&lt;', '>': '&gt;', '"': '&quot;',
'\'': '&#39;'}
def xhtml_escape(value):
"""Escapes a string so it is valid within HTML or XML.
Escapes the characters ``<``, ``>``, ``"``, ``'``, and ``&``.
When used in attribute values the escaped strings must be enclosed
in quotes.
.. versionchanged:: 3.2
Added the single quote to the list of escaped characters.
"""
return _XHTML_ESCAPE_RE.sub(lambda match: _XHTML_ESCAPE_DICT[match.group(0)],
to_basestring(value))
def xhtml_unescape(value):
"""Un-escapes an XML-escaped string."""
return re.sub(r"&(#?)(\w+?);", _convert_entity, _unicode(value))
# The fact that json_encode wraps json.dumps is an implementation detail.
# Please see https://github.com/tornadoweb/tornado/pull/706
# before sending a pull request that adds **kwargs to this function.
def json_encode(value):
"""JSON-encodes the given Python object."""
# JSON permits but does not require forward slashes to be escaped.
# This is useful when json data is emitted in a <script> tag
# in HTML, as it prevents </script> tags from prematurely terminating
# the javascript. Some json libraries do this escaping by default,
# although python's standard library does not, so we do it here.
# http://stackoverflow.com/questions/1580647/json-why-are-forward-slashes-escaped
return json.dumps(value).replace("</", "<\\/")
def json_decode(value):
"""Returns Python objects for the given JSON string."""
return json.loads(to_basestring(value))
def squeeze(value):
"""Replace all sequences of whitespace chars with a single space."""
return re.sub(r"[\x00-\x20]+", " ", value).strip()
def url_escape(value, plus=True):
"""Returns a URL-encoded version of the given value.
If ``plus`` is true (the default), spaces will be represented
as "+" instead of "%20". This is appropriate for query strings
but not for the path component of a URL. Note that this default
is the reverse of Python's urllib module.
.. versionadded:: 3.1
The ``plus`` argument
"""
quote = urllib_parse.quote_plus if plus else urllib_parse.quote
return quote(utf8(value))
# python 3 changed things around enough that we need two separate
# implementations of url_unescape. We also need our own implementation
# of parse_qs since python 3's version insists on decoding everything.
if not PY3:
def url_unescape(value, encoding='utf-8', plus=True):
"""Decodes the given value from a URL.
The argument may be either a byte or unicode string.
If encoding is None, the result will be a byte string. Otherwise,
the result is a unicode string in the specified encoding.
If ``plus`` is true (the default), plus signs will be interpreted
as spaces (literal plus signs must be represented as "%2B"). This
is appropriate for query strings and form-encoded values but not
for the path component of a URL. Note that this default is the
reverse of Python's urllib module.
.. versionadded:: 3.1
The ``plus`` argument
"""
unquote = (urllib_parse.unquote_plus if plus else urllib_parse.unquote)
if encoding is None:
return unquote(utf8(value))
else:
return unicode_type(unquote(utf8(value)), encoding)
parse_qs_bytes = _parse_qs
else:
def url_unescape(value, encoding='utf-8', plus=True):
"""Decodes the given value from a URL.
The argument may be either a byte or unicode string.
If encoding is None, the result will be a byte string. Otherwise,
the result is a unicode string in the specified encoding.
If ``plus`` is true (the default), plus signs will be interpreted
as spaces (literal plus signs must be represented as "%2B"). This
is appropriate for query strings and form-encoded values but not
for the path component of a URL. Note that this default is the
reverse of Python's urllib module.
.. versionadded:: 3.1
The ``plus`` argument
"""
if encoding is None:
if plus:
# unquote_to_bytes doesn't have a _plus variant
value = to_basestring(value).replace('+', ' ')
return urllib_parse.unquote_to_bytes(value)
else:
unquote = (urllib_parse.unquote_plus if plus
else urllib_parse.unquote)
return unquote(to_basestring(value), encoding=encoding)
def parse_qs_bytes(qs, keep_blank_values=False, strict_parsing=False):
"""Parses a query string like urlparse.parse_qs, but returns the
values as byte strings.
Keys still become type str (interpreted as latin1 in python3!)
because it's too painful to keep them as byte strings in
python3 and in practice they're nearly always ascii anyway.
"""
# This is gross, but python3 doesn't give us another way.
# Latin1 is the universal donor of character encodings.
result = _parse_qs(qs, keep_blank_values, strict_parsing,
encoding='latin1', errors='strict')
encoded = {}
for k, v in result.items():
encoded[k] = [i.encode('latin1') for i in v]
return encoded
_UTF8_TYPES = (bytes, type(None))
def utf8(value):
# type: (typing.Union[bytes,unicode_type,None])->typing.Union[bytes,None]
"""Converts a string argument to a byte string.
If the argument is already a byte string or None, it is returned unchanged.
Otherwise it must be a unicode string and is encoded as utf8.
"""
if isinstance(value, _UTF8_TYPES):
return value
if not isinstance(value, unicode_type):
raise TypeError(
"Expected bytes, unicode, or None; got %r" % type(value)
)
return value.encode("utf-8")
_TO_UNICODE_TYPES = (unicode_type, type(None))
def to_unicode(value):
"""Converts a string argument to a unicode string.
If the argument is already a unicode string or None, it is returned
unchanged. Otherwise it must be a byte string and is decoded as utf8.
"""
if isinstance(value, _TO_UNICODE_TYPES):
return value
if not isinstance(value, bytes):
raise TypeError(
"Expected bytes, unicode, or None; got %r" % type(value)
)
return value.decode("utf-8")
# to_unicode was previously named _unicode not because it was private,
# but to avoid conflicts with the built-in unicode() function/type
_unicode = to_unicode
# When dealing with the standard library across python 2 and 3 it is
# sometimes useful to have a direct conversion to the native string type
if str is unicode_type:
native_str = to_unicode
else:
native_str = utf8
_BASESTRING_TYPES = (basestring_type, type(None))
def to_basestring(value):
"""Converts a string argument to a subclass of basestring.
In python2, byte and unicode strings are mostly interchangeable,
so functions that deal with a user-supplied argument in combination
with ascii string constants can use either and should return the type
the user supplied. In python3, the two types are not interchangeable,
so this method is needed to convert byte strings to unicode.
"""
if isinstance(value, _BASESTRING_TYPES):
return value
if not isinstance(value, bytes):
raise TypeError(
"Expected bytes, unicode, or None; got %r" % type(value)
)
return value.decode("utf-8")
def recursive_unicode(obj):
"""Walks a simple data structure, converting byte strings to unicode.
Supports lists, tuples, and dictionaries.
"""
if isinstance(obj, dict):
return dict((recursive_unicode(k), recursive_unicode(v)) for (k, v) in obj.items())
elif isinstance(obj, list):
return list(recursive_unicode(i) for i in obj)
elif isinstance(obj, tuple):
return tuple(recursive_unicode(i) for i in obj)
elif isinstance(obj, bytes):
return to_unicode(obj)
else:
return obj
# I originally used the regex from
# http://daringfireball.net/2010/07/improved_regex_for_matching_urls
# but it gets all exponential on certain patterns (such as too many trailing
# dots), causing the regex matcher to never return.
# This regex should avoid those problems.
# Use to_unicode instead of tornado.util.u - we don't want backslashes getting
# processed as escapes.
_URL_RE = re.compile(to_unicode(
r"""\b((?:([\w-]+):(/{1,3})|www[.])(?:(?:(?:[^\s&()]|&amp;|&quot;)*(?:[^!"#$%&'()*+,.:;<=>?@\[\]^`{|}~\s]))|(?:\((?:[^\s&()]|&amp;|&quot;)*\)))+)""" # noqa: E501
))
def linkify(text, shorten=False, extra_params="",
require_protocol=False, permitted_protocols=["http", "https"]):
"""Converts plain text into HTML with links.
For example: ``linkify("Hello http://tornadoweb.org!")`` would return
``Hello <a href="http://tornadoweb.org">http://tornadoweb.org</a>!``
Parameters:
* ``shorten``: Long urls will be shortened for display.
* ``extra_params``: Extra text to include in the link tag, or a callable
taking the link as an argument and returning the extra text
e.g. ``linkify(text, extra_params='rel="nofollow" class="external"')``,
or::
def extra_params_cb(url):
if url.startswith("http://example.com"):
return 'class="internal"'
else:
return 'class="external" rel="nofollow"'
linkify(text, extra_params=extra_params_cb)
* ``require_protocol``: Only linkify urls which include a protocol. If
this is False, urls such as www.facebook.com will also be linkified.
* ``permitted_protocols``: List (or set) of protocols which should be
linkified, e.g. ``linkify(text, permitted_protocols=["http", "ftp",
"mailto"])``. It is very unsafe to include protocols such as
``javascript``.
"""
if extra_params and not callable(extra_params):
extra_params = " " + extra_params.strip()
def make_link(m):
url = m.group(1)
proto = m.group(2)
if require_protocol and not proto:
return url # not protocol, no linkify
if proto and proto not in permitted_protocols:
return url # bad protocol, no linkify
href = m.group(1)
if not proto:
href = "http://" + href # no proto specified, use http
if callable(extra_params):
params = " " + extra_params(href).strip()
else:
params = extra_params
# clip long urls. max_len is just an approximation
max_len = 30
if shorten and len(url) > max_len:
before_clip = url
if proto:
proto_len = len(proto) + 1 + len(m.group(3) or "") # +1 for :
else:
proto_len = 0
parts = url[proto_len:].split("/")
if len(parts) > 1:
# Grab the whole host part plus the first bit of the path
# The path is usually not that interesting once shortened
# (no more slug, etc), so it really just provides a little
# extra indication of shortening.
url = url[:proto_len] + parts[0] + "/" + \
parts[1][:8].split('?')[0].split('.')[0]
if len(url) > max_len * 1.5: # still too long
url = url[:max_len]
if url != before_clip:
amp = url.rfind('&')
# avoid splitting html char entities
if amp > max_len - 5:
url = url[:amp]
url += "..."
if len(url) >= len(before_clip):
url = before_clip
else:
# full url is visible on mouse-over (for those who don't
# have a status bar, such as Safari by default)
params += ' title="%s"' % href
return u'<a href="%s"%s>%s</a>' % (href, params, url)
# First HTML-escape so that our strings are all safe.
# The regex is modified to avoid character entites other than &amp; so
# that we won't pick up &quot;, etc.
text = _unicode(xhtml_escape(text))
return _URL_RE.sub(make_link, text)
def _convert_entity(m):
if m.group(1) == "#":
try:
if m.group(2)[:1].lower() == 'x':
return unichr(int(m.group(2)[1:], 16))
else:
return unichr(int(m.group(2)))
except ValueError:
return "&#%s;" % m.group(2)
try:
return _HTML_UNICODE_MAP[m.group(2)]
except KeyError:
return "&%s;" % m.group(2)
def _build_unicode_map():
unicode_map = {}
for name, value in htmlentitydefs.name2codepoint.items():
unicode_map[name] = unichr(value)
return unicode_map
_HTML_UNICODE_MAP = _build_unicode_map()