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# Copyright (C) 2001 Matt Zimmerman <>
# Copyright (C) 2007,2011 Javier Fernandez-Sanguino <>
# - included patch from Justin Pryzby <>
# to work with the latest Lsof - modify to reduce false positives by not
# complaining about deleted inodes/files under /tmp/, /var/log/,
# /var/run or named /SYSV.
# - introduced a verbose option
# - included code from 'psdel' contributed by Sam Morris <> to
# make the program work even if lsof is not installed
# (available at
# - make it work with a whitelist of directories instead of a blacklist
# (might make it less false positive prone)
# This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
# it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
# the Free Software Foundation; either version 2, or (at your option)
# any later version.
# This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
# but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
# GNU General Public License for more details.
# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
# along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
# Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston,
# MA 02110-1301 USA
# On Debian systems, a copy of the GNU General Public License may be
# found in /usr/share/common-licenses/GPL.
import sys
import os, errno
import re
import pwd
import sys
import string
import subprocess
import getopt
from stat import *
def checkroot():
if os.getuid() != 0:
sys.stderr.write('ERROR: This program must be run as root in order to obtain information\n')
sys.stderr.write('about all open file descriptors in the system.\n')
def find_cmd(cmd):
dirs = [ '/', '/usr/', '/usr/local/', sys.prefix ]
for d in dirs:
for sd in ('bin', 'sbin'):
location = os.path.join(d, sd, cmd)
if os.path.exists(location):
return location
return 1
def usage():
sys.stderr.write('usage: checkrestart [-vhpa] [-bblacklist] [-iignore]\n')
def main():
global lc_all_c_env, file_query_check
process = None
toRestart = {}
lc_all_c_env = os.environ
lc_all_c_env['LC_ALL'] = 'C'
file_query_check = {}
blacklistFiles = []
blacklist = []
ignorelist = [ 'screen' ]
# Process options
opts, args = getopt.getopt(sys.argv[1:], "hvpab:i:", ["help", "verbose", "packages", "all", "blacklist", "ignore"])
except getopt.GetoptError, err:
# print help information and exit:
print str(err) # will print something like "option -x not recognized"
# Global variables set through the command line
global verbose, onlyPackageFiles, allFiles
verbose = False
# Only look for deleted files that belong to packages
onlyPackageFiles = False
# Look for any deleted file
allFiles = False
for o, a in opts:
if o in ("-v", "--verbose"):
verbose = True
elif o in ("-h", "--help"):
elif o in ("-p", "--packages"):
onlyPackageFiles = True
elif o in ("-a", "--all"):
allFiles = True
onlyPackageFiles = False
elif o in ("-b", "--blacklist"):
onlyPackageFiles = False
elif o in ("-i", "--ignore"):
assert False, "unhandled option"
for f in blacklistFiles:
for line in file(f, "r"):
if line.startswith("#"):
# Start checking
if find_cmd('lsof') == 1:
sys.stderr.write('ERROR: This program needs lsof in order to run.\n')
sys.stderr.write('Please install the lsof package in your system.\n')
# Check if we have lsof, if not, use psdel
# if find_cmd('lsof'):
# toRestart = lsofcheck()
# else:
# TODO - This does not work yet:
# toRestart = psdelcheck()
toRestart = lsofcheck(blacklist = blacklist)
print "Found %d processes using old versions of upgraded files" % len(toRestart)
if len(toRestart) == 0:
programs = {}
for process in toRestart:
programs.setdefault(process.program, [])
if len(programs) == 1:
print "(%d distinct program)" % len(programs)
print "(%d distinct programs)" % len(programs)
# Verbose information
if verbose:
for process in toRestart:
print "Process %s (PID: %d) " % (process.program,
packages = {}
diverted = None
dpkgQuery = ["dpkg-query", "--search"] + programs.keys()
dpkgProc = subprocess.Popen(dpkgQuery, shell=False, stdout=subprocess.PIPE, stderr=subprocess.PIPE,
env = lc_all_c_env)
if verbose:
print "Running:%s" % dpkgQuery
while True:
line = dpkgProc.stdout.readline()
if not line:
if verbose:
print "Reading line: %s" % line
if line.startswith('local diversion'):
if not ':' in line:
m = re.match('^diversion by (\S+) (from|to): (.*)$', line)
if m:
if == 'from':
diverted =
if not diverted:
raise Exception('Weird error while handling diversion')
packagename, program =, diverted
packagename, program = line[:-1].split(': ')
if program == diverted:
# dpkg prints a summary line after the diversion, name both
# packages of the diversion, so ignore this line
# mutt-patched, mutt: /usr/bin/mutt
except KeyError:
sys.stderr.write ('checkrestart (program not found): %s: %s\n' % (packagename, program))
# Close the pipe
print "(%d distinct packages)" % len(packages)
if len(packages) == 0:
print "No packages seem to need to be restarted."
print "(please read checkrestart(1))"
for package in packages.values():
skip = False
if ignorelist:
for i in ignorelist:
if i ==
skip = True
if skip:
dpkgQuery = ["dpkg-query", "--listfiles",]
dpkgProc = subprocess.Popen(dpkgQuery, stdout=subprocess.PIPE, stderr=subprocess.STDOUT,
env = lc_all_c_env)
while True:
line = dpkgProc.stdout.readline()
if not line:
path = line[:-1]
if path.startswith('/etc/init.d/'):
if path.endswith('.sh'):
# Alternatively, find init.d scripts that match the process name
if len(package.initscripts) == 0:
for process in package.processes:
proc_name = os.path.basename(process.program)
if os.path.exists('/etc/init.d/' + proc_name):
restartable = []
nonrestartable = []
restartCommands = []
for package in packages.values():
if len(package.initscripts) > 0:
restartCommands.extend(map(lambda s: 'service ' + s + ' restart',package.initscripts))
if len(restartable) > 0:
print "Of these, %d seem to contain init scripts which can be used to restart them:" % len(restartable)
# TODO - consider putting this in a --verbose option
print "The following packages seem to have init scripts that could be used\nto restart them:"
for package in restartable:
print + ':'
for process in package.processes:
print "\t%s\t%s" % (,process.program)
print "These are the init scripts:"
print '\n'.join(restartCommands)
if len(nonrestartable) == 0:
# TODO - consider putting this in a --verbose option
print "These processes do not seem to have an associated init script to restart them:"
for package in nonrestartable:
skip = False
if ignorelist:
for i in ignorelist:
if i ==
skip = True
if skip:
print + ':'
for process in package.processes:
print "\t%s\t%s" % (,process.program)
def lsofcheck(blacklist = None):
processes = {}
for line in os.popen('lsof +XL -F nf').readlines():
field, data = line[0], line[1:-1]
if field == 'p':
process = processes.setdefault(data,Process(int(data)))
elif field == 'k':
elif field == 'n':
# Remove the previous entry to check if this is something we should use
if data.startswith('/SYSV'):
# If we find SYSV we discard the previous descriptor
last = process.descriptors.pop()
elif data.startswith('/'):
last = process.descriptors.pop()
# Add it to the list of deleted files if the previous descriptor
# was DEL or lsof marks it as deleted
if re.compile("DEL").search(last) or re.compile("deleted").search(data) or re.compile("\(path inode=[0-9]+\)$").search(data):
# We discard the previous descriptors and drop it
last = process.descriptors.pop()
elif field == 'f':
# Save the descriptor for later comparison
toRestart = filter(lambda process: process.needsRestart(blacklist),
return toRestart
# Tells if a given file is part of a package
# Returns:
# - False - file does not exist in the system or cannot be found when querying the package database
# - True - file is found in an operating system package
def ispackagedFile (f):
file_in_package = False
file_regexp = False
if verbose:
print "Checking if file %s belongs to any package" % f
# First check if the file exists
if not os.path.exists(f):
if ( f.startswith('/lib/') or f.startswith('/usr/lib/') ) and re.compile("\.so[\d.]+$"):
# For libraries that do not exist then try to use a regular expression with the
# soname
# In libraries, indent characters that could belong to a regular expression first
f = re.compile("\+").sub("\+", f)
f = re.compile(".so[\d.]+$").sub(".so.*", f)
f = re.compile("\.").sub("\.", f)
file_regexp = True
# Do not call dpkg-query if the file simply does not exist in the file system
# just assume it does not belong to any package
return False
# If it exists, run dpkg-query
dpkgQuery = ["dpkg-query", "--search", f ]
dpkgProc = subprocess.Popen(dpkgQuery, stdout=subprocess.PIPE, stderr=subprocess.STDOUT,
env = lc_all_c_env, close_fds=True)
if verbose:
print "Running:%s" % dpkgQuery
for line in dpkgProc.stdout.readlines():
line = line.strip()
if line.find('no path found matching pattern ' + f) > 0:
file_in_package = False
if line.endswith(f) or ( file_regexp and, line)):
package = re.compile(":.*$").sub("",line)
file_in_package = True
if file_in_package and verbose:
print "YES: File belongs to package %s" % package
if not file_in_package and verbose:
print "NO: File does not belongs to any package"
return file_in_package
# Tells if a file has to be considered a deleted file
# Returns:
# - 0 (NO) for known locations of files which might be deleted
# - 1 (YES) for valid deleted files we are interested in
def isdeletedFile (f, blacklist = None):
global lc_all_c_env, file_query_check
if allFiles:
return 1
if blacklist:
for p in blacklist:
return 0
# We don't care about log files
if f.startswith('/var/log/') or f.startswith('/var/local/log/'):
return 0
# Or about files under temporary locations
if f.startswith('/var/run/') or f.startswith('/var/local/run/'):
return 0
# Or about files under /tmp
if f.startswith('/tmp/'):
return 0
# Or about files under /dev/shm
if f.startswith('/dev/shm/'):
return 0
# Or about files under /run
if f.startswith('/run/'):
return 0
# Or about files under /drm
if f.startswith('/drm'):
return 0
# Or about files under /var/tmp and /var/local/tmp
if f.startswith('/var/tmp/') or f.startswith('/var/local/tmp/'):
return 0
# Or /dev/zero
if f.startswith('/dev/zero'):
return 0
# Or /dev/pts (used by gpm)
if f.startswith('/dev/pts/'):
return 0
# Or /usr/lib/locale
if f.startswith('/usr/lib/locale/'):
return 0
# Skip files from the user's home directories
# many processes hold temporafy files there
if f.startswith('/home/'):
return 0
# Skip automatically generated files
if f.endswith('icon-theme.cache'):
return 0
# Skip font files
if f.startswith('/var/cache/fontconfig/'):
return 0
# Skip Nagios Spool
if f.startswith('/var/lib/nagios3/spool/'):
return 0
# Skip nagios spool files
if f.startswith('/var/lib/nagios3/spool/checkresults/'):
return 0
# Skip, if asked to, files that do not belong to any package
if onlyPackageFiles:
# Remove some lsof information from the file to ensure that it is
# a proper filename
file_name = re.sub(r'\(.*\)','', f)
file_name = re.sub(r'\s+$','', file_name)
# First check: have we checked this file before? If we have not then make the check
if not file_name in file_query_check:
file_query_check[file_name] = ispackagedFile(file_name)
# Once we have the result then check if the file belongs to a package
if not file_query_check[file_name]:
return 0
# TODO: it should only care about library files (i.e. /lib, /usr/lib and the like)
# build that check with a regexp to exclude others
if f.endswith(' (deleted)'):
return 1
if re.compile("\(path inode=[0-9]+\)$").search(f):
return 1
# Default: it is a deleted file we are interested in
return 1
def psdelcheck():
# TODO - Needs to be fixed to work here
# Useful for seeing which processes need to be restarted after you upgrade
# programs or shared libraries. Written to replace checkrestart(1) from the
# debian-goodies, which often misses out processes due to bugs in lsof; see
# <> for more information.
numeric = re.compile(r'\d+')
toRestart = map (delmaps, map (string.atoi, filter (numeric.match, os.listdir('/proc'))))
return toRestart
def delmaps (pid):
processes = {}
process = processes.setdefault(pid,Process(int(pid)))
deleted = re.compile(r'(.*) \(deleted\)$')
boring = re.compile(r'/(dev/zero|SYSV([\da-f]{8}))|/usr/lib/locale')
mapline = re.compile(r'^[\da-f]{8}-[\da-f]{8} [r-][w-][x-][sp-] '
r'[\da-f]{8} [\da-f]{2}:[\da-f]{2} (\d+) *(.+)( \(deleted\))?\n$')
maps = open('/proc/%d/maps' % (pid))
for line in maps.readlines ():
m = mapline.match (line)
if (m):
inode = string.atoi ( (1))
file = (2)
if inode == 0:
# remove ' (deleted)' suffix
if deleted.match (file):
file = file [0:-10]
if boring.match (file):
# list file names whose inode numbers do not match their on-disk
# values; or files that do not exist at all
if os.stat (file)[stat.ST_INO] != inode:
process = processes.setdefault(pid,Process(int(pid)))
except OSError, (e, strerror):
if e == errno.ENOENT:
process = processes.setdefault(pid,Process(int(pid)))
sys.stderr.write ('checkrestart (psdel): %s %s: %s\n' % (SysProcess.get(pid).info (), file, os.strerror (e)))
print 'checkrestart (psdel): Error parsing "%s"' % (line [0:-1])
maps.close ()
return process
class SysProcess:
re_name = re.compile('Name:\t(.*)$')
re_uids = re.compile('Uid:\t(\d+)\t(\d+)\t(\d+)\t(\d+)$')
processes = {}
def get (pid):
return Process.processes [pid]
except KeyError:
Process.processes [pid] = Process (pid)
return Process.get (pid)
# private
def __init__ (self, pid): = pid
status = open ('/proc/%d/status' % (
for line in status.readlines ():
m = self.re_name.match (line)
if m: = (1)
m = self.re_uids.match (line)
if m:
self.user = pwd.getpwuid (string.atoi ( (1)))[0]
status.close ()
def info (self):
return '%d %s %s' % (,, self.user)
class Process:
def __init__(self, pid): = pid
self.files = []
self.descriptors = []
self.links = []
self.program = ''
self.program = os.readlink('/proc/%d/exe' %
# if the executable command is an interpreter such as perl/python,
# we want to find the real program
m = re.match("^/usr/bin/(perl|python)( \(deleted\))*$", self.program)
if m:
with open('/proc/%d/cmdline' %, 'r') as cmdline:
# only match program in /usr (ex.: /usr/sbin/smokeping)
# ignore child, etc.
#m ='^(([/]\w*){1,5})\s.*$',
# Split by null-bytes, see proc(5)
data ='\x00')
# Last character should be null-byte, too, see proc(5)
if not data[-1]: data.pop()
# Spamd sets $0 wrongly, see
# i.e. the blank after spamd is relevant in case
# this will be fixed in the future.
m = re.match("^/usr/sbin/spamd |^spamd ", data[0])
if m:
self.program = "/usr/sbin/spamd"
# Strip first value, the interpreter
# Check if something's left after the interpreter, see #715000
if data:
# Strip all options following the interpreter, e.g. python's -O
m = re.match("^-", data[0])
while (m):
m = re.match("^-", data[0])
if data and data[0]: data = data[0]
data = self.which(data)
m ='^(/usr/\S+)$', data)
if m:
# store the real full path of script as the program
self.program =
except OSError, e:
if e.errno != errno.ENOENT:
if == 1:
sys.stderr.write("Found unreadable pid 1. Assuming we're under vserver and continuing.\n")
sys.stderr.write('ERROR: Failed to read pid %d' %
self.program = self.cleanFile(self.program)
def which(self, program):
if os.path.isabs(program):
return program
path = os.environ.get("PATH", os.defpath).split(os.pathsep)
seen = set()
for dir in path:
dir = os.path.normcase(os.path.abspath(dir))
if not dir in seen:
name = os.path.join(dir, program)
if os.path.exists(name) and os.access(name, os.F_OK|os.X_OK) and not os.path.isdir(name):
return name
return program
def cleanFile(self, f):
# /proc/pid/exe has all kinds of junk in it sometimes
null = f.find('\0')
if null != -1:
f = f[:null]
# Support symlinked /usr
if f.startswith('/usr'):
statinfo = os.lstat('/usr')[ST_MODE]
# If /usr is a symlink then find where it points to
if S_ISLNK(statinfo):
newusr = os.readlink('/usr')
if not newusr.startswith('/'):
# If the symlink is relative, make it absolute
newusr = os.path.join(os.path.dirname('/usr'), newusr)
f = re.sub('^/usr',newusr, f)
# print "Changing usr to " + newusr + " result:" +f; # Debugging
return re.sub('( \(deleted\)|.dpkg-new).*$','',f)
def listDeleted(self):
listfiles = []
listdescriptors = []
for f in self.files:
if isdeletedFile(f):
if listfiles != []:
print "List of deleted files in use:"
for file in listfiles:
print "\t" + file
# Check if a process needs to be restarted, previously we would
# just check if it used libraries named '.dpkg-new' since that's
# what dpkg would do. Now we need to be more contrieved.
# Returns:
# - 0 if there is no need to restart the process
# - 1 if the process needs to be restarted
def needsRestart(self, blacklist = None):
for f in self.files:
if isdeletedFile(f, blacklist):
return 1
for f in self.links:
if f == 0:
return 1
return 0
class Package:
def __init__(self, name): = name
# use a set, we don't need duplicates
self.initscripts = set()
self.processes = []
if __name__ == '__main__':