A High-Level Architecture for Ruby.
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Latest commit 2cbc888 Jan 23, 2017 @apotonick apotonick remove Rescue module.
the less modules the better, right, @mensfeld? 😜



Trailblazer provides new high-level abstractions for Ruby frameworks. It gently enforces encapsulation, an intuitive code structure and gives you an object-oriented architecture.

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This document discusses Trailblazer 2.0. The 1.x documentation is here.

Trailblazer In A Nutshell

  1. All business logic is encapsulated in operations (service objects).
    • Optional validation objects (Reform and/or Dry-validation) in the operation deserialize and validate input. The form object can also be used for rendering.
    • An optional policy object blocks unauthorized users from running the operation.
    • Optional callback objects allow declaring post-processing logic.
  2. Controllers instantly delegate to an operation. No business code in controllers, only HTTP-specific logic.
  3. Models are persistence-only and solely define associations and scopes. No business code is to be found here. No validations, no callbacks.
  4. The presentation layer offers optional view models (Cells) and representers for document APIs.

Trailblazer is designed to handle different contexts like user roles by applying inheritance between and composing of operations, form objects, policies, representers and callbacks.

Want code? Jump right here!


While Trailblazer offers you abstraction layers for all aspects of Ruby On Rails, it does not missionize you. Wherever you want, you may fall back to the "Rails Way" with fat models, monolithic controllers, global helpers, etc. This is not a bad thing, but allows you to step-wise introduce Trailblazer's encapsulation in your app without having to rewrite it.

Trailblazer is all about structure. It helps re-organize existing code into smaller components where different concerns are handled in separated classes.

Again, you can pick which layers you want. Trailblazer doesn't impose technical implementations, it offers mature solutions for recurring problems in all types of Rails applications.

Trailblazer is no "complex web of objects and indirection". It solves many problems that have been around for years with a cleanly layered architecture. Only use what you like. And that's the bottom line.

Concepts over Technology

Trailblazer offers you a new, more intuitive file layout in applications.

β”œβ”€β”€ concepts
β”‚   β”œβ”€β”€ comment
β”‚   β”‚   β”œβ”€β”€ operation
β”‚   β”‚   β”‚   β”œβ”€β”€ create.rb
β”‚   β”‚   β”‚   β”œβ”€β”€ update.rb
β”‚   β”‚   β”œβ”€β”€ contract
β”‚   β”‚   β”‚   β”œβ”€β”€ create.rb
β”‚   β”‚   β”‚   β”œβ”€β”€ update.rb
β”‚   β”‚   β”œβ”€β”€ cell
β”‚   β”‚   β”‚   β”œβ”€β”€ show.rb
β”‚   β”‚   β”‚   β”œβ”€β”€ index.rb
β”‚   β”‚   β”œβ”€β”€ view
β”‚   β”‚   β”‚   β”œβ”€β”€ show.haml
β”‚   β”‚   β”‚   β”œβ”€β”€ index.rb
β”‚   β”‚   β”‚   β”œβ”€β”€ comment.css.sass

Instead of grouping by technology, classes and views are structured by concept, and then by technology. A concept can relate to a model, or can be a completely abstract concern such as invoicing.

Within a concept, you can have any level of nesting. For example, invoicing/pdf/ could be one.

The file structure is implemented by the trailblazer-loader gem.

Learn more.


Trailblazer extends the conventional MVC stack in Rails. Keep in mind that adding layers doesn't necessarily mean adding more code and complexity.

The opposite is the case: Controller, view and model become lean endpoints for HTTP, rendering and persistence. Redundant code gets eliminated by putting very little application code into the right layer.

The Trailblazer stack.


Trailblazer uses Rails routing to map URLs to controllers, because it works.

Rails.application.routes.draw do
  resources :comments


Controllers are lean endpoints for HTTP. They do not contain any business logic. Actions immediately dispatch to an operation.

class CommentsController < ApplicationController
  def create
    run Comment::Create # Comment::Create is an operation class.

The #run method invokes the operation. It allows you to run a conditional block of logic if the operation was successful.

class CommentsController < ApplicationController
  def create
    run Comment::Create do |op|
      return redirect_to(comment_path op.model) # success!

    render :new # invalid. re-render form.

Again, the controller only dispatchs to the operation and handles successful/invalid processing on the HTTP level. For instance by redirecting, setting flash messages, or signing in a user.

Learn more.


Operations encapsulate business logic and are the heart of a Trailblazer architecture.

The bare bones operation without any Trailblazery is implemented in the trailblazer-operation gem and can be used without our stack.

Operations don't know about HTTP or the environment. You could use an operation in Rails, Hanami, or Roda, it wouldn't know.

An operation is not just a monolithic replacement for your business code. It's a simple orchestrator between the form objects, models, your business code and all other layers needed to get the job done.

class Comment::Create < Trailblazer::Operation
  step :process!

  def process!(options)
    # do whatever you feel like.

Operations only need to define and implement steps, like the #process! steps. Those steps receive the arguments from the caller.

You cannot instantiate them per design. The only way to invoke them is call.

Comment::Create.call(whatever: "goes", in: "here")
# same as
Comment::Create.(whatever: "goes", in: "here")

Their high degree of encapsulation makes them a replacement for test factories, too.

Learn more.


In Trailblazer, an operation (usually) has a form object which is simply a Reform::Form class. All the API documented in Reform can be applied and used.

Validations can also be implemented in pure Dry-validation.

The operation makes use of the form object using the #validate method.

class Comment::Create < Trailblazer::Operation
  extend Contract::DSL

  contract do
    # this is a Reform::Form class!
    property :body, validates: {presence: true}

  step Model( Comment, :new )
  step Contract::Build()
  step Contract::Validate( key: :comment )
  step Contract::Persist( )

The contract (aka form) is defined in the ::contract block. You can implement nested forms, default values, validations, and everything else Reform provides.

In the #process method you can define your business logic.

Learn more.


Models for persistence can be implemented using any ORM you fancy, for instance ActiveRecord or Datamapper.

In Trailblazer, models are completely empty. They solely contain associations and finders. No business logic is allowed in models.

class Comment < ActiveRecord::Base
  belongs_to :thing

  scope :latest, lambda { all.limit(9).order("id DESC") }

Only operations and views/cells can access models directly.


You can abort running an operation using a policy. "Pundit-style" policy classes define the rules.

class Comment::Policy
  def initialize(user, comment)
    @user, @comment = user, comment

  def create?

The rule is enabled via the ::policy call.

class Comment::Create < Trailblazer::Operation
  step Policy( Comment::Policy, :create? )

The policy is evaluated in #setup!, raises an exception if false and suppresses running #process.

Learn more.


View rendering can happen using the controller as known from Rails. This is absolutely fine for simple views.

More complex UI logic happens in View Models as found in Cells. View models also replace helpers.

The operation's form object can be rendered in views, too.

class CommentsController < ApplicationController
  def new
    form Comment::Create # will assign the form object to @form.

Since Reform objects can be passed to form builders, you can use the operation to render and process the form!

= simple_form_for @form do |f|
  = f.input :body


Operations can use representers from Roar to serialize and parse JSON and XML documents for APIs.

Representers can be inferred automatically from your contract, then may be refined, e.g. with hypermedia or a format like JSON-API.

class Comment::Create < Trailblazer::Operation
  representer do
    # inherited :body
    include Roar::JSON::HAL

    link(:self) { comment_path(represented.id) }

The operation can then parse incoming JSON documents in validate and render a document via to_json.

Learn more.


In Trailblazer, you only have operation unit tests and integration smoke tests to test the operation/controller wiring.

Operations completely replace the need for leaky factories.

describe Comment::Update do
  let(:comment) { Comment::Create.(comment: {body: "[That](http://trailblazer.to)!"}) }


Trailblazer has many more architectural features such as

  • Polymorphic builders and operations
  • Inheritance and composition support
  • Polymorphic views

Check the project website and the book.


The obvious needs to be in your Gemfile.

gem "trailblazer"
gem "trailblazer-rails" # if you are in rails.
gem "trailblazer-cells"

Cells is not required per default! Add it if you use it, which is highly recommended.