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An easy-to-use, extensible and lightweight C++17 wrapper for SQLite
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README.md

SQLiteWrapper

SQLiteWrapper is an easy-to-use, lightweight and concurrency-friendly SQLite wrapper written in C++17.

A Quick Taste

static const char db_name[] = "example.db";
using db = sqlite::Database<db_name>;

// Prepare and execute a query with 2 parameters, binding the
// integer 29 to the first parameter and the string "M" to the
// second.
//
// This query retrieves all users whose age is exactly 29 or
// whose first initial is M.
static const char select_users_query[]
  = R"(select first_name, last_name, age, website
       from users where age = ?1 or substr(first_name, 1, 1) = ?2)";
db::QueryResult fetch_row = db::query<select_users_query>(29, "M");

// Step through the results returned by the query.
std::string_view first_name, last_name;
int age;
std::optional<std::string_view> website;
while (fetch_row(first_name, last_name, age, website)) {
  std::cout << first_name << " "
            << last_name << ", "
            << age << ", "
            << (website ? *website : "<no website>")
            << std::endl;
}

More examples can be found in the examples directory.

Features

  1. Concise and intuitive interface. Being a header-only library, it's a breeze to embed into your project.
  2. Written with absolute efficiency in mind: all prepared statements made by the library are persisted and reused via RAII and templated static variables; all text/blob parameter values are bound using the SQLITE_STATIC flag to avoid copying; and database connections are implicitly thread-local so that SQLites's connection-based locking can be disabled. As much is computed at compile time as is feasibly possible in C++
  3. Extensible -- aside from the native support for binding standard library types such as std::string, std::string_view and std::optional<T>, users can define their own custom serialization and deserialization hooks to be able to bind to and from other data types.
  4. Particularly easy to use in multi-threaded applications. Database connections are implicitly thread-local and are automatically created and destroyed, and a concurrency-friendly sqlite3_busy_handler is installed so that the dreadful SQLITE_BUSY return code is never seen.

Caveats

  1. Requires a C++ compiler that supports C++17. Such compilers include g++ 9 and clang++ 8.
  2. Connections to the database are managed automatically for you. If you find yourself needing more fine-grained control of when to connect and disconnect from your SQLite database, then this wrapper may currently not work well for you. (This is a deficiency of the wrapper which may be alleviated in the future.)

How do I ...

... specify the database to connect to?

The database used is specified as a template argument to the sqlite::Database class template. The convention we adopted is to define a type alias for sqlite::Database<FOO>, and to invoke methods via that type alias.

When the path to the database is known at compile-time, one can supply a path string as the template argument:

inline const char db_name[] = "path/to/my_database.db";
using db = sqlite::Database<db_name>;

When the path to the database is not known at compile-time, one can instead pass in a function which computes the database path:

std::string db_name(void) {
  std::string path;
  path.append(folder_name());
  path.append("database.db");
  return path;
}
using db = sqlite::Database<db_name>;

This function gets invoked when the first connection to the database is made in the program.

... make sure the same set of pragmas is set on each connection?

By assigning the post_connection_hook appropriately:

using db = sqlite::Database<db_name>;
db::post_connection_hook = [] (sqlite3 *db_handle) {
  sqlite3_exec(db_handle, "pragma temp_store = memory",
               nullptr, nullptr, nullptr);
}

The post_connection_hook is called immediately after a connection is successfully made.

... work with transactions?

Use the TransactionGuard class as an exception-safe wrapper for creating, committing, and rolling back an SQLite transaction:

{
  db::TransactionGuard txn; // or auto txn = db::transactionGuard();
  db::query<insert_query>();
  foo(); // if foo throws, then the transaction will be rolled back.
  auto fetch_row = db::query<select_query>();
  if (fetch_row.resultCode() != SQLITE_ROW) {
    txn.rollback();
  }
}

If upon destruction the transaction is still active, the destructor of the TransactionGuard object will either commit or roll back the transaction, depending on whether an uncaught exception was thrown in the containing scope.

There's also the methods db::beginTransaction(), db::commitTransaction() and db::rollbackTransaction() for manual, non-RAII-based transaction handling.

... use a dynamically-generated query string?

The template argument to the query method can either be a string object or a function or lambda that returns a string object. If you need to dynamically generate a query string, supply a function as a template argument like so:

std::string my_select_query(void) {
  std::string query = "select a, b, c from table where ";
  query.append(get_column_name());
  query.append(" = ?1");
  return query;
}

using db = sqlite::Database<db_name>;
auto fetch_row = db::query<my_select_query>(5);
...

... bind BLOBs?

Use the sqlite::blob and sqlite::blob_view data types, which behave just like std::string and std::string_view respectively, but are bound to and from BLOB instead of as TEXT values:

db::query<my_insert_query>(sqlite::blob{"hello"});
auto fetch_row = db::query<my_select_query>();
std::blob_view data;
while (fetch_row(data)) {
  ...
}
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