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README.md

xml2tex

An XProc module to convert XML to LaTeX

setup and run xml2tex

xml2tex is not a standalone tool but an XProc library which also depends on other modules. So you need a little setup to run it. First start with creating a project directory and cloning the modules from GitHub:

$ mkdir asyoulike && cd asyoulike
$ git clone --recursive -b saxon98 https://github.com/transpect/calabash-frontend.git calabash
$ git clone https://github.com/transpect/mml2tex.git
$ git clone https://github.com/transpect/cascade.git
$ git clone https://github.com/transpect/mml-normalize.git
$ git clone https://github.com/transpect/xproc-util.git
$ git clone https://github.com/transpect/xslt-util.git
$ git clone https://github.com/transpect/xml2tex.git

Now we add an XML catalog to resolve the import URIs of the XProc modules.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<catalog xmlns="urn:oasis:names:tc:entity:xmlns:xml:catalog">
  <nextCatalog catalog="../mml2tex/xmlcatalog/catalog.xml"/>
  <nextCatalog catalog="../mml-normalize/xmlcatalog/catalog.xml"/>
  <nextCatalog catalog="../xproc-util/xmlcatalog/catalog.xml"/>
  <nextCatalog catalog="../xslt-util/xmlcatalog/catalog.xml"/>  
  <nextCatalog catalog="../xml2tex/xmlcatalog/catalog.xml"/>
  <nextCatalog catalog="../cascade/xmlcatalog/catalog.xml"/>
</catalog>

Store this XML catalog file to xmlcatalog/catalog.xml.

Now you just have to run calabash.

$ calabash/calabash.sh -i source=xml2tex/example/example.xml -i conf=xml2tex/example/conf-hubcssa.xml xml2tex/xpl/xml2tex.xpl

Alternatively, you can download a release of docx2tex that uses this xml2tex library, or you can clone docx2tex recursively for the most current libraries. There, all the repos listed above are already included as submodules, and the XML Catalog is also present.

Configuration

xml2tex can be configured for any kind of XML format. A sample XML configuration file is stored in the example directory.

A RelaxNG schema is located in the schema directory. You can use the schema to check if your configuration file is valid and some editors which support RelaxNG will provide code completion and tool tips.

Here is an example for a very basic configuration:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<?xml-model href="../schema/xml2tex.rng" type="application/xml" schematypens="http://relaxng.org/ns/structure/1.0"?>
<?xml-model href="../schema/xml2tex.rng" type="application/xml" schematypens="http://purl.oclc.org/dsdl/schematron"?>
<set xmlns="http://transpect.io/xml2tex">

  <ns prefix="dbk" uri="http://docbook.org/ns/docbook"/>

  <preamble>
    \documentclass{scrbook}
    \usepackage{graphicx}
    \usepackage{hyperref}
    \usepackage{multirow}
  </preamble>

  <front>
    \maketitle
  </front>

  <back>
    \printindex
  </back>

  <template context="dbk:para[not(parent::dbk:entry)][not(parent::dbk:footnote)]">
    <rule break-after="2">
      <text/>
    </rule>
  </template>

  <template context="dbk:para[@role eq 'Zitat']">
    <rule type="env" name="quote">
      <text/>
    </rule>
  </template>
  
  <charmap>
    <char character="&#xad;" string="&quot;-"/>
    <char character="Ä" string="\&#34;A" context="dbk:phrase, dbk:section|dbk:para, dbk:entry"/>
    <char character="ä" string="\&#34;a"/>
    <char character="Ö" string="\&#34;O"/>
    <char character="ö" string="\&#34;o" />
    <char character="Ü" string="\&#34;U" />
    <char character="ü" string="\&#34;u" />
    <char character="ß" string="\ss{}" />
    <char character="" string="..." />
  </charmap>
</set>

Preamble

The LaTeX preamble is constructed with the preamble element. Enter static text such as document class name, package declarations and other stuff you may need.

<preamble>
    \documentclass{scrbook}
    \usepackage{graphicx}
    \usepackage{hyperref}
    \usepackage{multirow}
    \usepackage{amsmath}
    \usepackage{amssymb}
</preamble>

Frontmatter

If you want to put content after \begin{document} but before the XML is inserted, you can do this with the front element. Typical use cases might be the creation of a frontmatter. If you do not want to add static content, you can help yourself with a few bits of XSLT as shown below:

<front>
    \title{<xsl:value-of select="title"/>}
    \date{<xsl:value-of select="info/date"/>}
    \author{<xsl:value-of select="info/author"/>}
</front>

Backmatter

If you want to put content right before \end{document}, you can use the back element for this purpose.

<back>
    \printindex
</back>

XML namespaces

If your XML input document use XML namespaces, it's necessary to declare each namespace with a corresponding ns element.

<ns prefix="dbk" uri="http://docbook.org/ns/docbook"/>
<ns prefix="css" uri="http://www.w3.org/1996/css"/>

Don't forget to use the declared namespace prefixes in the XPath expression of the context attribute. If a template don't match the considered XML nodes, it could be caused by a wrong namespace.

  • wrong: context="para"
  • right: context="dbk:para"

Templates and Rules

Templates

Templates are considered to match a certain XML node with a XPath expression and convert its contents according to a Rule statement into a LaTeX instruction. A template is specified with a template element.

<template context="dbk:para[@role = ('heading1')]">
    <rule type="cmd" name="chapter" break-after="1">
      <param/>
    </rule>
</template>

The @context attribute is used to specify the XML node which is processed by the template.

A Template can contain zero or one rule child element. If no rule exists, the XML node specified by the @context attribute is dropped.

Given this XML element…

<para xmlns="http://docbook.org/ns/docbook" role="heading1">my headline</para>

…the template above would generate this LaTeX code:

\chapter{my headline}

Rules

A rule is declared as child element named rule and is used to specify the LaTeX instruction.

<rule type="cmd" name="chapter" break-after="1">
  <param/>
</rule>

The value of the @type attribute specifies the certain type of the LaTeX instruction. Permitted values are cmd for instructions such as \chapter and env for environments such as \begin{itemize} … \end{itemize}.

The @name attribute describes the name of the LaTeX instruction.

@break-after is used to control the line breaks after the element. This attribute is necessary to control the whitespace after regular paragraphs.

Parameters, Options and Text

A rule can contain three child elements: text, param, option, which define how the content of the current XML node is wrapped. The param element specifies that the contents of the current context XML node is wrapped with curly braces {}. option is used to wrap the content with brackets [], hence text process it without any wrapper.

Each of these elements can contain a @select attribute. This attribute is optional and can be used to specify an XML node within the current context. The example below shows how to use the @select attribute to construct the parameters of a LaTeX link instruction.

<template context="dbk:link">
  <rule type="cmd" name="href">
    <param select="@xlink:href"/>
    <param select="dbk:phrase"/>
  </rule>
</template>

Storing separate files

Some TeX packages rely on external configuration files. For this purpose, you can store the evaluated context of a template to a separate file. The following example shows briefly how to generate a separate BibTeX file from an XML bibliography.

<template context="dbk:bibliography[@role eq 'Citavi']">
  <xsl:variable name="bibtex-path" select="concat($path, '/', $basename, '-citavi.bib')" as="xs:string"/>
  <rule name="bibliography" type="cmd" break-after="2" break-before="2">
    <param select="concat($basename, '-citavi')"/>
  </rule>
  <file href="{$bibtex-path}" encoding="utf-8"/>
</template>

Style Mapping

Frequently, you just want to map one element to a specific TeX instruction. Therefore xml2tex provides a simple style mapping. The content is selected by a specific attribute value. Therefore, you have to declare the name of the attribute globally with @style-attribute. Within style you specify the attribute value with @name. With @start and @end, you define which text is put around the content. Note: use Unicode entities such as &#xa; to insert line breaks or handle whitespace.

In the example below, all elements with a @role attribute and the value heading1 are converted to \chapter{ … }.

<set xmlns="http://transpect.io/xml2tex"
  style-attribute="role">

  <style name="heading1" start="\chapter{" end="}"/>

</set>

Regular Expressions

Instead of templates and style mapping, you can also use regular expressions to construct a LaTeX instruction. Therefore, you can use the element regex and specify a regular expressions with the @regex attribute.

If you want to use groups in your matching pattern, you can specify the optional attributeregex-group to select a specific group. The example below shows how to construct a date makro with regular expressions.

<regex regex="(\d{2})\.(\d{2})\.(\d{4})">
  <rule type="cmd" name="date">
    <param regex-group="1"/>
    <param regex-group="2"/>
    <param regex-group="3"/>
  </rule>
</regex>

Character Maps

Some LaTeX processors are only able to handle constrained character sets. Therefore it is recommended to include a character map in your configuration and map certain characters to LaTeX instructions.

A character map is wrapped by a charmap element. It can contain multiple character mapping entries, each specified with a char element. The attribute @character contains the character to be replaced with the value of @string. An optional @context attribute can be used to restrict the replacement to a certain XML context.

<charmap>
  <char character="&#xad;" string="&quot;-"/>
  <char character="Ä" string="\&#34;A" context="dbk:phrase, dbk:section|dbk:para, dbk:entry"/>
  <char character="ä" string="\&#34;a"/>
  <char character="Ö" string="\&#34;O"/>
  <char character="ö" string="\&#34;o" />
  <char character="Ü" string="\&#34;U" />
  <char character="ü" string="\&#34;u" />
  <char character="ß" string="\ss{}" />
</charmap>

Please note: we use per default an irreversible unicode decomposition of diacritical characters to convert fractions or german Umlauts to their respective latex representations, e.g. ü => \"u. This unicode decomposition is just performed for characters which actually can be decomposited into combining characters. For some languages e.g. with a kyrillic alphabet this can cause issues with TeX renderers who don't understand Unicode combining characters. There are two ways to suppress this Unicode normalization:

1. The sane way

Selectively add characters which can be decomposited into a character and its respective combining character. Just add the character to the charmap and "replace" it with itself:

<charmap>
  <char character="ü" string="ü"/>
  <!-- (...) -->
</charmap>

2. Your gun, your foot

Deactivate character decomposition globally by just adding decompose-diacritics="no" to the xml2tex root element.

<set xmlns="http://transpect.io/xml2tex" decompose-diacritics="no">
  <!-- (...) -->
</set>

Import other configurations

In most cases it's more applicable to import an existing configuration than to write a new one from scratch or fork an existing one. There is a convenient method for importing other configurations. You just have to add at the top of your configuration an import statement which points to the location of the imported configuration. Here is an example:

<set xmlns="http://transpect.io/xml2tex">

  <import href="../conf/default.xml"/>
  <!-- (...) -->
</set>

Naturally, the configuration with the import statement has always precedence before the imported configuration. Please note that in case of character maps, you can selectively overwrite single char mappings.

Inline XSLT

You can use XSLT everywhere in the configuration. This may be useful if you need more programming features than the xml2tex configuration provides. So you even can write your own XSLT functions include other XSLT stylesheets or make use of variables.

<preamble>
  <!-- use german babel package when document language is 'de' -->
  <xsl:if test="/*/@xml:lang eq 'de'">
    <xsl:text>\usepackage[ngerman]{babel}</xsl:text>
  </xsl:if>
<preamble>

The configuration is converted to XSLT and then applied at the input. If something in your configuration is wrong, the stylesheet propably won't compile. In this case you should set the debug option to yes and investigate the generated stylesheet in {debug-dir-uri}/xm2tex/xml2tex01.config.xsl.

MathML

Equations specified in MathML syntax are automatically converted with the module mml2tex.

Tables

CALS tables are converted automatically converted to tabular tables. A XSLT stylesheet which converts also HTML tables is considered for a later release.

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