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Digital forensic acquisition tool for Windows based incident response.


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Digital forensic acquisition tool for Windows-based incident response.

How to Use

To run, drop dfirtriage.exe on the target or connected USB drive and execute with admin rights, -h for help.

DFIRTriage v6.0 User's Manual


This document outlines the functionality and proper use of the DFIRtriage tool. Also included is detailed information to help with analysis of the output. The goal is to equip the Incident Responder with the tools needed to gather and analyze data quickly.


DFIRtriage is an incident response tool designed to provide the Incident Responder with rapid host data. Upon execution, select host data and information will be gathered and placed into the execution directory. DFIRtriage may be ran from a USB drive or executed remotely on the target host.

What’s new in v6.0?

Output restructure

  • Reorganized the output files and directories in a more logical manner

Logging total run time

  • added total run time to the run log file (runlog.txt)

Bug fixes

  • non-zero exit status 1 when ntuser.dat is missing from a user profile directory
  • now only attempts to pull locked files from user profile directories where an ntuser.dat file exists

Added arguments for individual system artifacts

  • breaking up the system file acquisition option into individual artifacts cuts down on the total file size when you are only wanting one and not all 3. -sdb, --srumdb (srum database), -hf, --hiberfil (hiberfil.sys), -p, --pagefile (pagefile.sys)

Improved executable file hashing capabilites

  • Hashes all .dll and .exe files on the OS drive. Recommended to disable A/V realtime scanning when using the hash arguments.

Running process details

  • improved the running process information to include PID, PPID, process name, command executed to launch the process, and files opened by the process.

Bitlocker key dump

  • to dump OS drive bitlocker key information you can now pass the -bl or --bitlocker argument on the command line

Memory acquisition no longer default action

  • to acquire memory you must pass the -m or --memory argument on the command line

User prompt removed from end of execution

  • no longer need to designate the -hl or --headless argument to bypass the ending user prompt, script will run to completion, clean up, and exit with no user intervention.

Windows firewall

  • dumping Windows firewall configuration
  • default parsing of key firewall events
  • pulling full firewall event log (EVTX) with -elf argument

Improved user account report

  • creating a more detailed user account report that includes account SIDs and last logon time.

dtfind - admin requirement removed

  • removed the requirement for admin permissions to run dtfind

3rd party tools update

  • toolset has been updated with current tool versions

External IP

  • Grabs endpoint external IP address


  • Now acquires Powershell history for commands ran by SYSTEM
  • Full Powershell EVTX file is now pulled with -elf, --evtlogfiles argument

System Information

  • New system and networked data collected in WLAN report

Event Logs

  • Acquires virtual drive (VHD) drive mount events from VHD operations event log
  • New event log events added to default collection.
  • Pulling full Powershell and Firewall event logs with -elf, --evtlogfiles argument

Application event log

  • WER events for application crashes only (1001)
  • User logging on with temporary profile (1511)
  • Cannot create profile using temporary profile (1518)
  • Application error events, similar to WER/1001. These include full path to faulting EXE/Module (1000)
  • Application crash/hang events, similar to WER/1001. These include full path to faulting EXE/Module (1002)

Security event log

  • Replay attack (4649)
  • Kerberos TGT request (4768)
  • Kerberos service ticket requested (4769)
  • Kerberos service ticket renewal (4770)
  • Kerberos pre-authentication failed (4771)
  • Workstation locked (4800)
  • Workstation unlocked (4801)
  • Screensaver was invoked (4802)
  • Screensaver was dismissed (4803)
  • An attempt was made to change an account's password (4723)
  • A user account was disabled (4725)
  • A user account was deleted (4726)
  • Group creations (4727, 4731, 4754)
  • Group member removals (4729, 4733, 4757)
  • Group changes (4735, 4737, 4755, 4764)
  • A user account was locked out (4740)
  • A computer account was created (4741)
  • A computer account was changed (4742)
  • A computer account was deleted (4743)
  • SID history (4765, 4766)
  • A user account was unlocked (4767)
  • ACL set on accounts (4780)
  • System time was changed (4616)
  • Kerberos service ticket was denied (4821)
  • NTLM authentication failed (4822, 4823)
  • Kerberos pre-authentication failed (4824)
  • Certificate Services received a certificate request (4886)
  • Certificate Services approved a certificate request (4887)
  • A Certificate Services template was updated (4899)
  • Certificate Services template security was updated (4900)
  • Kerberos policy was changed (4713)
  • An operation was performed on an object (4662)

Powershell event log

  • PowerShell executes block activity (4103)
  • Remote Command (4104)

Windows Firewall event log

Local Modifications (Levels 0, 2, 4) (2004, 2005, 2006, 2009, 2033)


The tool repository contains the full toolset required for proper execution and is packed into a single a single file named This .ir file is the only required dependency of DFIRtriage when running in Python and should reside in a directory named data, (ie. ./data/ The compiled version of DFIRtriage has the full toolset embedded and does not require the addition of the ./data/ file.


DFIRtriage acquires data from the host on which it is executed. Behind the keyboard executions are best conducted from a USB device. For acquisitions of remote hosts, the DFIRtriage files will need to be copied to the target, then executed via remote shell. (ie. SSH or PSEXEC)


WARNING: Do not use PSEXEC arguments to pass credentials to a remote system for authentication. Doing so will send your username and password across the network in the clear.

The following steps should be taken for proper usage of PSEXEC

  1. Map a network drive and authenticate with an account that has local administrative privileges on the target host.

You can used this mapped connection to copy DFIRtriage to the target.

  1. We can now shovel a remote shell to the target host using PSEXEC.

    psexec \\target\_host cmd

  2. You now have a remote shell on the target. All commands executed at this point are done so on the target host.


  1. Once the remote shell has been established on the target you can change directory to the location of the extracted DFIRtriage.exe file and execute.

  2. Memory acquisition does not occur by default. To dump memory, pass the following argument: -m, --memory

  3. DFIRtriage must be executed with Administrative privileges.


Once complete, press enter to cleanup the output directory. If running the executable, the only data remaining with be a zipped archive of the output as well as DFIRtriage.exe. If running the Python code directly only DFIRtriage python script and a zipped archive of the output are left.


The output folder name includes the target hostname and a date/time code indicating when DFIRtriage was executed. The date/time code format is YYYYMMDDHHMMSS.


The table below provides a general listing of the type of information and artifacts gathered by DFIRtriage v6.0.

Artifacts Description
Memory Raw image acquisition
System information Build, version, installed patches, bitlocker & shadow copy info, etc.
Current date and time Current system date and time
Prefetch Collects and parses prefetch data
PowerShell command history Gathers PowerShell command history for all users including the SYSTEM account
User activity HTML report of recent user activity
File hash Calculates an MD5, SHA-1, or SHA-256 hash of all EXE and DLL files on the OS partition
Network information Network configuration, routing tables, connections, etc.
DNS cache entries List of complete DNS cache contents
ARP table information List of complete ARP cache contents
NetBIOS information Active NetBIOS sessions, transferred files, etc.
Windows Update Log Gathers update information and builds Windows update log
Windows Event Logs Gathers and parses multiple Windows Event logs
Process information Processes, PID, image path, and full command line
List of remotely opened files Files on target system opened by remote hosts
List of hidden directories List of all hidden directories on the system partition
Alternate Data Streams List of files containing alternate data streams
Complete file listing Full list of all files on the system partition
List of scheduled tasks List of all configured scheduled tasks
Hash of all collected triage data SHA-256 hash of all data collected by DFIRtriage
Local & domain user account information Usernames, profile paths, account SID, etc.
Autorun information All autorun locations and content
Logged on users All users currently logged on to target system
Registry hives Pulls down all registry hives
USB artifacts Collects data needed to parse USB usage info
Browser History Aggregated report of browser history
SRUM database System usage information collected by SRUM (System Usage Resource Monitor)


This section of the manual is provided to offer guidance during analysis of the DFIRtriage output.  The below information is only provided as a guideline as it would not be practical to detail every possible use of this data. The bulk of analysis will depend on context and the analysis skills of the Incident Responder.

Output Directory Root Analysis Notes
ForensicImages\ See information below for content details. Compressed triage collection data
triage_acquisition_hashlist.csv This file contains the calculated hash value for all data collected by DFIRtriage. This information can be used to verify integrity of the output data.

ForensicImages \ hdd Analysis Notes
.E01, .dd, etc The triage script does not acquire a file system image. This folder is here for organizational purposes should one be acquired.

ForensicImages \ memory Analysis Notes
memdump.raw memdump.raw is a full raw image of volatile memory which should be acquired before a shutdown or reboot of the target machine. Multiple memory analysis tools should be used for cross-validation of findings.

ForensicImages \ system-files Analysis Notes
hiberfil.sys Hiberfil.sys is a compressed RAM image created during a system hibernation event.
pagefile.sys Pagefile.sys stores data that would normally be written to RAM when no RAM is available.
srudb.dat Srudb.dat contains system usage information collected by SRUM (System Usage Resource Monitor)

LiveResponseData \ filesystem Analysis Notes
Alternate_data_streams.txt Contains all files on the target system that contain alternate data stream content. Alternate data streams can be used to easily hide information, or even entire files while remaining undetected by the user. This report is very helpful in determining if a known folder or file is present on the target system.
List_hidden_directories.txt Log of all directories that have been hidden from the User. This log should be reviewed for suspicious hidden directories in unusual locations (e.g. in user temp folders)
psfile.txt Review information to determine if there are any files opened remotely on the target host.
shadow_files.txt Provides details on volume shadow points available on the target system.

LiveResponseData \ hashes Analysis Notes
hash-report.csv Provides an MD5, SHA-1, or SHA-256 hash value of all accessible EXE and DLL files on the target system if an argument is passed (eg. -sha256). Data can be reviewed for suspicious filenames and hash values can be used to search IOC databases.

LiveResponseData \ logs Analysis Notes
BrowsingHistoryView.csv Offers a quick review of browser activity. Will contain information from IE, Chrome, Firefox, and Safari if available. The -bho argument can be used when executing to force a browser history “only” acquisition.
eventlogs_key_events.csv There are a total of 96 select events total from the application, system, security, and PowerShell event logs and this log file is generated by default.
eventlogs-all.csv Contains parsed data from all events in the Application, System, Security, and Powershell event logs. Created by the “-elpa, --evtlogparseall” command line argument.
firewall_events.csv This log contains all Windows Firewall modification events (Levels 0, 2, 4).
rdp_logon_logoff_events.csv Contains all Remote Desktop logon and logoff events from the Windows Terminal Services Local Session Manager event logs.
vhd_mount_log.csv This log will show details on image files (eg. ISO files) mounted on the system.
EVTX files If the “-elf, --eventlogfiles” argument is used, full copies of the Application, System, Security, Powershell, & Firewall event logs will be acquired.
powershell_command_history_.txt Contains Powershell command history for all users if available.

LiveResponseData \ Network Analysis Notes
ARP.txt This file contains the ARP cache from the target system. While the ARP protocol is not routable to the internet, it can help to identify additional hosts on a network that may have been compromised or that may have been used to launch the internal attack.
cports.html This is a very detail report showing TCP/UDP connections on the target host. Additionally, you have information on the process that created the connection (name, PID, etc.), the Window Title (if exists), and more.
DNS_cache.txt This is a log file of the target system DNS cache. Malware generally can connect to the network in order to do things like gathering additional exploits, join a command & control infrastructure, wait for more commands, etc. It is common for malware to be coded with domain names which must queried and resolved before it can connect. This information can be found in the DNS cache.
hosts.txt This is a copy of the contents of the system HOSTS file
Internet_settings.txt This is a log of the local network adapter configuration on the target host. This log should be reviewed to ensure the settings are correct and have not been altered. (E.g. Suspicious domains added to the DNS Suffix Search List)
NetBIOS_sessions.txt This file will contain information on any current NetBIOS sessions to the target host.
NetBIOS_transferred_files.txt This log will show if any files were transferred over the network from the target host using the “net file” command.
Open_network_connections.txt This file also contains TCP/UDP connection information. The process PID and connection state information is also available. While it may seem redundant, it is essential to identify current and recent network activity. Some of these tools may capture information that the others miss. All findings should be validated.
routing_table.txt This file contains the routing table of the target host. This information should be reviewed to ensure it has not been modified with additional routes or a modified gateway. Comparing this information to the routing table from a known good machine may be helpful.
Tcpvcon.txt Additional information on network connections from target host. Contains protocol type (TCP/UDP), process name, PID, state, local address, and remote address.

LiveResponseData \ Network \ WLAN Analysis Notes
wlan-report-latest.html This is a wireless network report showing all Wi-Fi events from the last three days and groups them by Wi-Fi connection sessions. It also shows the results of several network-related command line scripts and a list of all the network adapters on the endpoing.

LiveResponseData \ persistence Analysis Notes
autorunsc.txt This information will show all the programs that Windows will automatically execute when starting up. This is a very common method used by malware to maintain persistence on a system. This data can be reviewed for suspicious file names and paths.
Loaded_dlls.txt This file contains a process listing which includes all loaded DLLs for each running process. Persistence can be gained by injecting a malicious DLL into a normal Windows process. This data should be examined for suspicious DLLs. It is very helpful to have a list of loaded DLLs from a known good system to use for comparison.
scheduled_tasks.txt This file contains all scheduled tasks found on the target system. Inserting a scheduled task into the target host is a common method used by malware to maintain persistence on the victim machine. This information should be reviewed for suspicious tasks.
services_aw_processes.txt This file provides a list of services running on the target system, with the associated process name and PID. Rogue services are another persistence mechanism that can be utilized by malware.

LiveResponseData \ prefetch Analysis Notes
parsed-prefetch.txt This file contains parsed data from the prefetch files collected from the target system. Information such as file name, modified, accessed, and created times, number of times executed, last run time, and all loaded DLLs and other dependent files used during execution.

LiveResponseData \ prefetch \ raw Analysis Notes
.pf The “raw” subdirectory contains the raw prefetch files found on the target system. This data is collected and then parsed later in the DFIRtriage process. The filenames of the prefetch files will give you an indication of which programs where recently executed. Especially useful if you already have a binary name from an external source.

LiveResponseData \ processes Analysis Notes
running_processes.csv This report provides details on all processes currently running in memory. The PID and PPID information helps to determine the order in which the processes occur in memory as well as the spawning or parent process. In addition, it provides the full command line used to execute the process.

LiveResponseData \ registry Analysis Notes
*-parsed.txt Regripper output for each of the registry hives.

LiveResponseData \ registry \ raw Analysis Notes
NTUSER & USRCLASS A copy of the user registry hives NTUSER.dat and USRCLASS.dat are acquired for all user profiles found on the target system. These user registry files contain information on general user behavior such as recently viewed documents, typed URLs, mount points, mapped drives, local search terms, uninstalled software, and more. These files can be parsed with Regripper for easier analysis.
SAM A copy of the Security Accounts Manager registry hive (SAM) from the target system. The SAM registry file contains local user and group information such as Security Identifiers (SID) for local accounts and groups, account and group creation and deletion information. This file can be parsed with Regripper for easier analysis.
SECURITY A copy of the Security registry hive (SECURITY) from the target system. The SECURITY registry hive contains account and system security information such as local security policies, user rights assignments, password policies, and more. The SECURITY hive is linked to the SAM hive for update accuracy. This file can be parsed with Regripper for easier analysis.
SOFTWARE A copy of the Software registry hive (SOFTWARE) from the target system. The SOFTWARE registry hive contains information about installed software, uninstalled software, file extension associations, last logged on user, and more. This file can be parsed with Regripper for easier analysis.
SYSTEM A copy of the System registry hive (SYSTEM) from the target system. The SYSTEM registry hive contains information specific to the software and hardware configuration of the target system. For example, the SYSTEM registry contains system startup parameters, device driver configurations, hardware configurations, time zone settings, computer names, USB connections and pointers, and more. This file can be parsed with Regripper for easier analysis.

LiveResponseData \ system Analysis Notes
Bitlocker_key.txt This file contains the bitlocker recovery keys found on the endpoint. Created by the “-bl, --bitlocker” command line argument.
firewall_config.txt An export of all configured Windows Firewall rules
system_info.txt Detailed target system information.
Windows_codepage.txt This file contains the active code page identifier on the target system. The typical North America EHI build should have a code page value of “437”. This is typically not an issue but modifying this value will cause data corruption.
Windows_Version.txt Contains the version of Windows running on the target system.
WindowsUpdate.log The Windows update log is no longer created by the system as of Windows 10, so we’re building it from converted event trace log (ETL) data.

LiveResponseData \ usbdevices \ usb-install-logs Analysis Notes
setupapi.*.log This is a copy of all device installation logs from the target system. These logs, in correlation with the SYSTEM registry hive, can be used to determine the first time a removable device (e.g. USB drive) was plugged into the system.
PsLoggedon.txt Use this information to help identify any users (local or remote) who are authenticated to target system.

LiveResponseData \ user Analysis Notes
List_users.txt This file simply contains a list of all local user accounts found on the target system. This file can be reviewed for suspicious local accounts.
Local_user_list.txt A list of all local user accounts.
LastActivityView.html An HTML report of recent user activity.
PsLoggedon.txt Use this information to help identify any users (local or remote) who are authenticated to target system.
user_acct_report.txt Provides local & domain usernames, profile paths, account SID, etc.


Event Log Event ID Description
SECURITY 1102 user cleared security log; this is logged regardless of audit policy
SECURITY 4616 System time was changed
SECURITY 4624 successful logon
SECURITY 4625 failed logon
SECURITY 4634 Logoff
SECURITY 4647 User initiated logoff
SECURITY 4648 RunAs usage, privilege escalation, lateral movement
SECURITY 4649 Replay attack
SECURITY 4662 An operation was performed on an object
SECURITY 4672 Special privileges attempted login
SECURITY 4697 service creation, details will contain service image name (e.g. psexec), persistence
SECURITY 4698 Scheduled task created, potential for persistence
SECURITY 4722 a user account was enabled
SECURITY 4724 user account password reset attempt
SECURITY 4728 member added to security-enabled global group
SECURITY 4732 user added to privileged local group
SECURITY 4735 security-enabled local group was changed
SECURITY 4738 a user account was changed
SECURITY 4756 a member was added to a security-enabled universal group
SECURITY 4768 Kerberos TGT request
SECURITY 4769 Kerberos service ticket requested
SECURITY 4713 Kerberos policy was changed
SECURITY 4770 Kerberos service ticket renewal
SECURITY 4771 Kerberos pre-auth failed
SECURITY 4634, 4647 successful logoff
SECURITY 4672 account logon with superuser rights (I.e. administrator)
SECURITY 4776 Domain controller validation attempt
SECURITY 4778 an RDP session was reconnected as opposed to a fresh logon seen by event 4624
SECURITY 4688 new process created (includes exe path); process exit
SECURITY 4699 scheduled task was deleted
SECURITY 4700 scheduled task was enabled
SECURITY 4701 scheduled task disabled
SECURITY 4702 scheduled task was updated
SECURITY 4720 an account was created
SECURITY 4722 A user account was enabled
SECURITY 4723 An attempt was made to change an account’s password
SECURITY 4724 An attempt was made to reset an account’s password
SECURITY 4725 A user account was disabled
SECURITY 4726 A user account was deleted
SECURITY 4735, 4737, 4755, 4764 Group creations
SECURITY 4738 A user account was changed
SECURITY 4740 A user account was locked out
SECURITY 4741 A computer account was created
SECURITY 4742 A computer account was changed
SECURITY 4743 A computer account was deleted
SECURITY 4765, 4766 SID history
SECURITY 4767 A user account was unlocked
SECURITY 4776 account logon success/fail, can identify auth for a mapped drive
SECURITY 4779 an RDP session was disconnected as opposed to a logoff seen by events 4647 or 4634
SECURITY 4780 ACL set on accounts
SECURITY 4798 a user's local group membership was enumerated
SECURITY 4799 a security-enabled local group membership was enumerated
SECURITY 4800 Workstation locked
SECURITY 4801 Workstation unlocked
SECURITY 4802 Screensaver was invoked
SECURITY 4803 Screensaver was dismissed
SECURITY 4821 Kerberos service ticket was denied
SECURITY 4822, 4823 NTLM authentication failed
SECURITY 4824 Kerberos pre-authentication failed
SECURITY 4825 User denied access to Remote Desktop
SECURITY 4886 Certificate Services received a certificate request
SECURITY 4887 Certificate Services approved a certificate requeset
SECURITY 4899 Certificate Services template was updated
SECURITY 4900 Certificate Services template security was updated
SECURITY 5058 Key file operation
SECURITY 5059 Key migration operation
SECURITY 5140 network share was accessed
SECURITY 5145 shared object was accessed
SECURITY 7034 service crashed unexpectedly
SECURITY 7036 service started or stopped
SECURITY 7040 service start type changed (boot | on request | disabled)
APPLICATION 1022 new MSI file installed.
APPLICATION 1033 program installed using MSI installer
APPLICATION 1034 application removal complete (success/failure status)
APPLICATION 11707 installation completed successfully
APPLICATION 11708 installation operation failed
APPLICATION 11724 application removal completed successfully
APPLICATION 1000 Application crash/hang events, like WER/1001 and include full path to faulting EXE/Module
APPLICATION 1001, 1002 WER events for application crashes only
APPLICATION 1511 User logging on with temporary profile
APPLICATION 1518 Cannot create profile using temporary profile
SYSTEM 6 new kernel filter driver possible indication of kernel-mode rootkit installation
SYSTEM 104 user cleared system log OR application log (note: clearing application log creates event in system log, not app log)
SYSTEM 7035 successful start OR stop control was sent to a service
SYSTEM 7045 new Windows service was installed
POWERSHELL/OPERATIONAL 600 Powershell command executed
POWERSHELL/OPERATIONAL 4105, 4106 Powershell script start/stop
POWERSHELL/OPERATIONAL 4103 Powershell executes block activity
MICROSOFT-WINDOWS-VHDMP 1 Surface Disk - Shows when a virtual drive image file is mounted.  Eg. “The VHD C:\Users<USER>\AppData\Local\Temp\1\Temp1_KYC_BP12(Dec15).zip\KYC#BP12.img has come online (surfaced) as disk number 0.”
WINDOWS FIREWALL WITH ADVANCED SECURITY 2004, 2005, 2006, 2009, 2033 Local Modifications (Levels 0, 2, 4)


Digital forensic acquisition tool for Windows based incident response.







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