An experimental alternative take on a graph library for Haskell (inspired by fgl and the Boost Graph Library)
Switch branches/tags
Nothing to show
Clone or download
Fetching latest commit…
Cannot retrieve the latest commit at this time.
Failed to load latest commit information.


I consider this library deprecated in favor of haggle, which is more efficient and has better documentation.


This library is an attempt at revising (and documenting) the classic functional graph library (fgl) for Haskell. The main contributions over fgl are:

  • The monolithic interface is split into several independent interfaces. Different implementations need only implement the interfaces that are sensible for them.

  • The interface uses associated types to parameterize node types, node label types, and edge label types. This means that Node is not restricted to just Int anymore. It also means that graph types do not need to be of kind * -> * (though they can be).

  • Most of the interface functions are now class members. Most of them have default implementations, but those can be overridden if the underlying graph representation can perform them more efficiently. (That is, the overriding can be done without the GHC rule pragmas found in the original implementation of the PatriciaTree). Only functions need to be implemented to cover the entire API (fgl only requires 10 -- parity is probably possible).

  • This package also contains an implementation of the graph interface based on the original PatriciaTree, but with parameterized edge storage. That is, edges can be stored in lists, sets, hash sets, or hash maps. Benchmarks forthcoming. A significant advantage of using structures besides lists is that graphs have canonical forms and can be compared efficiently. Lists vs. sets also provide alternatives for handling multi-graphs.

At the end of the day, the interface itself is mostly compatible with fgl. Instead of using Gr directly, choose a more specific type (LGraph should be equivalent).


Its main contribution is breaking the monolithic graph interface presented by fgl into smaller independent interfaces. Ideally, implementations of graphs will implement only the interfaces that make sense for them. The sub-interfaces are inspired by the concepts in the Boost Graph Library with the names and types modified to make more sense for Haskell.

I am not set on the current interfaces and may collapse a few. The biggest advantage of splitting the interface is that interesting graph variants with no natural (or efficient) implementations of some methods are now possible. For example, graphs that store their edges using unboxed vectors are not easily decomposable via match, but are very space efficient and useful for immutable graphs. Additionally, graphs that do not track predecessors can be useful when building large graphs and not removing any nodes or edges.


This package currently contains a parameterized implementation of most of the graph interfaces based on the original PatriciaTree from fgl. This implementation allows for different choices of edge storage. Unfortunately the type signatures of the implementation are a bit scary (it even uses -XUndecidableInstances). I would like to clean it up eventually, but at least clients are not affected.