A Bash shell script which uses ipset and iptables to ban a large number of IP addresses published in IP blacklists. ipset uses a hashtable to store/fetch IP addresses and thus the IP lookup is a lot (!) faster than thousands of sequentially parsed iptables ban rules.
However, the limit of an ipset list is 2^16 entries.
The ipset command doesn't work under OpenVZ. It works fine on dedicated and fully virtualized servers like KVM though.
- 10/17/2018: Added support for CIDR aggregation if iprange command is available
- 10/17/2018: Merged Shellcheck PR from @extremeshok
- 05/10/2018: Added regex filter improvements from @sbujam
- 08/15/2017: Filtering default gateway and multicast ranges
- 01/20/2017: Ignoring "Service unavailable" HTTP status code, removed IGNORE_CURL_ERRORS
- 11/04/2016: Documentation added to show how to prevent fail2ban from inserting its rules above the ipset-blacklist when restarting the fail2ban service
- 11/11/2015: Merged all suggestions from @drzraf
- 10/24/2015: Outsourced the entire configuration in it's own configuration file. Makes updating the shell script way easier!
- 10/22/2015: Changed the documentation, the script should be put in /usr/local/sbin not /usr/local/bin
Quick start for Debian/Ubuntu based installations
- wget -O /usr/local/sbin/update-blacklist.sh https://raw.githubusercontent.com/trick77/ipset-blacklist/master/update-blacklist.sh
- chmod +x /usr/local/sbin/update-blacklist.sh
- mkdir -p /etc/ipset-blacklist ; wget -O /etc/ipset-blacklist/ipset-blacklist.conf https://raw.githubusercontent.com/trick77/ipset-blacklist/master/ipset-blacklist.conf
- Modify ipset-blacklist.conf according to your needs. Per default, the blacklisted IP addresses will be saved to /etc/ipset-blacklist/ip-blacklist.restore
- apt-get install ipset
- Create the ipset blacklist and insert it into your iptables input filter (see below). After proper testing, make sure to persist it in your firewall script or similar or the rules will be lost after the next reboot.
- Auto-update the blacklist using a cron job
First run, create the list
to generate the /etc/ipset-blacklist/ip-blacklist.restore
iptables filter rule
# Enable blacklists ipset restore < /etc/ipset-blacklist/ip-blacklist.restore iptables -I INPUT 1 -m set --match-set blacklist src -j DROP
Make sure to run this snippet in a firewall script or just insert it to /etc/rc.local.
In order to auto-update the blacklist, copy the following code into /etc/cron.d/update-blacklist. Don't update the list too often or some blacklist providers will ban your IP address. Once a day should be OK though.
PATH=/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin MAILTO=root 33 23 * * * root /usr/local/sbin/update-blacklist.sh /etc/ipset-blacklist/ipset-blacklist.conf
Check for dropped packets
Using iptables, you can check how many packets got dropped using the blacklist:
drfalken@wopr:~# iptables -L INPUT -v --line-numbers Chain INPUT (policy DROP 60 packets, 17733 bytes) num pkts bytes target prot opt in out source destination 1 15 1349 DROP all -- any any anywhere anywhere match-set blacklist src 2 0 0 fail2ban-vsftpd tcp -- any any anywhere anywhere multiport dports ftp,ftp-data,ftps,ftps-data 3 912 69233 fail2ban-ssh-ddos tcp -- any any anywhere anywhere multiport dports ssh 4 912 69233 fail2ban-ssh tcp -- any any anywhere anywhere multiport dports ssh
Since iptable rules are parsed sequentally, the ipset-blacklist is most effective if it's the topmost rule in iptable's INPUT chain. However, restarting fail2ban usually leads to a situation, where fail2ban inserts its rules above our blacklist drop rule. To prevent this from happening we have to tell fail2ban to insert its rules at the 2nd position. Since the iptables-multiport action is the default ban-action we have to add a file to /etc/fail2ban/action.d:
tee << EOF /etc/fail2ban/action.d/iptables-multiport.local [Definition] actionstart = <iptables> -N f2b-<name> <iptables> -A f2b-<name> -j <returntype> <iptables> -I <chain> 2 -p <protocol> -m multiport --dports <port> -j f2b-<name> EOF
(Please keep in in mind this is entirely optional, it just makes dropping blacklisted IP addresses most effective)
Modify the blacklists you want to use
Edit the BLACKLIST array in /etc/ipset-blacklist/ipset-blacklist.conf to add or remove blacklists, or use it to add your own blacklists.
BLACKLISTS=( "http://www.mysite.me/files/mycustomblacklist.txt" # Your personal blacklist "http://www.projecthoneypot.org/list_of_ips.php?t=d&rss=1" # Project Honey Pot Directory of Dictionary Attacker IPs # I don't want this: "http://www.openbl.org/lists/base.txt" # OpenBL.org 30 day List )
If you for some reason want to ban all IP addresses from a certain country, have a look at IPverse.net's aggregated IP lists which you can simply add to the BLACKLISTS variable. For a ton of spam and malware related blacklists, check out this github repo: https://github.com/firehol/blocklist-ipsets
Set blacklist-tmp is full, maxelem 65536 reached
Increase the ipset list capacity. For instance, if you want to store up to 80,000 entries, add these lines to your ipset-blacklist.conf:
ipset v6.20.1: Error in line 2: Set cannot be created: set with the same name already exists
If this happens after changing the MAXELEM parameter: ipset seems to be unable to recreate an exising list with a different size. You will have to solve this manually by deleting and inserting the blacklist in ipset and iptables. A reboot will help as well and may be easier. You may want to remove /etc/ipset-blacklist/ip-blacklist.restore too because it may still contain the old MAXELEM size.
ipset v6.12: No command specified: unknown argument -file
You're using an outdated version of ipset which is not supported.