Skip to content
master
Go to file
Code

Files

Permalink
Failed to load latest commit information.
Type
Name
Latest commit message
Commit time
Nov 15, 2019
lib
Aug 14, 2018
Apr 14, 2020

README.md

Iptables Essentials: Common Firewall Rules and Commands


Pull Requests MIT License

Created by trimstray and contributors

☑️ TODO

  • Add useful Iptables configuration examples
  • Add useful Kernel Settings (sysctl) configuration
  • Add links to useful external resources
  • Add advanced configuration examples, commands, rules

Table of Contents


Tools to help you configure Iptables

  🔸 Shorewall - advanced gateway/firewall configuration tool for GNU/Linux.
  🔸 Firewalld - provides a dynamically managed firewall.
  🔸 UFW - default firewall configuration tool for Ubuntu.
  🔸 FireHOL - offer simple and powerful configuration for all Linux firewall and traffic shaping requirements.

Manuals/Howtos/Tutorials

  🔸 Best practices: iptables - by Major Hayden
  🔸 An In-Depth Guide to Iptables, the Linux Firewall
  🔸 Advanced Features of netfilter/iptables
  🔸 Linux Firewalls Using iptables
  🔸 Debugging iptables and common firewall pitfalls?
  🔸 Netfilter Hacking HOWTO
  🔸 Per-IP rate limiting with iptables

Useful Kernel Settings (sysctl) Configuration

rp_filter

Disable routing triangulation. Respond to queries out the same interface, not another. Also protects against IP spoofing.

cat << EOF >> /etc/sysctl.d/40-custom.conf
net/ipv4/conf/all/rp_filter = 1
EOF
log_martians

Enable logging of packets with malformed IP addresses.

cat << EOF >> /etc/sysctl.d/40-custom.conf
net/ipv4/conf/all/log_martians = 1
EOF
send_redirects

Disables sending of all IPv4 ICMP redirected packets on all interfaces.

cat << EOF >> /etc/sysctl.d/40-custom.conf
net/ipv4/conf/all/send_redirects = 0
EOF
accept_source_route

Disable source routed packets (packets with the Strict Source Route (SSR) or Loose Source Routing (LSR) option set).

cat << EOF >> /etc/sysctl.d/40-custom.conf
net/ipv4/conf/all/accept_source_route = 0
EOF
accept_redirects

Disable acceptance of ICMP redirects.

cat << EOF >> /etc/sysctl.d/40-custom.conf
net/ipv4/conf/all/accept_redirects = 0
EOF
tcp_syncookies

Turn on SYN-flood protections (protection from Denial of Service (DOS) attacks).

cat << EOF >> /etc/sysctl.d/40-custom.conf
net/ipv4/tcp_syncookies = 1
EOF
icmp_echo_ignore_broadcasts

Disable responding to ping broadcasts.

cat << EOF >> /etc/sysctl.d/40-custom.conf
net/ipv4/icmp_echo_ignore_broadcasts = 1
EOF
ip_forward

Enable IP routing. Required if your firewall is protecting a network, NAT included.

cat << EOF >> /etc/sysctl.d/40-custom.conf
net/ipv4/ip_forward = 1
EOF

How it works?

Master

Iptables Rules

Saving Rules

Debian Based
netfilter-persistent save
RedHat Based
service iptables save

List out all of the active iptables rules with verbose

iptables -n -L -v

List out all of the active iptables rules with numeric lines and verbose

iptables -n -L -v --line-numbers

Print out all of the active iptables rules

iptables -S

List Rules as Tables for INPUT chain

iptables -L INPUT

Print all of the rule specifications in the INPUT chain

iptables -S INPUT

Show Packet Counts and Aggregate Size

iptables -L INPUT -v

To display INPUT or OUTPUT chain rules with numeric lines and verbose

iptables -L INPUT -n -v
iptables -L OUTPUT -n -v --line-numbers

Delete Rule by Chain and Number

iptables -D INPUT 10

Delete Rule by Specification

iptables -D INPUT -m conntrack --ctstate INVALID -j DROP

Flush All Rules, Delete All Chains, and Accept All

iptables -P INPUT ACCEPT
iptables -P FORWARD ACCEPT
iptables -P OUTPUT ACCEPT

iptables -t nat -F
iptables -t mangle -F
iptables -F
iptables -X

Flush All Chains

iptables -F

Flush a Single Chain

iptables -F INPUT

Insert Firewall Rules

iptables -I INPUT 2 -s 202.54.1.2 -j DROP

Allow Loopback Connections

iptables -A INPUT -i lo -j ACCEPT
iptables -A OUTPUT -o lo -j ACCEPT

Allow Established and Related Incoming Connections

iptables -A INPUT -m conntrack --ctstate ESTABLISHED,RELATED -j ACCEPT

Allow Established Outgoing Connections

iptables -A OUTPUT -m conntrack --ctstate ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT

Internal to External

iptables -A FORWARD -i eth1 -o eth0 -j ACCEPT

Drop Invalid Packets

iptables -A INPUT -m conntrack --ctstate INVALID -j DROP

Block an IP Address

iptables -A INPUT -s 192.168.252.10 -j DROP

Block and IP Address and Reject

iptables -A INPUT -s 192.168.252.10 -j REJECT

Block Connections to a Network Interface

iptables -A INPUT -i eth0 -s 192.168.252.10 -j DROP

Allow All Incoming SSH

iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 22 -m conntrack --ctstate NEW,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT
iptables -A OUTPUT -p tcp --sport 22 -m conntrack --ctstate ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT

Allow Incoming SSH from Specific IP address or subnet

iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -s 192.168.240.0/24 --dport 22 -m conntrack --ctstate NEW,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT
iptables -A OUTPUT -p tcp --sport 22 -m conntrack --ctstate ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT

Allow Outgoing SSH

iptables -A OUTPUT -p tcp --dport 22 -m conntrack --ctstate NEW,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT
iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --sport 22 -m conntrack --ctstate ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT

Allow Incoming Rsync from Specific IP Address or Subnet

iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -s 192.168.240.0/24 --dport 873 -m conntrack --ctstate NEW,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT
iptables -A OUTPUT -p tcp --sport 873 -m conntrack --ctstate ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT

Allow All Incoming HTTP

iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 80 -m conntrack --ctstate NEW,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT
iptables -A OUTPUT -p tcp --sport 80 -m conntrack --ctstate ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT

Allow All Incoming HTTPS

iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 443 -m conntrack --ctstate NEW,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT
iptables -A OUTPUT -p tcp --sport 443 -m conntrack --ctstate ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT

Allow All Incoming HTTP and HTTPS

iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -m multiport --dports 80,443 -m conntrack --ctstate NEW,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT
iptables -A OUTPUT -p tcp -m multiport --dports 80,443 -m conntrack --ctstate ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT

Allow MySQL from Specific IP Address or Subnet

iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -s 192.168.240.0/24 --dport 3306 -m conntrack --ctstate NEW,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT
iptables -A OUTPUT -p tcp --sport 3306 -m conntrack --ctstate ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT

Allow MySQL to Specific Network Interface

iptables -A INPUT -i eth1 -p tcp --dport 3306 -m conntrack --ctstate NEW,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT
iptables -A OUTPUT -o eth1 -p tcp --sport 3306 -m conntrack --ctstate ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT

PostgreSQL from Specific IP Address or Subnet

iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -s 192.168.240.0/24 --dport 5432 -m conntrack --ctstate NEW,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT
iptables -A OUTPUT -p tcp --sport 5432 -m conntrack --ctstate ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT

Allow PostgreSQL to Specific Network Interface

iptables -A INPUT -i eth1 -p tcp --dport 5432 -m conntrack --ctstate NEW,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT
iptables -A OUTPUT -o eth1 -p tcp --sport 5432 -m conntrack --ctstate ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT

Block Outgoing SMTP Mail

iptables -A OUTPUT -p tcp --dport 25 -j REJECT

Allow All Incoming SMTP

iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 25 -m conntrack --ctstate NEW,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT
iptables -A OUTPUT -p tcp --sport 25 -m conntrack --ctstate ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT

Allow All Incoming IMAP

iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 143 -m conntrack --ctstate NEW,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT
iptables -A OUTPUT -p tcp --sport 143 -m conntrack --ctstate ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT

Allow All Incoming IMAPS

iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 993 -m conntrack --ctstate NEW,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT
iptables -A OUTPUT -p tcp --sport 993 -m conntrack --ctstate ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT

Allow All Incoming POP3

iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 110 -m conntrack --ctstate NEW,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT
iptables -A OUTPUT -p tcp --sport 110 -m conntrack --ctstate ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT

Allow All Incoming POP3S

iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 995 -m conntrack --ctstate NEW,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT
iptables -A OUTPUT -p tcp --sport 995 -m conntrack --ctstate ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT

Drop Private Network Address On Public Interface

iptables -A INPUT -i eth1 -s 192.168.0.0/24 -j DROP
iptables -A INPUT -i eth1 -s 10.0.0.0/8 -j DROP

Drop All Outgoing to Facebook Networks

Get Facebook AS:

whois -h v4.whois.cymru.com " -v $(host facebook.com | grep "has address" | cut -d " " -f4)" | tail -n1 | awk '{print $1}'

Drop:

for i in $(whois -h whois.radb.net -- '-i origin AS32934' | grep "^route:" | cut -d ":" -f2 | sed -e 's/^[ \t]*//' | sort -n -t . -k 1,1 -k 2,2 -k 3,3 -k 4,4 | cut -d ":" -f2 | sed 's/$/;/') ; do

  iptables -A OUTPUT -s "$i" -j REJECT

done

Log and Drop Packets

iptables -A INPUT -i eth1 -s 10.0.0.0/8 -j LOG --log-prefix "IP_SPOOF A: "
iptables -A INPUT -i eth1 -s 10.0.0.0/8 -j DROP

By default everything is logged to /var/log/messages file:

tail -f /var/log/messages
grep --color 'IP SPOOF' /var/log/messages

Log and Drop Packets with Limited Number of Log Entries

iptables -A INPUT -i eth1 -s 10.0.0.0/8 -m limit --limit 5/m --limit-burst 7 -j LOG --log-prefix "IP_SPOOF A: "
iptables -A INPUT -i eth1 -s 10.0.0.0/8 -j DROP

Drop or Accept Traffic From Mac Address

iptables -A INPUT -m mac --mac-source 00:0F:EA:91:04:08 -j DROP
iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --destination-port 22 -m mac --mac-source 00:0F:EA:91:04:07 -j ACCEPT

Block or Allow ICMP Ping Request

iptables -A INPUT -p icmp --icmp-type echo-request -j DROP
iptables -A INPUT -i eth1 -p icmp --icmp-type echo-request -j DROP

Specifying Multiple Ports with multiport

iptables -A INPUT -i eth0 -p tcp -m state --state NEW -m multiport --dports ssh,smtp,http,https -j ACCEPT

Load Balancing with random* or nth*

_ips=("172.31.250.10" "172.31.250.11" "172.31.250.12" "172.31.250.13")

for ip in "${_ips[@]}" ; do
  iptables -A PREROUTING -i eth0 -p tcp --dport 80 -m state --state NEW -m nth --counter 0 --every 4 --packet 0 \
    -j DNAT --to-destination ${ip}:80
done

or

_ips=("172.31.250.10" "172.31.250.11" "172.31.250.12" "172.31.250.13")

for ip in "${_ips[@]}" ; do
  iptables -A PREROUTING -i eth0 -p tcp --dport 80 -m state --state NEW -m random --average 25 \
    -j DNAT --to-destination ${ip}:80
done

Restricting the Number of Connections with limit and iplimit*

iptables -A FORWARD -m state --state NEW -p tcp -m multiport --dport http,https -o eth0 -i eth1 \
    -m limit --limit 20/hour --limit-burst 5 -j ACCEPT

or

iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -m state --state NEW --dport http -m iplimit --iplimit-above 5 -j DROP

Maintaining a List of recent Connections to Match Against

iptables -A FORWARD -m recent --name portscan --rcheck --seconds 100 -j DROP
iptables -A FORWARD -p tcp -i eth0 --dport 443 -m recent --name portscan --set -j DROP

Matching Against a string* in a Packet's Data Payload

iptables -A FORWARD -m string --string '.com' -j DROP
iptables -A FORWARD -m string --string '.exe' -j DROP

Time-based Rules with time*

iptables -A FORWARD -p tcp -m multiport --dport http,https -o eth0 -i eth1 \
    -m time --timestart 21:30 --timestop 22:30 --days Mon,Tue,Wed,Thu,Fri -j ACCEPT

Packet Matching Based on TTL Values

iptables -A INPUT -s 1.2.3.4 -m ttl --ttl-lt 40 -j REJECT

Protection against port scanning

iptables -N port-scanning
iptables -A port-scanning -p tcp --tcp-flags SYN,ACK,FIN,RST RST -m limit --limit 1/s --limit-burst 2 -j RETURN
iptables -A port-scanning -j DROP

SSH brute-force protection

iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport ssh -m conntrack --ctstate NEW -m recent --set
iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport ssh -m conntrack --ctstate NEW -m recent --update --seconds 60 --hitcount 10 -j DROP

Syn-flood protection

iptables -N syn_flood

iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --syn -j syn_flood
iptables -A syn_flood -m limit --limit 1/s --limit-burst 3 -j RETURN
iptables -A syn_flood -j DROP

iptables -A INPUT -p icmp -m limit --limit  1/s --limit-burst 1 -j ACCEPT

iptables -A INPUT -p icmp -m limit --limit 1/s --limit-burst 1 -j LOG --log-prefix PING-DROP:
iptables -A INPUT -p icmp -j DROP

iptables -A OUTPUT -p icmp -j ACCEPT
Mitigating SYN Floods With SYNPROXY
iptables -t raw -A PREROUTING -p tcp -m tcp --syn -j CT --notrack
iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -m tcp -m conntrack --ctstate INVALID,UNTRACKED -j SYNPROXY --sack-perm --timestamp --wscale 7 --mss 1460
iptables -A INPUT -m conntrack --ctstate INVALID -j DROP

Block New Packets That Are Not SYN

iptables -A INPUT -p tcp ! --syn -m state --state NEW -j DROP

or

iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING -p tcp ! --syn -m conntrack --ctstate NEW -j DROP

Force Fragments packets check

iptables -A INPUT -f -j DROP

XMAS packets

iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --tcp-flags ALL ALL -j DROP

Drop all NULL packets

iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --tcp-flags ALL NONE -j DROP

Block Uncommon MSS Values

iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING -p tcp -m conntrack --ctstate NEW -m tcpmss ! --mss 536:65535 -j DROP

Block Packets With Bogus TCP Flags

iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING -p tcp --tcp-flags FIN,SYN,RST,PSH,ACK,URG NONE -j DROP
iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING -p tcp --tcp-flags FIN,SYN FIN,SYN -j DROP
iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING -p tcp --tcp-flags SYN,RST SYN,RST -j DROP
iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING -p tcp --tcp-flags FIN,RST FIN,RST -j DROP
iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING -p tcp --tcp-flags FIN,ACK FIN -j DROP
iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING -p tcp --tcp-flags ACK,URG URG -j DROP
iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING -p tcp --tcp-flags ACK,FIN FIN -j DROP
iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING -p tcp --tcp-flags ACK,PSH PSH -j DROP
iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING -p tcp --tcp-flags ALL ALL -j DROP
iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING -p tcp --tcp-flags ALL NONE -j DROP
iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING -p tcp --tcp-flags ALL FIN,PSH,URG -j DROP
iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING -p tcp --tcp-flags ALL SYN,FIN,PSH,URG -j DROP
iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING -p tcp --tcp-flags ALL SYN,RST,ACK,FIN,URG -j DROP

Block Packets From Private Subnets (Spoofing)

_subnets=("224.0.0.0/3" "169.254.0.0/16" "172.16.0.0/12" "192.0.2.0/24" "192.168.0.0/16" "10.0.0.0/8" "0.0.0.0/8" "240.0.0.0/5")

for _sub in "${_subnets[@]}" ; do
  iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING -s "$_sub" -j DROP
done
iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING -s 127.0.0.0/8 ! -i lo -j DROP

Advanced configuration examples

Packet handling in Python using NFQUEUE target

This target passes the packet to userspace using the nfnetlink_queue handler. The packet is put into the queue identified by its 16-bit queue number. Userspace can inspect and modify the packet if desired. Userspace must then drop or reinject the packet into the kernel.

ACCEPT all packets from specific source on (filter:INPUT) and DROP everything else

This rule forwards all filter:INPUT packets to queue 1 with NFQUEUE target.

iptables -A INPUT -j NFQUEUE --queue-num 1

Script to bind to netfilter queue 1 and handle packets.

#!/usr/bin/python3

from netfilterqueue import NetfilterQueue
from scapy.all import *

def packetanalyzer(pkt):
    ip=IP(pkt.get_payload())
    if(ip.src=="192.168.122.1"):
        print(f"New packet from {ip.src}")
        pkt.accept()
    else:
	pkt.drop()

nfqueue=NetfilterQueue()
nfqueue.bind(1, packetanalyzer)
nfqueue.run()

Write your own port knocking script to secure ssh access

DROP all ssh requests and send secret port requests to user-space with NFQUEUE target.

iptables -t filter -I INPUT -p tcp --dport 22 -j DROP
iptables -t raw -I PREROUTING -p tcp --sport 65534 --dport 65535 -j NFQUEUE --queue-num 1

_This script capture packet from netfilter queue 1 and check SOURCEPORT and SECRETPORT for port knocking and allow source to connect to ssh for EXPIRETIME, default is 30 minutes.

#!/usr/bin/python3

from os	import system
from netfilterqueue import NetfilterQueue
from scapy.layers.inet import IP
from time import time

SOURCEPORT=65534
SECRETPORT=65535
EXPIRETIME=30
ALLOWED={}

def portknocking(pkt):
    packet=IP(pkt.get_payload())
    currtime=time()
    for item in list(ALLOWED):
        if(currtime-ALLOWED[item] >= EXPIRETIME*60):
            del ALLOWED[item]
    if(packet.sport==SOURCEPORT and packet.dport==SECRETPORT and packet.src not in ALLOWED):
        print(f"Port {packet.dport} knocked by {packet.src}:{packet.sport}")
        system(f"iptables -I INPUT -p tcp --dport 22 -s {packet.src} -j ACCEPT")
        system(f"echo 'iptables -D INPUT -p tcp --dport 22 -s {packet.src} -j ACCEPT' | at now + {EXPIRETIME} minutes")
        ALLOWED[packet.src]=time()
        pkt.drop()

nfqueue=NetfilterQueue()
nfqueue.bind(1, portknocking)

try:
    nfqueue.run()
except KeyboardInterrupt:
    print("\nExit with Keyboard Interrupt")

To knocking port and allow ssh connections from your computer just execute this command:

nc -p 65534 SERVER 65535

Releases

No releases published

Packages

No packages published
You can’t perform that action at this time.