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Multi-core saturation experiments

This repository hosts the experimental scripts for multi-core saturation.

You can contact the main author of this work at

Information on the experiments are found in the submitted paper.

Compiling the sources

Installing the Debian packages, R packages and compiling the necessary sources is done by running ./ The script will compile and install Meddly, Sylvan and LTSmin. Running the compile script ensures that all binaries that are built end up in the tools directory. Ultimately the script will run multi-core saturation with the force order on the Petri net running example presented in the paper. I.e. the commandline that is automatically run is tools/pnml2lts-sym --saturation=sat -rf pnml/example.pnml. This means the last few lines that are shown when running ./ contain pnml2lts-sym: state space has 5 states, 12 nodes. When this output is visible the compilation step has been completed successfully.

Reproducing the experiments (simple version)

The following steps use the simple versions of the benchmark scripts for maximal 4 workers.

  • First extract the models in the mcc directory using tar Jxf models.tar.xz.
  • For a very simple example, run ./ HouseConstruction-PT-010 twice. The first time generates the LDD files from the PNML input files, the second time generates the BDD and MDD files from the LDD input files.
  • You can repeatedly run ./ .*ldd, ./ .*bdd and ./ .*mdd to generate more input files, if generating a file takes too long, just interrupt and restart, as the order in which the script tries to generate input files is randomized.
  • Run ./ run to run experiments on the LDD, BDD, MDD files in the mcc directory, on 1, 2, 4 cores. This corresponds to the mdd-sat, ldd-sat, ldd-chaining, ldd-bfs and bdd-sat methods in the paper. The default timeout is 60 seconds so this should not take too long. You can change this in if you want a different timeout.
  • Use ./ csv > results-simple.csv to get the results in a CSV format.
  • Use ./analyse-simple.r to produce the tables and Figures for the paper (Figures in the 'tex' files).

Reproducing the experiments (16-core and 48-core versions)

Use as the preprocessing step to generate LDD and BDD files from the models. The file can be configured with a timeout value (in the file itself). Use (without parameters) to generate all files, one by one. Use list to get the list of files the script generates. Use todo to get the list of files not yet generated and did not timeout. Use <REGEXP> to generate all files matching the given input. You can use this to quickly generate files in parallel on a cluster. The does this, use sbatch -N... -p... Each time you run without parameters, it will start with a random file to generate. If you just want to quickly generate some files, just repeatedly run and interrupt with CTRL-C if it takes too long.

The scripts and are configured to run on 16-core machines and 48-core machines respectively.

For a simple small example, you can generate some LDD files with and then use run to run "simple" experiments.

With cache you can populate a cache file but this is optional. With report you get a report of the status of all experiments. With csv you get a CSV file of the results.

The log files of the 16-core machine cluster are in logs-cluster.tar.gz and the log files of the 48-core machine experiments are in logs-48.tar.gz. The generated CSV files are in results.csv (for the 16-core cluster) and results48.csv

To analyse these results we used R and have provided two R scripts analyse.r and analyse48.r. The compile script takes care of installing R and the dependencies for running both R scripts. The R scripts generate the tables and numbers that we used in the empirical evaluation.

Running a Promela example

To run the Promela example of the GARP protocol run the commandline tools/prom2lts-sym Promela/garp_1b2a.prm --saturation=sat -rf. After approximately a minute LTSmin should output prom2lts-sym: state space has 385000995634 states, 487405 nodes.

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