A skeleton for getting started with NPM packages.
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README.md

npm-package-skeleton

A skeleton for getting started with NPM packages.

Getting started (things you have to do)

To get the gist of what this does, try running

npm install # this also runs `npm prepublish` behind the scenes.

then look at the generated files in the root of the project. To customize to your needs, follow the following steps:

  1. Personalize package.json with the details of your package (name, description, etc), replacing things that are ALL-CAPS with your own things.
  2. Add dependencies as needed into the dependencies or devDependencies fields.
  3. Open and customize scripts/build-global.sh (read the comments there).
  4. Open and customize scripts/clean.sh (read the comments there).
  5. Open and customize .gitignore (read the comments there).
  6. Optionally customize .npmignore (it's empty by default).
  7. npm install to install dependencies and dev-dependencies.
  8. Run npm run clean at any point to clean automatically-built files (caused by npm install, npm prepublish, and npm publish, for example).
  9. Write code inside the src folder using ES2015 modules and/or syntax (ES2016 language features are not yet supported, TODO), with index.js being the main file (the file that gets evaluated when someone runs require('your-package-name') for example)
  10. Once you've written your package code, run npm prepublish manually which compiles everything to CommonJS format in the root of the project, and also builds a global.js file.
  11. To test your package, you can use npm link your-package-name (see the docs) to link your package into a test project for local testing.
  12. When you're ready to publish, just make sure you update the version field of your package.json then run npm publish.

These are just rough guidelines, and are flexible. It's up to you to modify this to your needs (for example, add gulp or grunt, or use Webpack to watch file changes, etc). It's just a starting point.

Features

One of the goals of this skeleton is to let you get started making a package that builds itself out-of-the-box for NPM when you run npm publish, and that supports various end-user workflows like Browserify+NPM, Webpack+NPM, JSPM (by Guy Bedford, who leads efforts on things like loading modules over HTTP/2), Bower+RequireJS (yes, we can! Bower still has hundreds of thousands of downloads per week), and a global build (a build system without a build system that many people still use 😆). The aim is to support this common set of build system workflows without any extra layers (no gulp or grunt is needed for this, end-users can add those layers if they wish).

The package skeleton is made with generic the latest standardized features in mind (such as the source of the package in the src folder using ES2015 (ES6) Modules, included scripts for building to various other module formats, and the latest released ecmascript language features via Babel) that let the package be consumed in workflows we haven't considered.

Some things explained:

  • package.json includes scripts to build to AMD, CJS, and UMD modules formats (we write our package code in ES2015 (ES6) module format).
  • Source files live in the src folder, with index.js as the main entrypoint to the package.
  • On prepublish to NPM, files are built to CJS format into the root of the package, then published. Prepublish only uses the build-cjs script, and the other scripts are there in case someone wants to make use of them, for convenience (for example, someone might have a custom RequireJS workflow, and can use the build-amd script to get AMD files). The clean script removes the build files after prepublish, or manually if needed.
  • The package is published with both the built CJS files in the root and the original source files in the src folder to maximize coverage of use cases. Some people will require the root files directly, using Webpack or Browserify, or perhaps even natively in some Node.js-based app. We publish the src folder intact so that people who use JSPM can set directories.lib to src and JSPM will set that folder as the root of the package once it is installed. Other people might like to set an alias in Webpack to the src folder in order to use the original ES2015 source modules. Basically, let's let people do what they want. Other people might just like to use the original ES6 source modules in some other ES2015-module-compatible system.
  • The devDependencies include babelify in case someone configures Browserify to use the src folder's ES2015 modules instead of the root's CommonJS ones. There's no harm done including it.
  • There are some extra fields in package.json for JSPM and Bower. Bower is still TODO.
  • The babel-runtime package is a runtime dependency, which simply includes some function helpers like those used to create prototype-based classes in ES5, etc. The --optional runtime option in the build-* scripts tells babel not to include helper functions in each and every file, instead using require to get the helpers from a single source. It's a good thing to have the runtime in order to eliminate duplicate helper code in your output files.
  • The format property helps some build systems. F.e., JSPM doesn't have to make a guess as to the format of the modules.
  • The browser, main, and global fields help in some cases too.

Basically, the idea is to maximize coverage of the most notable workflows and use cases.

TODO

  • Upgrade to Babel 6.x
  • Support not-yet-completed experimental language features (ES7/ES2016 at the time of writing).

Contributing

Open an issue or PR if you have any ideas! :]