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This section presents all the repositories used for the simulation and the real-world experiments done in the following publication:

K.N. McGuire, C. De Wagter, K. Tuyls, H.J. Kappen, G.C.H.E. de Croon, 'Minimal navigation solution for a swarm of tiny flying robots to explore an unknown environment' Science Robotics, 23 October 2019 DOI:

The algorithm developed for the paper above is currently being cleaned up and ported to the latest firmware of the Crazyflie 2.1. More information will follow soon!


This section explains the git-repositories for the simulation experiments. Elements have been reused of the simulation used in:

K.N. McGuire, G.C.H.E. de Croon, K. Tuyls, 'A comparative study of bug algorithms for robot navigation', Robotics and Autonomous Systems, Volume 121, 2019, 103261 DOI:

Repositories (also shown as submodules in this repository)


How to start the tests with ROS kinetic:

  • In a terminal, type “roslaunch bug_algorithms launch_bug_algorithm.launch”
  • In another terminal, type “python” to supervise the tests.

Real-World Testing

This section shows all the github-repositories used for the real-world experiments, for which a Crazyflie 2.0, Multiranger and Flowdeck was used as explained in the paper. These repositories represent the firmware of the microprocessors on this small quadcopter:


How to start up the experiment:

  • Give the Crazyflie a unique ID: E7E7E701, E7E7E702, etc.
  • First flash the NRF and STM chips of all the Crazyflie with the following bashscript: ‘gradient_bug/bashscripts/’
  • Start the real-world testing with the following bashscript: ‘gradient_bug/bashscripts/’
  • If something goes wrong, close the last bashscript and run ‘’
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