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Java Cryptographic, Encoding and Hash Utilities
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src Reformate Code Mar 17, 2019


Java Cryptographic, Encoding and Hash Utilities

CircleCI Build: Maven

Install Maven

sudo apt install maven

To run the unit tests:

mvn test

Encryption/Decryption Algorithms - Descriptions

Term Description
AES Advanced Encryption Standard
Encryption The process of encoding information making in away that makes it unreadable for unauthorized users. Plaintext -> Ciphertext
Decryption The reverse process of encryption. It is the process of decoding the data which has been encrypted making it readable for authorized users. Ciphertext -> Plaintext
Cryptographic key/Key Is a piece of information (a parameter) that determines the functional output of a cryptographic algorithm.
RSA Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (Surnames of the creators)
Symmetric Cryptography/Symmetric-Key Cryptography Makes use of the same cryptographic keys for both encryption of plaintext and decryption of ciphertext.
Asymmetric Cryptography/Public-Key Cryptography Makes use of different cryptographic keys(pair of public and private keys) used for encryption of plaintext and decryption of ciphertext.
Public Key A key that is available to the public.
Private Key A key that is private and known only to the owner.
Cipher/Cypher An algorithm for performing encryption or decryption.
Plaintext/Cleartext An unencrypted information pending input into a cryptographic algorithm.
Ciphertext The result of encryption performed on plaintext using an algorithm - Cipher.
Block Size The length of the fixed length string of bits operated on by a Block Cipher. Both the input (plaintext) and output (ciphertext) are of the same length.
Key Size/Key Length The number of bits in a key used by a cryptographic algorithm.
Rounds In Block Ciphers, the number of times a cipher transformation is repeated over a block of plaintext to create a block of ciphertext. The number of rounds is determined by the key size/ key length.
Block Cipher A Symmetric-Key Cipher which operates on a groups of bits of fixed length, called blocks.
Block Cipher Mode of Operation Is an algorithm that uses a block cipher to provide information security such as confidentiality or authenticity. It describes how to repeatedly apply a cipher's single-block operation to securely transform amounts of data larger than a block.
Common Block Cipher Modes of Operation ECB(Electronic Codebook), CBC(Cipher Block Chaining), PCBC(Propagating CBC[Cipher Block Chaining]), CFB(Cipher Feedback), OFB(Output Feedback), CTR(Counter)
Broken When brute-force attack is feasible i.e A key with a given key size can be permutated in feasible time to generate a key that correctly decrypts a Ciphertext.
Brute-force attack When an attacker guesses many keys with the hope of eventually guessing correctly usually using a supercomputer.

Encryption/Decryption Algorithms - Symmetric

  • AES Variants: AES-128, AES-192, AES-256
    Key sizes: 128 bits, 192 bits, 256 bits
    Block Size: 128 bits
    Rounds: 10, 12 or 14 (depending on key size)

Encryption/Decryption Algorithms - Asymmetric

  • RSA
    Key sizes: 1,024 to 4,096 bit typical
    Rounds: 1

Hash Functions - Descriptions

Term Description
MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm
SHA-1 Secure Hash Algorithm 1
SHA-2 Secure Hash Algorithm 2
SHA-3 Secure Hash Algorithm 3
HMAC Keyed-Hash Message Authentication Code or Hash-Based Message Authentication Code
Cryptographic Hash function A mathematical algorithm that maps data of arbitrary size to a bit string of a fixed size (a digest/hash) and is designed to be a one-way function - a function which is infeasible to invert.
Digest/Hash The output of a Cryptographic Hash function.
Digest Size The size of the output of a Cryptographic Hash function.
Block Size The length of the fixed length string of bits operated on by a Cryptographic Hash function.
Rounds In Cryptographic Hash functions, the number of times a digest transformation stage is repeated over a block of plaintext to create a digest.
Salt Random data that is used as an additional input to a one-way function(Cryptographic Hash functions) that "hashes" data, a password or passphrase.
Data Integrity Is the maintenance of, and the assurance of the accuracy and consistency of, data over its entire life-cycle.
Authentication Guarantees that a message has not been modified while in transit (data integrity) and that the receiving party can verify the source of the message.
Broken When a collision is found. i.e two different inputs generate the same hash usually using a supercomputer.

Hash Functions

  • MD5
    Digest Size: 128 bit
    Block Size: 512 bit
    Rounds: 4/64 (depending of Point of View)
    Broken: Yes

  • SHA-1
    Digest Size: 160 bit
    Block Size: 512 bit
    Rounds: 80
    Broken: Yes

  • SHA-2
    Variants: SHA224, SHA256, SHA384, SHA512, SHA-512/224, SHA-512/256 Digest Size: [SHA-224: 224 bit], [SHA-256: 256 bit], [SHA-384: 384 bit], [SHA-512: 512 bit], [SHA-512/224: 224 bit], [SHA-512/256: 224 bit]
    Block Size: [SHA-224,SHA-256: 512 bit], [SHA-384,SHA-512,SHA-512/224,SHA-512/256: 1024 bit_]
    Rounds: [SHA-224,SHA-256: 64], [SHA-384,SHA-512,SHA-512/224,SHA-512/256: 80]
    Broken: No

  • SHA-3
    Variants: SHA3-224, SHA3-256, SHA3-384, SHA3-512, SHAKE128, SHAKE256
    Digest Size: [SHA3-224: 224 bit], [SHA3-256: 256 bit], [SHA3-384: 384 bit], [SHA3-512: 512 bit], [SHAKE128,SHAKE256: d (arbitrary) bit]
    Block Size: [SHA3-224: 1152 bit], [SHA3-256: 1088 bit], [SHA3-384: 832 bit], [SHA3-512: 576 bit], [SHAKE128: 1344 bit], [SHAKE256: 1088 bit]
    Rounds: 24
    Broken: No

HMAC Functions

Encoding Algorithms - Descriptions

Term Description
Binary-to-text Encoding Encoding of data in plaintext. More precisely, it is an encoding of binary data(bytes/bits) in a sequence of printable characters.
Base64 A group of similar binary-to-text encoding schemes that represent binary data in an ASCII string format by translating it into a radix-64 representation. Each Base64 digit represents exactly 6 bits of data. Three 8-bit bytes (i.e., a total of 24 bits) can therefore be represented by four 6-bit Base64 digits.
URL encoding/Percent-encoding A mechanism for encoding information in a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) under certain circumstances.

Encoding Algorithms


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