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# Tweepy
# Copyright 2009-2010 Joshua Roesslein
# See LICENSE for details.
# Appengine users: https://developers.google.com/appengine/docs/python/sockets/#making_httplib_use_sockets
from __future__ import absolute_import, print_function
import logging
import re
import requests
from requests.exceptions import Timeout
from threading import Thread
from time import sleep
import six
import ssl
from tweepy.models import Status
from tweepy.api import API
from tweepy.error import TweepError
from tweepy.utils import import_simplejson
json = import_simplejson()
STREAM_VERSION = '1.1'
class StreamListener(object):
def __init__(self, api=None):
self.api = api or API()
def on_connect(self):
"""Called once connected to streaming server.
This will be invoked once a successful response
is received from the server. Allows the listener
to perform some work prior to entering the read loop.
"""
pass
def on_data(self, raw_data):
"""Called when raw data is received from connection.
Override this method if you wish to manually handle
the stream data. Return False to stop stream and close connection.
"""
data = json.loads(raw_data)
if 'in_reply_to_status_id' in data:
status = Status.parse(self.api, data)
if self.on_status(status) is False:
return False
elif 'delete' in data:
delete = data['delete']['status']
if self.on_delete(delete['id'], delete['user_id']) is False:
return False
elif 'event' in data:
status = Status.parse(self.api, data)
if self.on_event(status) is False:
return False
elif 'direct_message' in data:
status = Status.parse(self.api, data)
if self.on_direct_message(status) is False:
return False
elif 'friends' in data:
if self.on_friends(data['friends']) is False:
return False
elif 'limit' in data:
if self.on_limit(data['limit']['track']) is False:
return False
elif 'disconnect' in data:
if self.on_disconnect(data['disconnect']) is False:
return False
elif 'warning' in data:
if self.on_warning(data['warning']) is False:
return False
else:
logging.error("Unknown message type: " + str(raw_data))
def keep_alive(self):
"""Called when a keep-alive arrived"""
return
def on_status(self, status):
"""Called when a new status arrives"""
return
def on_exception(self, exception):
"""Called when an unhandled exception occurs."""
return
def on_delete(self, status_id, user_id):
"""Called when a delete notice arrives for a status"""
return
def on_event(self, status):
"""Called when a new event arrives"""
return
def on_direct_message(self, status):
"""Called when a new direct message arrives"""
return
def on_friends(self, friends):
"""Called when a friends list arrives.
friends is a list that contains user_id
"""
return
def on_limit(self, track):
"""Called when a limitation notice arrives"""
return
def on_error(self, status_code):
"""Called when a non-200 status code is returned"""
return False
def on_timeout(self):
"""Called when stream connection times out"""
return
def on_disconnect(self, notice):
"""Called when twitter sends a disconnect notice
Disconnect codes are listed here:
https://dev.twitter.com/docs/streaming-apis/messages#Disconnect_messages_disconnect
"""
return
def on_warning(self, notice):
"""Called when a disconnection warning message arrives"""
return
class ReadBuffer(object):
"""Buffer data from the response in a smarter way than httplib/requests can.
Tweets are roughly in the 2-12kb range, averaging around 3kb.
Requests/urllib3/httplib/socket all use socket.read, which blocks
until enough data is returned. On some systems (eg google appengine), socket
reads are quite slow. To combat this latency we can read big chunks,
but the blocking part means we won't get results until enough tweets
have arrived. That may not be a big deal for high throughput systems.
For low throughput systems we don't want to sacrafice latency, so we
use small chunks so it can read the length and the tweet in 2 read calls.
"""
def __init__(self, stream, chunk_size, encoding='utf-8'):
self._stream = stream
self._buffer = six.b('')
self._chunk_size = chunk_size
self._encoding = encoding
def read_len(self, length):
while not self._stream.closed:
if len(self._buffer) >= length:
return self._pop(length)
read_len = max(self._chunk_size, length - len(self._buffer))
self._buffer += self._stream.read(read_len)
def read_line(self, sep=six.b('\n')):
"""Read the data stream until a given separator is found (default \n)
:param sep: Separator to read until. Must by of the bytes type (str in python 2,
bytes in python 3)
:return: The str of the data read until sep
"""
start = 0
while not self._stream.closed:
loc = self._buffer.find(sep, start)
if loc >= 0:
return self._pop(loc + len(sep))
else:
start = len(self._buffer)
self._buffer += self._stream.read(self._chunk_size)
def _pop(self, length):
r = self._buffer[:length]
self._buffer = self._buffer[length:]
return r.decode(self._encoding)
class Stream(object):
host = 'stream.twitter.com'
def __init__(self, auth, listener, **options):
self.auth = auth
self.listener = listener
self.running = False
self.timeout = options.get("timeout", 300.0)
self.retry_count = options.get("retry_count")
# values according to
# https://dev.twitter.com/docs/streaming-apis/connecting#Reconnecting
self.retry_time_start = options.get("retry_time", 5.0)
self.retry_420_start = options.get("retry_420", 60.0)
self.retry_time_cap = options.get("retry_time_cap", 320.0)
self.snooze_time_step = options.get("snooze_time", 0.25)
self.snooze_time_cap = options.get("snooze_time_cap", 16)
# The default socket.read size. Default to less than half the size of
# a tweet so that it reads tweets with the minimal latency of 2 reads
# per tweet. Values higher than ~1kb will increase latency by waiting
# for more data to arrive but may also increase throughput by doing
# fewer socket read calls.
self.chunk_size = options.get("chunk_size", 512)
self.verify = options.get("verify", True)
self.api = API()
self.headers = options.get("headers") or {}
self.new_session()
self.body = None
self.retry_time = self.retry_time_start
self.snooze_time = self.snooze_time_step
def new_session(self):
self.session = requests.Session()
self.session.headers = self.headers
self.session.params = None
def _run(self):
# Authenticate
url = "https://%s%s" % (self.host, self.url)
# Connect and process the stream
error_counter = 0
resp = None
exception = None
while self.running:
if self.retry_count is not None:
if error_counter > self.retry_count:
# quit if error count greater than retry count
break
try:
auth = self.auth.apply_auth()
resp = self.session.request('POST',
url,
data=self.body,
timeout=self.timeout,
stream=True,
auth=auth,
verify=self.verify)
if resp.status_code != 200:
if self.listener.on_error(resp.status_code) is False:
break
error_counter += 1
if resp.status_code == 420:
self.retry_time = max(self.retry_420_start,
self.retry_time)
sleep(self.retry_time)
self.retry_time = min(self.retry_time * 2,
self.retry_time_cap)
else:
error_counter = 0
self.retry_time = self.retry_time_start
self.snooze_time = self.snooze_time_step
self.listener.on_connect()
self._read_loop(resp)
except (Timeout, ssl.SSLError) as exc:
# This is still necessary, as a SSLError can actually be
# thrown when using Requests
# If it's not time out treat it like any other exception
if isinstance(exc, ssl.SSLError):
if not (exc.args and 'timed out' in str(exc.args[0])):
exception = exc
break
if self.listener.on_timeout() is False:
break
if self.running is False:
break
sleep(self.snooze_time)
self.snooze_time = min(self.snooze_time + self.snooze_time_step,
self.snooze_time_cap)
except Exception as exc:
exception = exc
# any other exception is fatal, so kill loop
break
# cleanup
self.running = False
if resp:
resp.close()
self.new_session()
if exception:
# call a handler first so that the exception can be logged.
self.listener.on_exception(exception)
raise exception
def _data(self, data):
if self.listener.on_data(data) is False:
self.running = False
def _read_loop(self, resp):
charset = resp.headers.get('content-type', default='')
enc_search = re.search('charset=(?P<enc>\S*)', charset)
if enc_search is not None:
encoding = enc_search.group('enc')
else:
encoding = 'utf-8'
buf = ReadBuffer(resp.raw, self.chunk_size, encoding=encoding)
while self.running and not resp.raw.closed:
length = 0
while not resp.raw.closed:
line = buf.read_line().strip()
if not line:
self.listener.keep_alive() # keep-alive new lines are expected
elif line.isdigit():
length = int(line)
break
else:
raise TweepError('Expecting length, unexpected value found')
next_status_obj = buf.read_len(length)
if self.running:
self._data(next_status_obj)
# # Note: keep-alive newlines might be inserted before each length value.
# # read until we get a digit...
# c = b'\n'
# for c in resp.iter_content(decode_unicode=True):
# if c == b'\n':
# continue
# break
#
# delimited_string = c
#
# # read rest of delimiter length..
# d = b''
# for d in resp.iter_content(decode_unicode=True):
# if d != b'\n':
# delimited_string += d
# continue
# break
#
# # read the next twitter status object
# if delimited_string.decode('utf-8').strip().isdigit():
# status_id = int(delimited_string)
# next_status_obj = resp.raw.read(status_id)
# if self.running:
# self._data(next_status_obj.decode('utf-8'))
if resp.raw.closed:
self.on_closed(resp)
def _start(self, async):
self.running = True
if async:
self._thread = Thread(target=self._run)
self._thread.start()
else:
self._run()
def on_closed(self, resp):
""" Called when the response has been closed by Twitter """
pass
def userstream(self,
stall_warnings=False,
_with=None,
replies=None,
track=None,
locations=None,
async=False,
encoding='utf8'):
self.session.params = {'delimited': 'length'}
if self.running:
raise TweepError('Stream object already connected!')
self.url = '/%s/user.json' % STREAM_VERSION
self.host = 'userstream.twitter.com'
if stall_warnings:
self.session.params['stall_warnings'] = stall_warnings
if _with:
self.session.params['with'] = _with
if replies:
self.session.params['replies'] = replies
if locations and len(locations) > 0:
if len(locations) % 4 != 0:
raise TweepError("Wrong number of locations points, "
"it has to be a multiple of 4")
self.session.params['locations'] = ','.join(['%.2f' % l for l in locations])
if track:
self.session.params['track'] = u','.join(track).encode(encoding)
self._start(async)
def firehose(self, count=None, async=False):
self.session.params = {'delimited': 'length'}
if self.running:
raise TweepError('Stream object already connected!')
self.url = '/%s/statuses/firehose.json' % STREAM_VERSION
if count:
self.url += '&count=%s' % count
self._start(async)
def retweet(self, async=False):
self.session.params = {'delimited': 'length'}
if self.running:
raise TweepError('Stream object already connected!')
self.url = '/%s/statuses/retweet.json' % STREAM_VERSION
self._start(async)
def sample(self, async=False, languages=None, stall_warnings=False):
self.session.params = {'delimited': 'length'}
if self.running:
raise TweepError('Stream object already connected!')
self.url = '/%s/statuses/sample.json' % STREAM_VERSION
if languages:
self.session.params['language'] = ','.join(map(str, languages))
if stall_warnings:
self.session.params['stall_warnings'] = 'true'
self._start(async)
def filter(self, follow=None, track=None, async=False, locations=None,
stall_warnings=False, languages=None, encoding='utf8', filter_level=None):
self.body = {}
self.session.headers['Content-type'] = "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"
if self.running:
raise TweepError('Stream object already connected!')
self.url = '/%s/statuses/filter.json' % STREAM_VERSION
if follow:
self.body['follow'] = u','.join(follow).encode(encoding)
if track:
self.body['track'] = u','.join(track).encode(encoding)
if locations and len(locations) > 0:
if len(locations) % 4 != 0:
raise TweepError("Wrong number of locations points, "
"it has to be a multiple of 4")
self.body['locations'] = u','.join(['%.4f' % l for l in locations])
if stall_warnings:
self.body['stall_warnings'] = stall_warnings
if languages:
self.body['language'] = u','.join(map(str, languages))
if filter_level:
self.body['filter_level'] = unicode(filter_level, encoding)
self.session.params = {'delimited': 'length'}
self.host = 'stream.twitter.com'
self._start(async)
def sitestream(self, follow, stall_warnings=False,
with_='user', replies=False, async=False):
self.body = {}
if self.running:
raise TweepError('Stream object already connected!')
self.url = '/%s/site.json' % STREAM_VERSION
self.body['follow'] = u','.join(map(six.text_type, follow))
self.body['delimited'] = 'length'
if stall_warnings:
self.body['stall_warnings'] = stall_warnings
if with_:
self.body['with'] = with_
if replies:
self.body['replies'] = replies
self._start(async)
def disconnect(self):
if self.running is False:
return
self.running = False