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# -*- test-case-name: twisted.test.test_compat -*-
# Copyright (c) Twisted Matrix Laboratories.
# See LICENSE for details.
Compatibility module to provide backwards compatibility for useful Python
This is mainly for use of internal Twisted code. We encourage you to use
the latest version of Python directly from your code, if possible.
@var unicode: The type of Unicode strings, C{unicode} on Python 2 and C{str}
on Python 3.
@var NativeStringIO: An in-memory file-like object that operates on the native
string type (bytes in Python 2, unicode in Python 3).
from __future__ import division
import sys, string, socket, struct, inspect
from io import TextIOBase, IOBase
if sys.version_info < (3, 0):
_PY3 = False
_PY3 = True
def currentframe(n=0):
In Python 3, L{inspect.currentframe} does not take a stack-level argument.
Restore that functionality from Python 2 so we don't have to re-implement
the C{f_back}-walking loop in places where it's called.
@param n: The number of stack levels above the caller to walk.
@type n: L{int}
@return: a frame, n levels up the stack from the caller.
@rtype: L{types.FrameType}
f = inspect.currentframe()
for x in range(n + 1):
f = f.f_back
return f
def inet_pton(af, addr):
if af == socket.AF_INET:
return socket.inet_aton(addr)
elif af == getattr(socket, 'AF_INET6', 'AF_INET6'):
if [x for x in addr if x not in string.hexdigits + ':.']:
raise ValueError("Illegal characters: %r" % (''.join(x),))
parts = addr.split(':')
elided = parts.count('')
ipv4Component = '.' in parts[-1]
if len(parts) > (8 - ipv4Component) or elided > 3:
raise ValueError("Syntactically invalid address")
if elided == 3:
return '\x00' * 16
if elided:
zeros = ['0'] * (8 - len(parts) - ipv4Component + elided)
if addr.startswith('::'):
parts[:2] = zeros
elif addr.endswith('::'):
parts[-2:] = zeros
idx = parts.index('')
parts[idx:idx+1] = zeros
if len(parts) != 8 - ipv4Component:
raise ValueError("Syntactically invalid address")
if len(parts) != (8 - ipv4Component):
raise ValueError("Syntactically invalid address")
if ipv4Component:
if parts[-1].count('.') != 3:
raise ValueError("Syntactically invalid address")
rawipv4 = socket.inet_aton(parts[-1])
unpackedipv4 = struct.unpack('!HH', rawipv4)
parts[-1:] = [hex(x)[2:] for x in unpackedipv4]
parts = [int(x, 16) for x in parts]
return struct.pack('!8H', *parts)
raise socket.error(97, 'Address family not supported by protocol')
def inet_ntop(af, addr):
if af == socket.AF_INET:
return socket.inet_ntoa(addr)
elif af == socket.AF_INET6:
if len(addr) != 16:
raise ValueError("address length incorrect")
parts = struct.unpack('!8H', addr)
curBase = bestBase = None
for i in range(8):
if not parts[i]:
if curBase is None:
curBase = i
curLen = 0
curLen += 1
if curBase is not None:
if bestBase is None or curLen > bestLen:
bestBase = curBase
bestLen = curLen
curBase = None
if curBase is not None and (bestBase is None or curLen > bestLen):
bestBase = curBase
bestLen = curLen
parts = [hex(x)[2:] for x in parts]
if bestBase is not None:
parts[bestBase:bestBase + bestLen] = ['']
if parts[0] == '':
parts.insert(0, '')
if parts[-1] == '':
parts.insert(len(parts) - 1, '')
return ':'.join(parts)
raise socket.error(97, 'Address family not supported by protocol')
except AttributeError:
socket.AF_INET6 = 'AF_INET6'
socket.inet_pton(socket.AF_INET6, "::")
except (AttributeError, NameError, socket.error):
socket.inet_pton = inet_pton
socket.inet_ntop = inet_ntop
adict = dict
if _PY3:
# These are actually useless in Python 2 as well, but we need to go
# through deprecation process there (ticket #5895):
del adict, inet_pton, inet_ntop
set = set
frozenset = frozenset
from functools import reduce
except ImportError:
reduce = reduce
def execfile(filename, globals, locals=None):
Execute a Python script in the given namespaces.
Similar to the execfile builtin, but a namespace is mandatory, partly
because that's a sensible thing to require, and because otherwise we'd
have to do some frame hacking.
This is a compatibility implementation for Python 3 porting, to avoid the
use of the deprecated builtin C{execfile} function.
if locals is None:
locals = globals
fin = open(filename, "rbU")
source =
code = compile(source, filename, "exec")
exec(code, globals, locals)
cmp = cmp
except NameError:
def cmp(a, b):
Compare two objects.
Returns a negative number if C{a < b}, zero if they are equal, and a
positive number if C{a > b}.
if a < b:
return -1
elif a == b:
return 0
return 1
def comparable(klass):
Class decorator that ensures support for the special C{__cmp__} method.
On Python 2 this does nothing.
On Python 3, C{__eq__}, C{__lt__}, etc. methods are added to the class,
relying on C{__cmp__} to implement their comparisons.
# On Python 2, __cmp__ will just work, so no need to add extra methods:
if not _PY3:
return klass
def __eq__(self, other):
c = self.__cmp__(other)
if c is NotImplemented:
return c
return c == 0
def __ne__(self, other):
c = self.__cmp__(other)
if c is NotImplemented:
return c
return c != 0
def __lt__(self, other):
c = self.__cmp__(other)
if c is NotImplemented:
return c
return c < 0
def __le__(self, other):
c = self.__cmp__(other)
if c is NotImplemented:
return c
return c <= 0
def __gt__(self, other):
c = self.__cmp__(other)
if c is NotImplemented:
return c
return c > 0
def __ge__(self, other):
c = self.__cmp__(other)
if c is NotImplemented:
return c
return c >= 0
klass.__lt__ = __lt__
klass.__gt__ = __gt__
klass.__le__ = __le__
klass.__ge__ = __ge__
klass.__eq__ = __eq__
klass.__ne__ = __ne__
return klass
if _PY3:
unicode = str
unicode = unicode
def ioType(fileIshObject, default=unicode):
Determine the type which will be returned from the given file object's
read() and accepted by its write() method as an argument.
In other words, determine whether the given file is 'opened in text mode'.
@param fileIshObject: Any object, but ideally one which resembles a file.
@type fileIshObject: L{object}
@param default: A default value to return when the type of C{fileIshObject}
cannot be determined.
@type default: L{type}
@return: There are 3 possible return values:
1. L{unicode}, if the file is unambiguously opened in text mode.
2. L{bytes}, if the file is unambiguously opened in binary mode.
3. L{basestring}, if we are on python 2 (the L{basestring} type
does not exist on python 3) and the file is opened in binary
mode, but has an encoding and can therefore accept both bytes
and text reliably for writing, but will return L{bytes} from
read methods.
4. The C{default} parameter, if the given type is not understood.
@rtype: L{type}
if isinstance(fileIshObject, TextIOBase):
# If it's for text I/O, then it's for text I/O.
return unicode
if isinstance(fileIshObject, IOBase):
# If it's for I/O but it's _not_ for text I/O, it's for bytes I/O.
return bytes
encoding = getattr(fileIshObject, 'encoding', None)
import codecs
if isinstance(fileIshObject, (codecs.StreamReader, codecs.StreamWriter)):
# On StreamReaderWriter, the 'encoding' attribute has special meaning;
# it is unambiguously unicode.
if encoding:
return unicode
return bytes
if not _PY3:
# Special case: if we have an encoding file, we can *give* it unicode,
# but we can't expect to *get* unicode.
if isinstance(fileIshObject, file):
if encoding is not None:
return basestring
return bytes
from cStringIO import InputType, OutputType
from StringIO import StringIO
if isinstance(fileIshObject, (StringIO, InputType, OutputType)):
return bytes
return default
def nativeString(s):
Convert C{bytes} or C{unicode} to the native C{str} type, using ASCII
encoding if conversion is necessary.
@raise UnicodeError: The input string is not ASCII encodable/decodable.
@raise TypeError: The input is neither C{bytes} nor C{unicode}.
if not isinstance(s, (bytes, unicode)):
raise TypeError("%r is neither bytes nor unicode" % s)
if _PY3:
if isinstance(s, bytes):
return s.decode("ascii")
# Ensure we're limited to ASCII subset:
if isinstance(s, unicode):
return s.encode("ascii")
# Ensure we're limited to ASCII subset:
return s
if _PY3:
def reraise(exception, traceback):
raise exception.with_traceback(traceback)
exec("""def reraise(exception, traceback):
raise exception.__class__, exception, traceback""")
reraise.__doc__ = """
Re-raise an exception, with an optional traceback, in a way that is compatible
with both Python 2 and Python 3.
Note that on Python 3, re-raised exceptions will be mutated, with their
C{__traceback__} attribute being set.
@param exception: The exception instance.
@param traceback: The traceback to use, or C{None} indicating a new traceback.
if _PY3:
from io import StringIO as NativeStringIO
from io import BytesIO as NativeStringIO
# Functions for dealing with Python 3's bytes type, which is somewhat
# different than Python 2's:
if _PY3:
def iterbytes(originalBytes):
for i in range(len(originalBytes)):
yield originalBytes[i:i+1]
def intToBytes(i):
return ("%d" % i).encode("ascii")
# Ideally we would use memoryview, but it has a number of differences from
# the Python 2 buffer() that make that impractical
# (, incompatiblity with pyOpenSSL due to
# PyArg_ParseTuple differences.)
def lazyByteSlice(object, offset=0, size=None):
Return a copy of the given bytes-like object.
If an offset is given, the copy starts at that offset. If a size is
given, the copy will only be of that length.
@param object: C{bytes} to be copied.
@param offset: C{int}, starting index of copy.
@param size: Optional, if an C{int} is given limit the length of copy
to this size.
if size is None:
return object[offset:]
return object[offset:(offset + size)]
def networkString(s):
if not isinstance(s, unicode):
raise TypeError("Can only convert text to bytes on Python 3")
return s.encode('ascii')
def iterbytes(originalBytes):
return originalBytes
def intToBytes(i):
return b"%d" % i
lazyByteSlice = buffer
def networkString(s):
if not isinstance(s, str):
raise TypeError("Can only pass-through bytes on Python 2")
# Ensure we're limited to ASCII subset:
return s
iterbytes.__doc__ = """
Return an iterable wrapper for a C{bytes} object that provides the behavior of
iterating over C{bytes} on Python 2.
In particular, the results of iteration are the individual bytes (rather than
integers as on Python 3).
@param originalBytes: A C{bytes} object that will be wrapped.
intToBytes.__doc__ = """
Convert the given integer into C{bytes}, as ASCII-encoded Arab numeral.
In other words, this is equivalent to calling C{bytes} in Python 2 on an
@param i: The C{int} to convert to C{bytes}.
@rtype: C{bytes}
networkString.__doc__ = """
Convert the native string type to C{bytes} if it is not already C{bytes} using
ASCII encoding if conversion is necessary.
This is useful for sending text-like bytes that are constructed using string
interpolation. For example, this is safe on Python 2 and Python 3:
networkString("Hello %d" % (n,))
@param s: A native string to convert to bytes if necessary.
@type s: C{str}
@raise UnicodeError: The input string is not ASCII encodable/decodable.
@raise TypeError: The input is neither C{bytes} nor C{unicode}.
@rtype: C{bytes}
StringType = basestring
except NameError:
# Python 3+
StringType = str
from types import InstanceType
except ImportError:
# Python 3+
InstanceType = object
from types import FileType
except ImportError:
# Python 3+
FileType = IOBase
__all__ = [
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