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README.md

n-body

Build status

This is a fast and portable implementation of an n-body simulation. It can optionally take advantage of compiler-provided auto-vectorization for single-thread throughput as well as OpenMP for parallelism, and even has support for CUDA.

About

There are multiple different algorithms included, with varying levels of performance. They are divided into two basic designs: SOA (Structure-of-Arrays) and AOS (Array-of-Structures). You can read more about the differences between the two approaches on Wikipedia and Stack Overflow.

There's a key tradeoff between the two: compilers have a much less difficult time auto-vectorizing the SOA implementations, but the AOS implementations are easier for programmers to read and write. It's not uncommon to see AOS algorithms applied in real-world applications (consider, for example, how most object-oriented programs are constructed).

Most of the code in this project is ordinary C++11, with some added pragmas to provide compilers with appropriate hints to vectorize/parallelize the code properly.

Building

Install Meson in your build environment, and then configure the project:

$ meson . build

There are some additional options available to enable or disable certain features in the build:

  • To enable CUDA support, you can specify -Duse_cuda=true on the meson command line.

  • Newer versions of Clang and LLVM support building CUDA using LLVM's code generation, which can sometimes be faster than the NVIDIA official nvcc binary. You can specify to use Clang instead with -Dnvcc=clang++. Note that there are some restrictions on what CUDA versions can be used with Clang. At the time of this writing, Clang 9.0 is the latest released version available and it only supports through CUDA 10.1.

  • To enable an OpenGL based renderer for the simulation: -Dopengl=true

  • To disable OpenMP support: -Dopenmp=false

  • To disable the SIMD intrinsics variants: -Dintrinsics=false

Once configured, you can build with:

$ ninja -C build

And run n-body with:

$ build/nbody

Example Runs

Here's an example run of the included compare-compilers script in the scripts/ directory. Note that the arguments passed to compare-compilers are the same ones you can put on the nbody command-line.

$ scripts/compare-compilers

Architecture:                    x86_64
CPU op-mode(s):                  32-bit, 64-bit
Byte Order:                      Little Endian
Address sizes:                   43 bits physical, 48 bits virtual
CPU(s):                          32
On-line CPU(s) list:             0-31
Thread(s) per core:              2
Core(s) per socket:              16
Socket(s):                       1
NUMA node(s):                    1
Vendor ID:                       AuthenticAMD
CPU family:                      23
Model:                           113
Model name:                      AMD Ryzen 9 3950X 16-Core Processor
Stepping:                        0
Frequency boost:                 enabled
CPU MHz:                         4144.101
CPU max MHz:                     3500.0000
CPU min MHz:                     2200.0000
BogoMIPS:                        7000.31
Virtualization:                  AMD-V
L1d cache:                       512 KiB
L1i cache:                       512 KiB
L2 cache:                        8 MiB
L3 cache:                        64 MiB
NUMA node0 CPU(s):               0-31
Flags:                           fpu vme de pse tsc msr pae mce cx8 apic sep mtrr pge mca cmov pat pse36
   clflush mmx fxsr sse sse2 ht syscall nx mmxext fxsr_opt pdpe1gb rdtscp lm constant_tsc rep_good nopl
   nonstop_tsc cpuid extd_apicid aperfmperf pni pclmulqdq monitor ssse3 fma cx16 sse4_1 sse4_2 movbe popcnt
   aes xsave avx f16c rdrand lahf_lm cmp_legacy svm extapic cr8_legacy abm sse4a misalignsse 3dnowprefetch
   osvw ibs skinit wdt tce topoext perfctr_core perfctr_nb bpext perfctr_llc mwaitx cpb cat_l3 cdp_l3
   hw_pstate sme ssbd mba sev ibpb stibp vmmcall fsgsbase bmi1 avx2 smep bmi2 cqm rdt_a rdseed adx smap
   clflushopt clwb sha_ni xsaveopt xsavec xgetbv1 xsaves cqm_llc cqm_occup_llc cqm_mbm_total cqm_mbm_local
   clzero irperf xsaveerptr wbnoinvd arat npt lbrv svm_lock nrip_save tsc_scale vmcb_clean flushbyasid
   decodeassists pausefilter pfthreshold avic v_vmsave_vmload vgif umip rdpid overflow_recov succor smca

GPU 0: GeForce RTX 2080 Ti

Linux 5.4.7-1-hsw x86_64

============================================

g++ (GCC) 9.2.1 20200102
Copyright (C) 2019 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
This is free software; see the source for copying conditions.  There is NO
warranty; not even for MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.

nvcc: NVIDIA (R) Cuda compiler driver
Copyright (c) 2005-2019 NVIDIA Corporation
Built on Wed_Apr_24_19:10:27_PDT_2019
Cuda compilation tools, release 10.1, V10.1.168

n-body version: 1.6.0-110-gd7b7038

Binary size: 1284632 bytes

+ env OMP_NUM_THREADS=16 KMP_AFFINITY=scatter build-gcc/nbody \
    --bodies 96 --cycle-after 4 --iterations 1 --verbose --no-crosscheck

Running simulation with 98304 particles, 16 CPU threads, up to 1 GPUs
      CPU_SOA:   255.37 ms =   37.843x10^9 interactions/s (   756.85 GFLOPS)
      CPU_SOA:   253.51 ms =   38.120x10^9 interactions/s (   762.39 GFLOPS)
      CPU_SOA:   254.90 ms =   37.911x10^9 interactions/s (   758.22 GFLOPS)
      CPU_SOA:   258.31 ms =   37.412x10^9 interactions/s (   748.23 GFLOPS)
CPU_SOA_tiled:   230.47 ms =   41.930x10^9 interactions/s (   838.61 GFLOPS)
CPU_SOA_tiled:   231.30 ms =   41.779x10^9 interactions/s (   835.58 GFLOPS)
CPU_SOA_tiled:   230.95 ms =   41.844x10^9 interactions/s (   836.87 GFLOPS)
CPU_SOA_tiled:   230.93 ms =   41.846x10^9 interactions/s (   836.93 GFLOPS)
          AVX:   241.47 ms =   40.020x10^9 interactions/s (   800.39 GFLOPS)
          AVX:   243.60 ms =   39.670x10^9 interactions/s (   793.39 GFLOPS)
          AVX:   239.93 ms =   40.276x10^9 interactions/s (   805.52 GFLOPS)
          AVX:   241.74 ms =   39.975x10^9 interactions/s (   799.51 GFLOPS)
      CPU_AOS:   669.42 ms =   14.436x10^9 interactions/s (   288.72 GFLOPS)
      CPU_AOS:   670.25 ms =   14.418x10^9 interactions/s (   288.36 GFLOPS)
      CPU_AOS:   671.33 ms =   14.395x10^9 interactions/s (   287.90 GFLOPS)
      CPU_AOS:   671.82 ms =   14.384x10^9 interactions/s (   287.68 GFLOPS)
CPU_AOS_tiled:   659.75 ms =   14.647x10^9 interactions/s (   292.95 GFLOPS)
CPU_AOS_tiled:   659.34 ms =   14.657x10^9 interactions/s (   293.13 GFLOPS)
CPU_AOS_tiled:   661.97 ms =   14.598x10^9 interactions/s (   291.97 GFLOPS)
CPU_AOS_tiled:   659.19 ms =   14.660x10^9 interactions/s (   293.20 GFLOPS)
      GPU_AOS:    31.93 ms =  302.662x10^9 interactions/s (  6053.25 GFLOPS)
      GPU_AOS:    32.93 ms =  293.504x10^9 interactions/s (  5870.08 GFLOPS)
      GPU_AOS:    32.93 ms =  293.490x10^9 interactions/s (  5869.81 GFLOPS)
      GPU_AOS:    32.21 ms =  300.066x10^9 interactions/s (  6001.31 GFLOPS)
   GPU_Shared:    21.95 ms =  440.250x10^9 interactions/s (  8805.00 GFLOPS)
   GPU_Shared:    21.62 ms =  447.074x10^9 interactions/s (  8941.48 GFLOPS)
   GPU_Shared:    21.41 ms =  451.283x10^9 interactions/s (  9025.66 GFLOPS)
   GPU_Shared:    21.25 ms =  454.859x10^9 interactions/s (  9097.18 GFLOPS)
    GPU_Const:    21.81 ms =  443.019x10^9 interactions/s (  8860.37 GFLOPS)
    GPU_Const:    21.67 ms =  445.996x10^9 interactions/s (  8919.93 GFLOPS)
    GPU_Const:    21.24 ms =  455.013x10^9 interactions/s (  9100.26 GFLOPS)
    GPU_Const:    21.69 ms =  445.444x10^9 interactions/s (  8908.89 GFLOPS)
     MultiGPU:    20.42 ms =  473.315x10^9 interactions/s (  9466.31 GFLOPS)
     MultiGPU:    20.73 ms =  466.177x10^9 interactions/s (  9323.54 GFLOPS)
     MultiGPU:    20.83 ms =  463.966x10^9 interactions/s (  9279.32 GFLOPS)
     MultiGPU:    21.06 ms =  458.940x10^9 interactions/s (  9178.80 GFLOPS)
  GPU_Shuffle:    25.45 ms =  379.778x10^9 interactions/s (  7595.56 GFLOPS)
  GPU_Shuffle:    25.79 ms =  374.707x10^9 interactions/s (  7494.14 GFLOPS)
  GPU_Shuffle:    25.58 ms =  377.709x10^9 interactions/s (  7554.18 GFLOPS)
  GPU_Shuffle:    26.45 ms =  365.367x10^9 interactions/s (  7307.34 GFLOPS)


============================================

clang version 10.0.0 (https://github.com/llvm/llvm-project.git a5615f5fe8c4b23795c478c3271a7fd0fb04653d)
Target: x86_64-pc-linux-gnu
Thread model: posix
InstalledDir: /home/steven/.apps/llvm-master/bin

nvcc: NVIDIA (R) Cuda compiler driver
Copyright (c) 2005-2019 NVIDIA Corporation
Built on Wed_Apr_24_19:10:27_PDT_2019
Cuda compilation tools, release 10.1, V10.1.168

n-body version: 1.6.0-110-gd7b7038

Binary size: 582264 bytes

+ env OMP_NUM_THREADS=16 KMP_AFFINITY=scatter build-clang/nbody \
    --bodies 96 --cycle-after 4 --iterations 1 --verbose --no-crosscheck

Running simulation with 98304 particles, 16 CPU threads, up to 1 GPUs
      CPU_SOA:   263.99 ms =   36.606x10^9 interactions/s (   732.12 GFLOPS)
      CPU_SOA:   265.18 ms =   36.442x10^9 interactions/s (   728.83 GFLOPS)
      CPU_SOA:   264.38 ms =   36.553x10^9 interactions/s (   731.05 GFLOPS)
      CPU_SOA:   265.02 ms =   36.464x10^9 interactions/s (   729.29 GFLOPS)
CPU_SOA_tiled:   246.33 ms =   39.231x10^9 interactions/s (   784.62 GFLOPS)
CPU_SOA_tiled:   246.95 ms =   39.132x10^9 interactions/s (   782.64 GFLOPS)
CPU_SOA_tiled:   246.95 ms =   39.131x10^9 interactions/s (   782.63 GFLOPS)
CPU_SOA_tiled:   246.96 ms =   39.131x10^9 interactions/s (   782.62 GFLOPS)
          AVX:   262.43 ms =   36.824x10^9 interactions/s (   736.47 GFLOPS)
          AVX:   264.51 ms =   36.534x10^9 interactions/s (   730.69 GFLOPS)
          AVX:   263.24 ms =   36.710x10^9 interactions/s (   734.21 GFLOPS)
          AVX:   262.93 ms =   36.754x10^9 interactions/s (   735.08 GFLOPS)
      CPU_AOS:   656.69 ms =   14.716x10^9 interactions/s (   294.32 GFLOPS)
      CPU_AOS:   656.52 ms =   14.720x10^9 interactions/s (   294.39 GFLOPS)
      CPU_AOS:   656.70 ms =   14.715x10^9 interactions/s (   294.31 GFLOPS)
      CPU_AOS:   657.52 ms =   14.697x10^9 interactions/s (   293.94 GFLOPS)
CPU_AOS_tiled:   631.12 ms =   15.312x10^9 interactions/s (   306.24 GFLOPS)
CPU_AOS_tiled:   631.14 ms =   15.311x10^9 interactions/s (   306.23 GFLOPS)
CPU_AOS_tiled:   631.07 ms =   15.313x10^9 interactions/s (   306.26 GFLOPS)
CPU_AOS_tiled:   631.09 ms =   15.313x10^9 interactions/s (   306.25 GFLOPS)
      GPU_AOS:    31.14 ms =  310.311x10^9 interactions/s (  6206.22 GFLOPS)
      GPU_AOS:    31.16 ms =  310.116x10^9 interactions/s (  6202.33 GFLOPS)
      GPU_AOS:    31.17 ms =  310.048x10^9 interactions/s (  6200.96 GFLOPS)
      GPU_AOS:    27.93 ms =  345.939x10^9 interactions/s (  6918.79 GFLOPS)
   GPU_Shared:    19.61 ms =  492.806x10^9 interactions/s (  9856.11 GFLOPS)
   GPU_Shared:    19.82 ms =  487.682x10^9 interactions/s (  9753.64 GFLOPS)
   GPU_Shared:    19.27 ms =  501.490x10^9 interactions/s ( 10029.80 GFLOPS)
   GPU_Shared:    19.98 ms =  483.760x10^9 interactions/s (  9675.19 GFLOPS)
    GPU_Const:    26.78 ms =  360.804x10^9 interactions/s (  7216.08 GFLOPS)
    GPU_Const:    25.91 ms =  373.026x10^9 interactions/s (  7460.52 GFLOPS)
    GPU_Const:    25.89 ms =  373.328x10^9 interactions/s (  7466.55 GFLOPS)
    GPU_Const:    25.91 ms =  372.923x10^9 interactions/s (  7458.46 GFLOPS)
     MultiGPU:    20.19 ms =  478.727x10^9 interactions/s (  9574.55 GFLOPS)
     MultiGPU:    20.19 ms =  478.658x10^9 interactions/s (  9573.15 GFLOPS)
     MultiGPU:    20.33 ms =  475.334x10^9 interactions/s (  9506.67 GFLOPS)
     MultiGPU:    20.37 ms =  474.370x10^9 interactions/s (  9487.41 GFLOPS)
  GPU_Shuffle:    25.24 ms =  382.938x10^9 interactions/s (  7658.77 GFLOPS)
  GPU_Shuffle:    26.21 ms =  368.707x10^9 interactions/s (  7374.13 GFLOPS)
  GPU_Shuffle:    25.86 ms =  373.691x10^9 interactions/s (  7473.81 GFLOPS)
  GPU_Shuffle:    26.02 ms =  371.338x10^9 interactions/s (  7426.76 GFLOPS)
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