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Copyright (C) 2008, 2009 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
See the end of the file for license conditions.
This directory contains the files needed to build Emacs on
Nextstep-based platforms, including GNUstep and Mac OS X.
The Nextstep support code works on many POSIX systems (and possibly
W32) using the GNUstep libraries, and on MacOS X systems using the
Cocoa libraries.
See the INSTALL file in this directory for compilation instructions.
Those primarily responsible for the port were, in chronological order:
Michael Brouwer, Carl Edman, Christian Limpach, Scott Bender,
Christophe de Dinechin, and Adrian Robert.
Peter Dyballa assisted in a variety of ways to improve text rendering
and keyboard handling, Adam Ratcliffe documented the Preferences
panel, David M. Cooke contributed fixes to XPM handling, and Carsten
Bormann helped get dired working for non-ASCII filenames. People who
provided additional assistance include Adam Fedor, Fred Kiefer, M. Uli
Klusterer, Alexander Malmberg, Jonas Matton, and Riccardo Mottola.
See AUTHORS file and "Release History" below for more information.
MacOS X 10.4 or later
- or -
GNUstep "Startup 0.23" or later
Tested on GNU/Linux, should work on other systems, perhaps with minor
build tweaking.
Within Emacs, the port and its code are referred to using the term
"Nextstep", despite the fact that no system or API has been released
under this name in more than 10 years. Here's some background on why:
NeXT, Inc. introduced the NeXTstep API with its computer and operating
system in the late 1980's. Later on, in collaboration with Sun, this
API was published as a specification called OpenStep. The GNUstep
project started in the early 1990's to provide a free implementation
of this API. Later on, Apple bought NeXT (some would say "NeXT bought
Apple") and made OpenStep the basis of OS X, calling the API "Cocoa".
Since then, Cocoa has evolved beyond the OpenStep specification, and
GNUstep has followed it.
Thus, calling this port "OpenStep" is not technically accurate, and in
the absence of any other determinant, we are using the term
"Nextstep", both because it signifies the original inspiration that
created these APIs, and because all of the classes and functions still
begin with the letters "NS".
This Emacs port was first released in the early 1990's on the NeXT
computer, and was successively updated to OpenStep, Rhapsody, OS X,
and then finally GNUstep, tracking GNU emacs core releases in the
Release History
1990-1992 1.0-3.0 (?) Michael Brouwer's socket/terminal communication
based version (GUI ran as a separate process.)
1993/10/25 3.0.1 Last (?) release of Brouwer version. Supports
NeXTstep 3.x and below.
1994/04/24 4.0 Carl Edman's version using direct API following
the X-Windows port. NeXTstep 3.x only.
1995/06/15 4.1 Second (and last) Carl Edman release, based on
Emacs 19.28.
1996/07/28 4.2 First Christian Limpach release, based on
Emacs 19.29.
?? 5.0 ??
1997/12/?? 6.0b1 Ported to OpenStep by Scott Bender. Updated
to Emacs 20.2.
?? 6.0b2 (?) Scott Bender: ported to Rhapsody.
1999/05/?? 6.0b3 Scott Bender: "OS X Server", Emacs 20.3.
2001/06/25 7.0 Ported to MacOS X (10.1) by Christophe de
Dinechin. Release based on Emacs 20.7. Hosting
moved to SourceForge.
2002/01/03 7.0.1 Bug fixes.
2002/08/27 7.0.2 Jaguar (OS X 10.2) support. Added an autoconf
option for sys_nerr being in stdio. Added
libncurses to the build libraries. Fixed a
problem with ns-alternate-is-meta. Changed the
icon color to blue, since Jaguar is yellow.
2004/10/07 8.0-pre1 Ported to GNUstep by Adrian Robert.
2004/11/04 8.0-pre2 Restored functionality on OS X (menu code
cleanup). Improved scrollbar handling and
paste from other applications. File icons
obtained properly from NSWorkspace. Dropped
Gorm and Nib files. Background refresh bug
fixed (in GNUstep). Various small fixes and
code cleanups. Now starts up under Art.
2005/01/27 8.0-pre3 Bold and italic faces supported. Cursor and
mouse highlighting rendering bugs
fixed. Drag/drop and cut/paste interaction
w/external apps fixed. File load/save panels
available. Stability and rendering speed
improvements. Some ObjC and VC mode bugs fixed.
2005/02/27 8.0-rc1 Dynamic path detection at startup so
can be moved anywhere. Added binary packages
and simplified source installation to running
two scripts. Thorough cleanup of menu code;
now fully functional. Fixed all detected
memory leaks. Minor frame focus and title
bugs fixed.
2005/03/30 8.0-rc2 "Configure" info directory now uses dynamic
path setting, so info files can go under .app.
Improved select() handling and PTY fixes so
shell mode and tramp run smoothly.
Significant rendering optimizations under
GNUstep, and now works under Art backend.
Non-Latin text rendering works (but not
fontsets), and LEIM is bundled. UTF8 is used
for clipboard interaction.
Arrow cursor now used on scrollbar.
objc-mode and tramp now bundled in site-lisp.
2005/05/30 8.0-rc3 Fixed bug with parsing of "easymenu" menus.
Many problems with modes such as SLIME, MatLab,
and Planner go away. Improved scrollbar
handling and rendering speed. Color panel
and other bug fixes. mac-fix-env utility.
Font handling improvements (OS X 10.3, 10.4):
- heed 'GSFontAntiAlias' default
- heed system antialiasing threshold
- added 'UseQuickdrawSmoothing' default to
invoke less heavy antialiasing
2005/07/05 8.0-rc4 Added a Preferences panel. Cleaned up
rendering for synthetic italic fonts. Further
improved menu parsing. Use system highlight
color. Added previous- and next-mark history
navigation commmands bound to M-p,M-n.
Miscellaneous bug fixes.
2005/08/04 8.0-rc5 All internal string handling changed to UTF-8.
This means menu items, color and color list
names, and a few other things will now display
properly. It does NOT mean UTF-8 filenames
are displayed correctly in the minibuffer.
Also relating to UTF-8, contents of files
using this coding can now be displayed (though
not auto-recognized; add extensions to your
default coding alist). Limited mac-roman
support was also added (also sans recognition).
Certain characters are not displayed properly
due to a translation problem. (UTF-8 based on
work by Otfried Cheong; mac-roman from
emacs-21.) Partial support for "dead-key"
handling now added. Transparency (e.g., M-x
set-background-color ARGB88FFFFFF) improved:
only the background is made transparent.
Cursor drawing glitches fixed. Preferences
handling improved. Fixed some portability
problems on Tiger and Puma.
2005/09/12 8.0 Bundled ispell on OS X. Minor bug fixes and
stability improvements. Compiles under gcc-4.
2005/09/26 8.0.1 Correct clipped rendering for synthetic
italics. Include the info directory.
Fix grabenv. Bundle whitespace package.
2005/10/27 8.0.2 Correct rendering for wide characters during
cursor movement. Fix bungled hack in ispell
2005/11/05 9.0-pre1 Updated to latest Emacs CVS code on unicode-2
branch (proposed to be released 2006/2007 as
Emacs 23).
2005/11/11 9.0-pre2 Fix crashes for deiconifying and loading
certain images. Improve vertical font metrics
(fixes inaccurate page up/down, window size,
and partial lines). Support better remapping
of Alt/Opt and remapping of Command. More
insistent defaulting of scrollbar to right.
Modest improvements to build process.
2006/04/22 9.0-pre2a Stopgap interim release to sync w/latest
unicode-2 CVS. Includes XPM and partial
toolbar support.
2006/06/08 9.0-pre3 Major upgrade to keyboard handling:
system-selected compositional input methods
should now work, as well as more keys /
keyboards. XPM, toolbar, and tooltip support.
Some improvements to scrollbars, zoom, italic
rendering, pasting, Color panel. Added function
ns-set-background-alpha to work around
inability to customize with numeric colors.
2006/12/24 9.0-rc1 Reworked font handling and text rendering to
use Kenichi Handa's new font back-end system.
Font sets are now supported and automatically
created when a font is selected. Added recent
X11 colors to Emacs.clr (remove
~/Library/Colors/Emacs.clr to pick up). Added
ns-option-modifier, ns-control-modifier,
ns-function-modifier customization variables.
Update menus to Emacs 21+ conventions. Right
mouse button now generates mouse-3 events.
Various bug fixes and rendering improvements.
2007/09/10 9.0-rc2 Improve menubar, popup menu, and scrollbar
behavior, let accented char entry work in
isearch, follow system keymap for shortcut
keys, fix border and box drawing, remove
glitches in modeline drawing, support
overstrike for unavailable bold fonts, fix XPM
related crasher bugs. Incremental font
metrics caching and other performance
improvements. Shared-lisp builds now possible.
2007/09/20 9.0-rc2a Interim release. New features: composed
character display, colored fringe bitmaps,
colored relief drawing, dynamic resizing,
Bug fixes: popup menu position and selection,
font width calculation, face color adaptation
to background, submenu keyboard navigation.
2007/11/19 9.0-rc3 Integrated the multi-TTY functionality from
emacs core (however, mixed TTY and GUI
sessions are not working yet). Support 10.5.
Give site-lisp load precedence over lisp and
add a compile option to prefer an additional
directory, use miniaturized miniwindow images
in some cases, rename cursor types for
consistency w/other emacs terms, improved font
selection for symbol scripts.
Bug fixes: fringe and bitmap, frame deletion,
resizing, cursor blink, workspace open-file,
image backgrounds, toolbar item enablement,
context menu positioning.
2008/07/15 (none) Merge to GNU Emacs CVS trunk.
This file is part of GNU Emacs.
GNU Emacs is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
(at your option) any later version.
GNU Emacs is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
GNU General Public License for more details.
You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
along with GNU Emacs. If not, see <>.
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