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@tzapu @liebman @sidey79 @Mollayo @franklinvv @riccibitti @tablatronix @j0hnlittle @gmag11 @flavio-fernandes @dontsovcmc @vyruz1986
* WiFiManager.h
* WiFiManager, a library for the ESP8266/Arduino platform
* for configuration of WiFi credentials using a Captive Portal
* @author Creator tzapu
* @author tablatronix
* @version 0.0.0
* @license MIT
#ifndef WiFiManager_h
#define WiFiManager_h
#if defined(ESP8266) || defined(ESP32)
#ifdef ESP8266
#include <core_version.h>
#include <vector>
// #define WM_MDNS // includes MDNS, also set MDNS with sethostname
// #define WM_FIXERASECONFIG // use erase flash fix
// #define WM_ERASE_NVS // esp32 erase(true) will erase NVS
// #define WM_RTC // esp32 info page will include reset reasons
// #define WM_JSTEST // build flag for enabling js xhr tests
// #define WIFI_MANAGER_OVERRIDE_STRINGS // build flag for using own strings include
#ifdef ARDUINO_ESP8266_RELEASE_2_3_0
#warning "ARDUINO_ESP8266_RELEASE_2_3_0, some WM features disabled"
// @todo check failing on platform = espressif8266@1.7.3
#define WM_NOASYNC // esp8266 no async scan wifi
#define WM_NOCOUNTRY // esp8266 no country
#define WM_NOAUTH // no httpauth
#define WM_NOSOFTAPSSID // no softapssid() @todo shim
// #include "soc/efuse_reg.h" // include to add efuse chip rev to info, getChipRevision() is almost always the same though, so not sure why it matters.
// #define esp32autoreconnect // implement esp32 autoreconnect event listener kludge, @DEPRECATED
// autoreconnect is WORKING
#define WM_WEBSERVERSHIM // use webserver shim lib
#ifdef ESP8266
extern "C" {
#include "user_interface.h"
#include <ESP8266WiFi.h>
#include <ESP8266WebServer.h>
#ifdef WM_MDNS
#include <ESP8266mDNS.h>
#define WIFI_getChipId() ESP.getChipId()
#elif defined(ESP32)
// #define STRING2(x) #x
// #define STRING(x) STRING2(x)
// #endif
// #endif
#include <WiFi.h>
#include <esp_wifi.h>
#include <Update.h>
#define WIFI_getChipId() (uint32_t)ESP.getEfuseMac()
#include <WebServer.h>
#include <ESP8266WebServer.h>
// Forthcoming official ? probably never happening
#include <nvs.h>
#include <nvs_flash.h>
#ifdef WM_MDNS
#include <ESPmDNS.h>
#ifdef WM_RTC
#include <rom/rtc.h>
#include <DNSServer.h>
#include <memory>
#include "strings_en.h"
#define WIFI_MANAGER_MAX_PARAMS 5 // params will autoincrement and realloc by this amount when max is reached
#define WFM_NO_LABEL 0
class WiFiManagerParameter {
Create custom parameters that can be added to the WiFiManager setup web page
@id is used for HTTP queries and must not contain spaces nor other special characters
WiFiManagerParameter(const char *custom);
WiFiManagerParameter(const char *id, const char *label);
WiFiManagerParameter(const char *id, const char *label, const char *defaultValue, int length);
WiFiManagerParameter(const char *id, const char *label, const char *defaultValue, int length, const char *custom);
WiFiManagerParameter(const char *id, const char *label, const char *defaultValue, int length, const char *custom, int labelPlacement);
// WiFiManagerParameter& operator=(const WiFiManagerParameter& rhs);
const char *getID() const;
const char *getValue() const;
const char *getLabel() const;
const char *getPlaceholder() const; // @deprecated, use getLabel
int getValueLength() const;
int getLabelPlacement() const;
virtual const char *getCustomHTML() const;
void setValue(const char *defaultValue, int length);
void init(const char *id, const char *label, const char *defaultValue, int length, const char *custom, int labelPlacement);
WiFiManagerParameter& operator=(const WiFiManagerParameter&);
const char *_id;
const char *_label;
char *_value;
int _length;
int _labelPlacement;
const char *_customHTML;
friend class WiFiManager;
class WiFiManager
WiFiManager(Stream& consolePort);
void WiFiManagerInit();
// auto connect to saved wifi, or custom, and start config portal on failures
boolean autoConnect();
boolean autoConnect(char const *apName, char const *apPassword = NULL);
//manually start the config portal, autoconnect does this automatically on connect failure
boolean startConfigPortal(); // auto generates apname
boolean startConfigPortal(char const *apName, char const *apPassword = NULL);
//manually stop the config portal if started manually, stop immediatly if non blocking, flag abort if blocking
bool stopConfigPortal();
//manually start the web portal, autoconnect does this automatically on connect failure
void startWebPortal();
//manually stop the web portal if started manually
void stopWebPortal();
// Run webserver processing, if setConfigPortalBlocking(false)
boolean process();
// get the AP name of the config portal, so it can be used in the callback
String getConfigPortalSSID();
int getRSSIasQuality(int RSSI);
// erase wifi credentials
void resetSettings();
// reboot esp
void reboot();
// disconnect wifi, without persistent saving or erasing
bool disconnect();
// erase esp
bool erase();
bool erase(bool opt);
//adds a custom parameter, returns false on failure
bool addParameter(WiFiManagerParameter *p);
//returns the list of Parameters
WiFiManagerParameter** getParameters();
// returns the Parameters Count
int getParametersCount();
//called after AP mode and config portal has started
void setAPCallback( std::function<void(WiFiManager*)> func );
//called after webserver has started
void setWebServerCallback( std::function<void()> func );
//called when settings reset have been triggered
void setConfigResetCallback( std::function<void()> func );
//called when wifi settings have been changed and connection was successful ( or setBreakAfterConfig(true) )
void setSaveConfigCallback( std::function<void()> func );
//called when saving either params-in-wifi or params page
void setSaveParamsCallback( std::function<void()> func );
//called when saving params-in-wifi or params before anything else happens (eg wifi)
void setPreSaveConfigCallback( std::function<void()> func );
//called just before doing OTA update
void setPreOtaUpdateCallback( std::function<void()> func );
//sets timeout before AP,webserver loop ends and exits even if there has been no setup.
//useful for devices that failed to connect at some point and got stuck in a webserver loop
//in seconds setConfigPortalTimeout is a new name for setTimeout, ! not used if setConfigPortalBlocking
void setConfigPortalTimeout(unsigned long seconds);
void setTimeout(unsigned long seconds); // @deprecated, alias
//sets timeout for which to attempt connecting, useful if you get a lot of failed connects
void setConnectTimeout(unsigned long seconds);
// sets number of retries for autoconnect, force retry after wait failure exit
void setConnectRetries(uint8_t numRetries); // default 1
//sets timeout for which to attempt connecting on saves, useful if there are bugs in esp waitforconnectloop
void setSaveConnectTimeout(unsigned long seconds);
// lets you disable automatically connecting after save from webportal
void setSaveConnect(bool connect = true);
// toggle debug output
void setDebugOutput(boolean debug);
void setDebugOutput(boolean debug, String prefix); // log line prefix, default "*wm:"
//set min quality percentage to include in scan, defaults to 8% if not specified
void setMinimumSignalQuality(int quality = 8);
//sets a custom ip /gateway /subnet configuration
void setAPStaticIPConfig(IPAddress ip, IPAddress gw, IPAddress sn);
//sets config for a static IP
void setSTAStaticIPConfig(IPAddress ip, IPAddress gw, IPAddress sn);
//sets config for a static IP with DNS
void setSTAStaticIPConfig(IPAddress ip, IPAddress gw, IPAddress sn, IPAddress dns);
//if this is set, it will exit after config, even if connection is unsuccessful.
void setBreakAfterConfig(boolean shouldBreak);
// if this is set, portal will be blocking and wait until save or exit,
// is false user must manually `process()` to handle config portal,
// setConfigPortalTimeout is ignored in this mode, user is responsible for closing configportal
void setConfigPortalBlocking(boolean shouldBlock);
//if this is set, customise style
void setCustomHeadElement(const char* element);
//if this is true, remove duplicated Access Points - defaut true
void setRemoveDuplicateAPs(boolean removeDuplicates);
//setter for ESP wifi.persistent so we can remember it and restore user preference, as WIFi._persistent is protected
void setRestorePersistent(boolean persistent);
//if true, always show static net inputs, IP, subnet, gateway, else only show if set via setSTAStaticIPConfig
void setShowStaticFields(boolean alwaysShow);
//if true, always show static dns, esle only show if set via setSTAStaticIPConfig
void setShowDnsFields(boolean alwaysShow);
// toggle showing the saved wifi password in wifi form, could be a security issue.
void setShowPassword(boolean show);
//if false, disable captive portal redirection
void setCaptivePortalEnable(boolean enabled);
//if false, timeout captive portal even if a STA client connected to softAP (false), suggest disabling if captiveportal is open
void setAPClientCheck(boolean enabled);
//if true, reset timeout when webclient connects (true), suggest disabling if captiveportal is open
void setWebPortalClientCheck(boolean enabled);
// if true, enable autoreconnecting
void setWiFiAutoReconnect(boolean enabled);
// if true, wifiscan will show percentage instead of quality icons, until we have better templating
void setScanDispPerc(boolean enabled);
// if true (default) then start the config portal from autoConnect if connection failed
void setEnableConfigPortal(boolean enable);
// set a custom hostname, sets sta and ap dhcp client id for esp32, and sta for esp8266
bool setHostname(const char * hostname);
// show erase wifi onfig button on info page, true
void setShowInfoErase(boolean enabled);
// show OTA upload button on info page
void setShowInfoUpdate(boolean enabled);
// set ap channel
void setWiFiAPChannel(int32_t channel);
// set ap hidden
void setWiFiAPHidden(bool hidden); // default false
// clean connect, always disconnect before connecting
void setCleanConnect(bool enable); // default false
// set custom menu items and order, vector or arr
// see _menutokens for ids
void setMenu(std::vector<const char*>& menu);
void setMenu(const char* menu[], uint8_t size);
// set the webapp title, default WiFiManager
void setTitle(String title);
// add params to its own menu page and remove from wifi, NOT TO BE COMBINED WITH setMenu!
void setParamsPage(bool enable);
// get last connection result, includes autoconnect and wifisave
uint8_t getLastConxResult();
// get a status as string
String getWLStatusString(uint8_t status);
String getWLStatusString();
// get wifi mode as string
String getModeString(uint8_t mode);
// check if the module has a saved ap to connect to
bool getWiFiIsSaved();
// helper to get saved password, if persistent get stored, else get current if connected
String getWiFiPass(bool persistent = true);
// helper to get saved ssid, if persistent get stored, else get current if connected
String getWiFiSSID(bool persistent = true);
// debug output the softap config
void debugSoftAPConfig();
// debug output platform info and versioning
void debugPlatformInfo();
// helper for html
String htmlEntities(String str);
// set the country code for wifi settings, CN
void setCountry(String cc);
// set body class (invert), may be used for hacking in alt classes
void setClass(String str);
// set dark mode via invert class
void setDarkMode(bool enable);
// get default ap esp uses , esp_chipid etc
String getDefaultAPName();
// set port of webserver, 80
void setHttpPort(uint16_t port);
// check if config portal is active (true)
bool getConfigPortalActive();
// check if web portal is active (true)
bool getWebPortalActive();
// to preload autoconnect for test fixtures or other uses that skip esp sta config
bool preloadWiFi(String ssid, String pass);
// get hostname helper
String getWiFiHostname();
std::unique_ptr<DNSServer> dnsServer;
#if defined(ESP32) && defined(WM_WEBSERVERSHIM)
using WM_WebServer = WebServer;
using WM_WebServer = ESP8266WebServer;
std::unique_ptr<WM_WebServer> server;
std::vector<uint8_t> _menuIds;
std::vector<const char *> _menuIdsParams = {"wifi","param","info","exit"};
std::vector<const char *> _menuIdsUpdate = {"wifi","param","info","update","exit"};
std::vector<const char *> _menuIdsDefault = {"wifi","info","exit","sep","update"};
// ip configs @todo struct ?
IPAddress _ap_static_ip;
IPAddress _ap_static_gw;
IPAddress _ap_static_sn;
IPAddress _sta_static_ip;
IPAddress _sta_static_gw;
IPAddress _sta_static_sn;
IPAddress _sta_static_dns;
// defaults
const byte DNS_PORT = 53;
const byte HTTP_PORT = 80;
String _apName = "no-net";
String _apPassword = "";
String _ssid = ""; // var temp ssid
String _pass = ""; // var temp psk
String _defaultssid = ""; // preload ssid
String _defaultpass = ""; // preload pass
// options flags
unsigned long _configPortalTimeout = 0; // ms close config portal loop if set (depending on _cp/webClientCheck options)
unsigned long _connectTimeout = 0; // ms stop trying to connect to ap if set
unsigned long _saveTimeout = 0; // ms stop trying to connect to ap on saves, in case bugs in esp waitforconnectresult
unsigned long _configPortalStart = 0; // ms config portal start time (updated for timeouts)
unsigned long _webPortalAccessed = 0; // ms last web access time
WiFiMode_t _usermode = WIFI_STA; // Default user mode
String _wifissidprefix = FPSTR(S_ssidpre); // auto apname prefix prefix+chipid
uint8_t _lastconxresult = WL_IDLE_STATUS; // store last result when doing connect operations
int _numNetworks = 0; // init index for numnetworks wifiscans
unsigned long _lastscan = 0; // ms for timing wifi scans
unsigned long _startscan = 0; // ms for timing wifi scans
int _cpclosedelay = 2000; // delay before wifisave, prevents captive portal from closing to fast.
bool _cleanConnect = false; // disconnect before connect in connectwifi, increases stability on connects
bool _connectonsave = true; // connect to wifi when saving creds
bool _disableSTA = false; // disable sta when starting ap, always
bool _disableSTAConn = true; // disable sta when starting ap, if sta is not connected ( stability )
bool _channelSync = false; // use same wifi sta channel when starting ap
int32_t _apChannel = 0; // channel to use for ap
bool _apHidden = false; // store softap hidden value
uint16_t _httpPort = 80; // port for webserver
// uint8_t _retryCount = 0; // counter for retries, probably not needed if synchronous
uint8_t _connectRetries = 1; // number of sta connect retries, force reconnect, wait loop (connectimeout) does not always work and first disconnect bails
unsigned long _startconn = 0; // ms for timing wifi connects
bool _aggresiveReconn = false; // use an agrressive reconnect strategy, WILL delay conxs
// on some conn failure modes will add delays and many retries to work around esp and ap bugs, ie, anti de-auth protections
#ifdef ESP32
wifi_event_id_t wm_event_id;
static uint8_t _lastconxresulttmp; // tmp var for esp32 callback
uint8_t WL_STATION_WRONG_PASSWORD = 7; // @kludge define a WL status for wrong password
// parameter options
int _minimumQuality = -1; // filter wifiscan ap by this rssi
int _staShowStaticFields = 0; // ternary 1=always show static ip fields, 0=only if set, -1=never(cannot change ips via web!)
int _staShowDns = 0; // ternary 1=always show dns, 0=only if set, -1=never(cannot change dns via web!)
boolean _removeDuplicateAPs = true; // remove dup aps from wifiscan
boolean _showPassword = false; // show or hide saved password on wifi form, might be a security issue!
boolean _shouldBreakAfterConfig = false; // stop configportal on save failure
boolean _configPortalIsBlocking = true; // configportal enters blocking loop
boolean _enableCaptivePortal = true; // enable captive portal redirection
boolean _userpersistent = true; // users preffered persistence to restore
boolean _wifiAutoReconnect = true; // there is no platform getter for this, we must assume its true and make it so
boolean _apClientCheck = false; // keep cp alive if ap have station
boolean _webClientCheck = true; // keep cp alive if web have client
boolean _scanDispOptions = false; // show percentage in scans not icons
boolean _paramsInWifi = true; // show custom parameters on wifi page
boolean _showInfoErase = true; // info page erase button
boolean _showInfoUpdate = true; // info page update button
boolean _showBack = false; // show back button
boolean _enableConfigPortal = true; // use config portal if autoconnect failed
const char * _hostname = ""; // hostname for esp8266 for dhcp, and or MDNS
const char* _customHeadElement = ""; // store custom head element html from user
String _bodyClass = ""; // class to add to body
String _title = FPSTR(S_brand); // app title - default WiFiManager
// internal options
// wifiscan notes
// The following are background wifi scanning optimizations
// experimental to make scans faster, preload scans after starting cp, and visiting home page, so when you click wifi its already has your list
// ideally we would add async and xhr here but I am holding off on js requirements atm
// might be slightly buggy since captive portals hammer the home page, @todo workaround this somehow.
// cache time helps throttle this
// async enables asyncronous scans, so they do not block anything
// the refresh button bypasses cache
// no aps found is problematic as scans are always going to want to run, leading to page load delays
boolean _preloadwifiscan = false; // preload wifiscan if true
boolean _asyncScan = false; // perform wifi network scan async
unsigned int _scancachetime = 30000; // ms cache time for background scans
boolean _disableIpFields = false; // modify function of setShow_X_Fields(false), forces ip fields off instead of default show if set, eg. _staShowStaticFields=-1
String _wificountry = ""; // country code, @todo define in strings lang
// wrapper functions for handling setting and unsetting persistent for now.
bool esp32persistent = false;
bool _hasBegun = false; // flag wm loaded,unloaded
void _begin();
void _end();
void setupConfigPortal();
bool shutdownConfigPortal();
bool setupHostname(bool restart);
boolean _tryWPS = false; // try WPS on save failure, unsupported
void startWPS();
bool startAP();
void setupDNSD();
uint8_t connectWifi(String ssid, String pass, bool connect = true);
bool setSTAConfig();
bool wifiConnectDefault();
bool wifiConnectNew(String ssid, String pass,bool connect = true);
uint8_t waitForConnectResult();
uint8_t waitForConnectResult(uint32_t timeout);
void updateConxResult(uint8_t status);
// webserver handlers
void handleRoot();
void handleWifi(boolean scan);
void handleWifiSave();
void handleInfo();
void handleReset();
void handleNotFound();
void handleExit();
void handleClose();
// void handleErase();
void handleErase(boolean opt);
void handleParam();
void handleWiFiStatus();
void handleRequest();
void handleParamSave();
void doParamSave();
boolean captivePortal();
boolean configPortalHasTimeout();
uint8_t processConfigPortal();
void stopCaptivePortal();
// OTA Update handler
void handleUpdate();
void handleUpdating();
void handleUpdateDone();
// wifi platform abstractions
bool WiFi_Mode(WiFiMode_t m);
bool WiFi_Mode(WiFiMode_t m,bool persistent);
bool WiFi_Disconnect();
bool WiFi_enableSTA(bool enable);
bool WiFi_enableSTA(bool enable,bool persistent);
bool WiFi_eraseConfig();
uint8_t WiFi_softap_num_stations();
bool WiFi_hasAutoConnect();
void WiFi_autoReconnect();
String WiFi_SSID(bool persistent = true) const;
String WiFi_psk(bool persistent = true) const;
bool WiFi_scanNetworks();
bool WiFi_scanNetworks(bool force,bool async);
bool WiFi_scanNetworks(unsigned int cachetime,bool async);
bool WiFi_scanNetworks(unsigned int cachetime);
void WiFi_scanComplete(int networksFound);
bool WiFiSetCountry();
#ifdef ESP32
// check for arduino or system event system, handle esp32 arduino v2 and IDF
void WiFiEvent(WiFiEvent_t event, arduino_event_info_t info);
void WiFiEvent(WiFiEvent_t event, system_event_info_t info);
// output helpers
String getParamOut();
String getIpForm(String id, String title, String value);
String getScanItemOut();
String getStaticOut();
String getHTTPHead(String title);
String getMenuOut();
boolean isIp(String str);
String toStringIp(IPAddress ip);
boolean validApPassword();
String encryptionTypeStr(uint8_t authmode);
void reportStatus(String &page);
String getInfoData(String id);
// flags
boolean connect;
boolean abort;
boolean reset = false;
boolean configPortalActive = false;
boolean webPortalActive = false;
boolean portalTimeoutResult = false;
boolean portalAbortResult = false;
boolean storeSTAmode = true; // option store persistent STA mode in connectwifi
int timer = 0; // timer for debug throttle for numclients, and portal timeout messages
// WiFiManagerParameter
int _paramsCount = 0;
int _max_params;
WiFiManagerParameter** _params = NULL;
// debugging
typedef enum {
DEBUG_NOTIFY = 1, // default stable
DEBUG_DEV = 3, // default dev
} wm_debuglevel_t;
boolean _debug = true;
String _debugPrefix = FPSTR(S_debugPrefix);
wm_debuglevel_t debugLvlShow = DEBUG_VERBOSE; // at which level start showing [n] level tags
// build debuglevel support
// @todo use DEBUG_ESP_x?
// Set default debug level
#define WM_DEBUG_LEVEL DEBUG_VERBOSE // development default, not release
// override debug level OFF
uint8_t _debugLevel = (uint8_t)WM_DEBUG_LEVEL;
uint8_t _debugLevel = DEBUG_VERBOSE; // default debug level
// @todo use DEBUG_ESP_PORT ?
Stream& _debugPort = WM_DEBUG_PORT;
Stream& _debugPort = Serial; // debug output stream ref
template <typename Generic>
void DEBUG_WM(Generic text);
template <typename Generic>
void DEBUG_WM(wm_debuglevel_t level,Generic text);
template <typename Generic, typename Genericb>
void DEBUG_WM(Generic text,Genericb textb);
template <typename Generic, typename Genericb>
void DEBUG_WM(wm_debuglevel_t level, Generic text,Genericb textb);
// callbacks
// @todo use cb list (vector) maybe event ids, allow no return value
std::function<void(WiFiManager*)> _apcallback;
std::function<void()> _webservercallback;
std::function<void()> _savewificallback;
std::function<void()> _presavecallback;
std::function<void()> _saveparamscallback;
std::function<void()> _resetcallback;
std::function<void()> _preotaupdatecallback;
template <class T>
auto optionalIPFromString(T *obj, const char *s) -> decltype( obj->fromString(s) ) {
return obj->fromString(s);
auto optionalIPFromString(...) -> bool {
// DEBUG_WM("NO fromString METHOD ON IPAddress, you need ESP8266 core 2.1.0 or newer for Custom IP configuration to work.");
return false;