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import time
import random
import logging
from Queue import PriorityQueue, Empty
except ImportError:
from queue import PriorityQueue, Empty
logger = logging.getLogger('elasticsearch')
class ConnectionSelector(object):
Simple class used to select a connection from a list of currently live
connection instances. In init time it is passed a dictionary containing all
the connections' options which it can then use during the selection
process. When the `select` method is called it is given a list of
*currently* live connections to choose from.
The options dictionary is the one that has been passed to
:class:`~elasticsearch.Transport` as `hosts` param and the same that is
used to construct the Connection object itself. When the Connection was
created from information retrieved from the cluster via the sniffing
process it will be the dictionary returned by the `host_info_callback`.
Example of where this would be useful is a zone-aware selector that would
only select connections from it's own zones and only fall back to other
connections where there would be none in it's zones.
def __init__(self, opts):
:arg opts: dictionary of connection instances and their options
self.connection_opts = opts
def select(self, connections):
Select a connection from the given list.
:arg connections: list of live connections to choose from
class RandomSelector(ConnectionSelector):
Select a connection at random
def select(self, connections):
return random.choice(connections)
class RoundRobinSelector(ConnectionSelector):
Selector using round-robin.
def __init__(self, opts):
super(RoundRobinSelector, self).__init__(opts)
self.rr = -1
def select(self, connections):
self.rr += 1
self.rr %= len(connections)
return connections[self.rr]
class ConnectionPool(object):
Container holding the :class:`~elasticsearch.Connection` instances,
managing the selection process (via a
:class:`~elasticsearch.ConnectionSelector`) and dead connections.
It's only interactions are with the :class:`~elasticsearch.Transport` class
that drives all the actions within `ConnectionPool`.
Initially connections are stored on the class as a list and, along with the
connection options, get passed to the `ConnectionSelector` instance for
future reference.
Upon each request the `Transport` will ask for a `Connection` via the
`get_connection` method. If the connection fails (it's `perform_request`
raises a `ConnectionError`) it will be marked as dead (via `mark_dead`) and
put on a timeout (if it fails N times in a row the timeout is exponentially
longer - the formula is `default_timeout * 2 ** (fail_count - 1)`). When
the timeout is over the connection will be resurrected and returned to the
live pool. A connection that has been peviously marked as dead and
succeedes will be marked as live (it's fail count will be deleted).
def __init__(self, connections, dead_timeout=60, timeout_cutoff=5,
selector_class=RoundRobinSelector, randomize_hosts=True, **kwargs):
:arg connections: list of tuples containing the
:class:`~elasticsearch.Connection` instance and it's options
:arg dead_timeout: number of seconds a connection should be retired for
after a failure, increases on consecutive failures
:arg timeout_cutoff: number of consecutive failures after which the
timeout doesn't increase
:arg selector_class: :class:`~elasticsearch.ConnectionSelector`
subclass to use
:arg randomize_hosts: shuffle the list of connections upon arrival to
avoid dog piling effect across processes
self.connection_opts = connections
self.connections = [c for (c, opts) in connections]
# PriorityQueue for thread safety and ease of timeout management
self.dead = PriorityQueue(len(self.connections))
self.dead_count = {}
if randomize_hosts:
# randomize the connection list to avoid all clients hitting same
# node after startup/restart
# default timeout after which to try resurrecting a connection
self.dead_timeout = dead_timeout
self.timeout_cutoff = timeout_cutoff
self.selector = selector_class(dict(connections))
def mark_dead(self, connection, now=None):
Mark the connection as dead (failed). Remove it from the live pool and
put it on a timeout.
:arg connection: the failed instance
# allow inject for testing purposes
now = now if now else time.time()
except ValueError:
# connection not alive or another thread marked it already, ignore
dead_count = self.dead_count.get(connection, 0) + 1
self.dead_count[connection] = dead_count
timeout = self.dead_timeout * 2 ** min(dead_count - 1,
self.dead.put((now + timeout, connection))
'Connection %r has failed for %i times in a row,'
' putting on %i second timeout.',
connection, dead_count, timeout
def mark_live(self, connection):
Mark connection as healthy after a resurrection. Resets the fail
counter for the connection.
:arg connection: the connection to redeem
del self.dead_count[connection]
except KeyError:
# race condition, safe to ignore
def resurrect(self, force=False):
Attempt to resurrect a connection from the dead pool. It will try to
locate one (not all) eligible (it's timeout is over) connection to
return to th live pool.
:arg force: resurrect a connection even if there is none eligible (used
when we have no live connections)
# no dead connections
if self.dead.empty():
# retrieve a connection to check
timeout, connection = self.dead.get(block=False)
except Empty:
# other thread has been faster and the queue is now empty
if not force and timeout > time.time():
# return it back if not eligible and not forced
self.dead.put((timeout, connection))
# either we were forced or the connection is elligible to be retried
self.connections.append(connection)'Resurrecting connection %r (force=%s).', connection, force)
def get_connection(self):
Return a connection from the pool using the `ConnectionSelector`
It tries to resurrect eligible connections, forces a resurrection when
no connections are availible and passes the list of live connections to
the selector instance to choose from.
Returns a connection instance and it's current fail count.
# no live nodes, resurrect one by force
if not self.connections:
connection =
return connection