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Bootstrapped Lexicon of English Polarity Shifters

DOI

This repository contains the data created as part of:

Marc Schulder, Michael Wiegand and Josef Ruppenhofer (2020). "Automatic Generation of Lexica for Sentiment Polarity Shifters". In: Natural Language Engineering. doi:10.1017/S135132492000039X

Content

We provide a bootstrapped lexicon of English polarity shifters and their shifting direction. We cover verbs, nouns and adjectives. Our lexicon provides 2521 shifters among a vocabulary of 9145 words, taken from WordNet v3.1 (Miller et al., 1990).

We also provide a dataset of 2631 verb phrases that are annotated for shifting polarities. The phrases are taken from the Amazon Product Review Data corpus (Jindal & Liu, 2008).

Related Resources

Data

1. Polarity Shifter Lexicon

A list of 9145 words, annotated for whether they are polarity shifters and which polarities they affect. Contains 2631 shifters and 6514 non-shifters.

  • File: shifters.txt
  • The lexicon is a comma-separated value (CSV) table
  • Each line follows the format POS,LEMMA,SHIFTER_LABEL,DIRECTION_LABEL,SOURCE.
    • POS: The part of speech of the word (verb, noun, adj)
    • LEMMA: The lemma representation of the word in question. Multiword expressions are separated by an underscore (WORD_WORD).
    • SHIFTER_LABEL: Whether the word is a polarity shifter (SHIFTER) or a non-shifter (NONSHIFTER)
    • DIRECTION_LABEL: Whether the shifter affects only positive polarities (AFFECTS_POSITIVE), only negative polarities (AFFECTS_NEGATIVE) or can shift in both directions (AFFECTS_BOTH). Non-shifters are all labeled (NONE).
    • SOURCE: Whether the word was part of the gold standard (GOLD_STANDARD) or was bootstrapped (BOOTSTRAPPED). Note that while bootstrapped shifter labels are verified by a human annotator, their direction label is automatically classified without verification.

2. Sentiment Verb Phrases

A set of verb phrases, annotated for the polarity of the verb phrase and the polarity of a polar noun that it contains. Can be used to evaluate whether a polarity classifier correctly recognizes polarity shifting. The file starts with 400 phrases containing shifter verbs, followed by 2231 phrases containing non-shifter verbs.

  • File: sentiment_phrases.txt
  • Every item consists of:
    • The sentence from which the VP and the polar noun were extracted.
    • The VP, polar noun and the verb heading the VP.
    • Constituency parse for the VP.
    • Gold labels for VP and polar noun by a human annotator.
    • Predicted labels for VP and polar noun by RNTN tagger (Socher et al., 2013) and LEX_gold approach.
    • Items are separated by a line of asterisks (*)

Attribution

This data set and the associated article are published under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0.

Acknowledgements

This work was partially supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG) under grants RU 1873/2-1 and WI4204/2-1.

References

G. Miller, R. Beckwith, C. Fellbaum, D. Gross, K. Miller: "Introduction to WordNet: An On-Line Lexical Database". International Journal of Lexicography, 3:235-244, 1990.

N. Jindal and B. Liu: "Opinion Spam and Analysis", in Proceedings of ACM-WSDM, 2008.

R. Socher, A. Perelygin, J. Wu, J. Chuang, C. Manning, A. Ng, C. Potts: "Recursive Deep Models for Semantic Compositionality Over a Sentiment Treebank", in EMNLP, 2013.

About

Supplementary data for the 2021 JNLE article "Automatic Generation of Lexica for Sentiment Polarity Shifters" by Schulder, Wiegand and Ruppenhofer.

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