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readme.md

PCILeech Summary:

PCILeech uses PCIe hardware devices to read and write target system memory. This is achieved by using DMA over PCIe. No drivers are needed on the target system.

PCILeech also works without hardware together with a wide range of software memory acqusition methods supported by the LeechCore library - including capture of remote live memory using DumpIt or WinPmem. PCILeech also supports local capture of memory and a number of memory dump file formats.

PCILeech supports multiple memory acquisition devices. Both hardware and software based. USB3380 based hardware is only able to read 4GB of memory natively, but is able to read all memory if a kernel module (KMD) is first inserted into the target system kernel. FPGA based hardware, and software based methods, are able to read all memory.

PCILeech is capable of inserting a wide range of kernel implants into the targeted kernels - allowing for easy access to live ram and the file system via a "mounted drive". It is also possible to remove the logon password requirement, loading unsigned drivers, executing code and spawn system shells. PCIleech runs on Windows and Linux. Supported target systems are currently the x64 versions of: UEFI, Linux, FreeBSD, macOS and Windows. This requires write access to memory (USB3380 hardware, FPGA hardware or CVE-2018-1038 "Total Meltdown").

To get going clone the sources in the repository or download the latest binaries, modules and configuration files.

The PushPin GUI frontend for PCILeech makes common RedTeam tasks super easy. Note that PushPin is not part of the official PCILeech distribution.

Capabilities:

  • Retrieve memory from the target system at >150MB/s.
  • Retrieve remote memory from remote LeechService.
  • Write data to the target system memory.
  • 4GB memory can be accessed in native DMA mode (USB3380 hardware).
  • ALL memory can be accessed in native DMA mode (FPGA hardware).
  • ALL memory can be accessed if kernel module (KMD) is loaded.
  • Raw PCIe TLP access (FPGA hardware).
  • Mount live RAM as file [Linux, Windows, macOS Sierra*].
  • Mount file system as drive [Linux, Windows, macOS Sierra*].
  • Execute kernel code on the target system.
  • Spawn system shell and other executables [Windows].
  • Pull and Push files [Linux, FreeBSD, Windows, macOS Sierra*].
  • Patch / Unlock (remove password requirement) [Windows, macOS Sierra*].
  • Easy to create own kernel shellcode and/or custom signatures.
  • Connect to a remote LeechAgent over the network to remotely:
    • Dump physical memory over the network.
    • Execute Python memory analysis scripts on the remote host.
  • Even more features not listed here ...

*) macOS High Sierra and above are not supported.

Memory Acquisition Methods:

PCILeech supports both hardware based and software based memory acqusition methods. All memory acqusition is handled by the LeechCore library.

Hardware based memory aqusition methods:

Please find a summary of the supported hardware based memory acquisition methods listed below. All hardware based memory acquisition methods are supported on both Windows and Linux. The FPGA based methods however sports a slight performance penalty on Linux and will max out at approx: 90MB/s compared to 150MB/s on Windows.

Device Type Interface Speed 64-bit memory access PCIe TLP access Plugin
AC701/FT601 FPGA USB3 150MB/s Yes Yes No
ScreamerM2 FPGA USB3 150MB/s Yes Yes No
PCIeScreamer FPGA USB3 100MB/s Yes Yes No
SP605/FT601 FPGA USB3 75MB/s Yes Yes No
NeTV2/UDP FPGA UDP 7MB/s Yes Yes No
USB3380-EVB USB3380 USB3 150MB/s No No No
PP3380 USB3380 USB3 150MB/s No No No
SP605/TCP FPGA TCP 100kB/s Yes Yes Yes
DMA patched HP iLO BMC TCP 1MB/s Yes No Yes

Software based memory aqusition methods:

Please find a summary of the supported software based memory acquisition methods listed below. Please note that the LeechService only provides a network connection to a remote LeechCore library. It's possible to use both hardware and software based memory acquisition once connected.

Device Type Volatile Write Linux Support Plugin
RAW physical memory dump File No No Yes No
Full Microsoft Crash Dump File No No Yes No
Full ELF Core Dump File No No Yes No
VMware memory save file File No No Yes No
TotalMeltdown CVE-2018-1038 Yes Yes No No
DumpIt /LIVEKD Live Memory Yes No No No
WinPMEM Live Memory Yes No No No
LiveKd Live Memory Yes No No No
LiveCloudKd Live Memory Yes No No Yes
Hyper-V Saved State File No No No Yes
LeechAgent* Remote No No

Installing PCILeech:

Please ensure you do have the most recent version of PCILeech by visiting the PCILeech github repository at: https://github.com/ufrisk/pcileech

Get the latest binaries, modules and configuration files from the latest release. Alternatively clone the repository and build from source.

Windows:

Please see the PCILeech on Windows guide for information about running PCILeech on Windows.

The Google Android USB driver have to be installed if USB3380 hardware is used. Download the Google Android USB driver from: http://developer.android.com/sdk/win-usb.html#download Unzip the driver.
FTDI drivers have to be installed if FPGA is used with FT601 USB3 addon card or PCIeScreamer. Download the 64-bit FTD3XX.dll from FTDI and place it alongside pcileech.exe.
To mount live ram and target file system as drive in Windows the Dokany file system library must be installed. Please download and install the latest stable version of Dokany at: https://github.com/dokan-dev/dokany/releases/latest

Linux:

Please see the PCILeech on Linux guide for information about running PCILeech on Linux.

Examples:

Please see the project wiki pages for more examples. The wiki is in a buildup phase and information may still be missing.

Mount target system live RAM and file system, requires that a KMD is loaded. In this example 0x11abc000 is used.

  • pcileech.exe mount -kmd 0x11abc000

Show help for a specific kernel implant, in this case lx64_filepull kernel implant.

  • pcileech.exe lx64_filepull -help

Show help for the dump command.

  • pcileech.exe dump -help

Dump all memory from the target system given that a kernel module is loaded at address: 0x7fffe000.

  • pcileech.exe dump -kmd 0x7fffe000

Force dump memory below 4GB including accessible memory mapped devices using more stable USB2 approach on USB3380.

  • pcileech.exe dump -force -device usb3380://usb=2

Receive PCIe TLPs (Transaction Layer Packets) and print them on screen (correctly configured FPGA dev board required).

  • pcileech.exe tlp -vv -wait 1000

Probe/Enumerate the memory of the target system for readable memory pages and maximum memory. (FPGA hardware only).

  • pcileech.exe probe

Dump all memory between addresses min and max, don't stop on failed pages. Native access to 64-bit memory is only supported on FPGA hardware.

  • pcileech.exe dump -min 0x0 -max 0x21e5fffff -force

Dump all memory, try locate the memory map from the target system registry to avoid dumping potentially invalid memory which may freeze the target.

  • pcileech.exe dump -memmap auto

Force the usage of a specific device (instead of default auto detecting it). The pmem device is not auto detected.

  • pcileech.exe pagedisplay -min 0x1000 -device pmem

Dump remote memory from a remote LeechAgent using connection encrypted and mutually authenticated by kerberos.

  • pcileech.exe dump -device pmem -remote rpc://computer$@ad.contoso.com

Execute the Python analysis script find-rwx.py on a remote computer using the LeechAgent embedded Python environment.

  • pcileech.exe agent-execpy -in find-rwx.py -device pmem -remote rpc://computer$@ad.contoso.com

Dump memory using the the reported "TotalMeltdown" Windows 7/2008R2 x64 PML4 page table permission vulnerability.

  • pcileech.exe dump -out memdump_win7.raw -device totalmeltdown -v -force

Insert a kernel module into a running Linux system remotely via a DMA patched HP iLO.

  • pcileech.exe kmdload -vvv -device -device RawTCP://127.0.0.1:8888 -kmd LINUX_X64_48

Generating Signatures:

PCILeech comes with built in signatures for Windows, Linux, FreeBSD and macOS. There is also an optional, now obsoleted method of generating signatures by using the pcileech_gensig.exe program.

Limitations/Known Issues:

  • Read and write errors on some hardware with the USB3380. Try pcileech.exe testmemreadwrite -min 0x1000 to test memory reads and writes against the physical address 0x1000 (or any other address) in order to confirm. If issues exists downgrading to USB2 may help.
  • Does not work if the OS uses the IOMMU/VT-d. This is the default on macOS (unless disabled in recovery mode). Windows 10 with Virtualization based security features enabled does not work fully - this is however not the default setting in Windows 10 or Linux.
  • Some Linux kernels does not work. Sometimes a required symbol is not exported in the kernel and PCILeech fails.
  • Linux based on the 4.8 kernel and later might not work with the USB3380 hardware.
  • File system mount support only exists for Windows.
  • Remote connectivity support only exists for Windows.

Building:

The binaries are found in the releases section of this repository. If one wish to build an own version it is possible to do so. Please see the PCILeech on Windows or PCILeech on Linux for more information about building PCILeech. PCILeech is also dependant on LeechCore and optionally (for some extra functionality) on The Memory Process File System which must both be built separately.

License:

The project source code is released under GPLv3. Some bundled Microsoft redistributable binaries are released under separate licenses.

Contributing:

PCILeech, MemProcFS and LeechCore are open source but not open contribution. PCILeech, MemProcFS and LeechCore offers a highly flexible plugin architecture that will allow for contributions in the form of plugins. If you wish to make a contribution, other than a plugin, to the core projects please contact me before starting to develop.

Links:

Support PCILeech/MemProcFS development:

PCILeech and MemProcFS are hobby projects of mine. I put a lot of time and energy into my projects. The time being most of my spare time - since I'm not able to work with this. Unfortunately since some aspects also relate to hardware I also put quite some of money into my projects. If you think PCILeech and/or MemProcFS are awesome tools and/or if you had a use for them it's now possible to contribute.

Please do note that PCILeech and MemProcFS are free and open source - as such I'm not expecting sponsorships; even though a sponsorship would be very much appreciated. I'm also not able to promise product features, consultancy or other things in return for a donation. A sponsorship will have to stay a sponsorship and no more. It's possible to sponsor via Github Sponsors (preferred way), but also via PayPal or Bitcoin.

To all my sponsors, Thank You 💖

All sponsorships are welcome, no matter how large or small. I especially wish to thank my bronze sponsors: grandprixgp.

Changelog:

v1.0-v3.6

  • Initial release and various updates. please see individual relases for more information.

v4.0

  • Major cleanup and internal refactorings.
  • FPGA max memory auto-detect and more stable dumping strategy.
  • New stable Windows 10 kernel injects with FPGA hardware on non-virtualization based security systems.
  • User mode injects (experimental).
  • Removal of built-in device support - the LeechCore leechcore.dll/leechcore.so library is now used instead. New devices include:
    • Memory dump files (raw linear dump files and microsoft crash dump files).
    • Hyper-V save files.
    • Live memory via DumpIt / WinPmem.
    • remote devices via -remote setting.
  • Removal of API and built-in Memory Process File System - please use the more capable APIs in the LeechCore and Memory Process File System instead.
  • Multiple other changes and syntax updates.

v4.1

  • LeechAgent support - remote memory acquisition and analysis.

v4.2

  • Signature updates:
    • Linux kernel module - LINUX_X64_48 (latest versions)
    • Win10 1903 kernel module - WIN10_X64_2 (requires windows version of PCILeech)

v4.3

  • Bug fixes.
  • Support for new device (NeTV2 / RawUDP) via LeechCore library.

v4.4

  • Bug fixes and stability improvements.
  • Support for MemProcFS v3 library.
  • Code signing of binaries.
  • "tlploop" command.

v4.5

  • Bug fixes.
  • Support for v2 of the LeechCore memory acquisition library.
  • MemProcFS integration when running on Windows.
  • Support for user-defined physical memory map (-memmap option).

v4.6

v4.7

  • Bug fixes.
  • WIN10_X64_3 new stable kernel signature for Windows 10 - including Win10 2004 release.
  • Unlock signature updates - Win10/Linux (NB! most recent kernels on Linux not yet supported).

Latest:

  • Bug fixes.

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